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1 Pound Sterling 1961, Isle of Man

in Banknotes Book Number: IM31a
Years of issue: 1961
Edition: 999 999
Signatures: Lieutenant governor: Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey (in office 1959 - 1966)
Serie: 1961 Issue
Specimen of: 1961
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 151 x 72
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

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** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Pound Sterling 1961

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Triskelion.

Avers:

1 Pound Sterling 1961

HM The QueenThis widely used portrait of the Queen is adapted from a painting by Pietro Annigoni. HM standing regally with a distant, but lonely aspect. The portrait is regarded by many as one of the finest portrayals of the young Queen.

It was privately commissioned by the "Worshipful Company of Fishmongers" in 1954, but not completed until 1956. The Queen displayed in white portrait room at Buckingham Palace. The painting is now displayed in Fishmongers Hall, in London.

The engraving on banknote made from this portrait.

HM depicted in Mantle of the Order of the Garter.

One of the most distinctive pieces of the wardrobe of the Most Noble Order of the Garter - England's highest chivalric order - is the Mantle, sometimes referred to as a robe, cloak, or cape. The Mantle has been used in one form or another, with varying fabrics and colors, since the 15th century. The current version is made of dark blue velvet lined with white taffeta and is accented by a red velvet hood (also lined with white taffeta), elaborate cords for closure, and white ribbons at the shoulders. The Garter Collar, with the Great George as a pendant (not visible in the portrait), is draped over the Mantle across the shoulders. (Her Majesty’s Jewel vault)

Order of the Garter

Various legends account for the origin of the Order. The most popular legend involves the "Countess of Salisbury" (either Edward's future daughter-in-law Joan of Kent or her former mother-in-law, Catherine Montacute, Countess of Salisbury). While she was dancing at a court ball at Calais, her garter is said to have slipped from her leg. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, exclaiming: "Honi soit qui mal y pense," ("Shamed be the person who thinks evil of it."), the phrase that has become the motto of the Order.

A representation of a blue garter adorned with the motto of the Order of the Garter (Honi soit qui mal y pense, "Shame on he who thinks ill of it") can be seen on various items worn by members of the Order, but a far more rare sight today is the actual Garter that comes along with the rest of the insignia. The Garter is made of a blue fabric embellished with the Order's motto and closed with a buckle. The materials and design can vary (blue velvet and diamonds or blue silk and gold, for example). (Her Majesty’s Jewel vault)

On the left shoulder of Her Majesty is the Order of the Garter Star.

Order of the Garter Star

This star was given to The Queen (when Princess Elizabeth) by King George VI at the time of her investiture with the Order of the Garter in 1947. The star (and accompanying badge) were originally a present from the Royal Navy to the King (when Duke of York) at the time of his wedding in 1923. The Queen wore the badge and star with the Coronation Dress during her Commonwealth tour of 1953-1954.

The Queen, as Sovereign of the Order, has a fancier Mantle than the rest of the members: hers has the longest train, which requires two Pages of Honour to manage, and a Garter Star. The rest of the members wear a Mantle with a sewn on patch depicting the heraldic shield of St. George's Cross encircled by the famous blue garter which bears the Order's motto, “Honi soit qui mal y pense” ("Shame on he who thinks ill of it"). The Queen's Mantle has a bejeweled Garter Star of metal. (The Royal Tour)

Queen Alexandra’s Cluster Earrings

She is also wearing Queen Alexandra’s Cluster Earrings. The wedding gift from the future King Edward VII to his bride, Alexandra of Denmark. Also known as Queen Alexandra's Cluster Earrings, these two button earrings have large pearls surrounded by diamonds - 10 larger stones each plus smaller filler stones to create a full diamond ring. Like the brooch, these passed to the Queen via Queen Mary. They're now worn primarily at evening functions.

Centered, is an emblem of Isle of Man - Triskelion.

Triskelion

A triskelion or triskele (which invariably has rotational symmetry) is a motif consisting of three interlocked spirals, three bent human legs, or three bent/curved lines extending from the center of the symbol. Both words are from Greek "τρισκέλιον" (triskelion) or "τρισκελής" (triskeles), "three-legged", from prefix "τρι-" (tri-), "three times" + "σκέλος" (skelos), "leg".

Although it appears in many places and periods including 3200 BCE Newgrange, it is especially characteristic of the Celtic art of the La Tène culture of the European Iron Age.

A triskelion is the symbol of Sicily, where it is called trinacria, as well as of the Isle of Man, Brittany, and the town of Füssen in Germany.

It is unknown how the Manx triskelion was originally adopted, and several theories have been put forward its origin. In 1607, English historian William Camden stated that it was derived from the Sicilian triskelion. In 1885 John Newton considered the Manx triskelion originated in the mid XIII century, when the Pope offered the throne of Sicily to Edmund, son of King Henry III of England. Newton noted that the wife of King Alexander III of Scotland was Henry's daughter, and that Alexander visited the English court in 1255. Later in 1266, Norway ceded the Isle of Man to the Kingdom of Scotland, and Newton considered it likely that Alexander utilized the triskelion for the arms of his new possession. It has also been suggested that the ancestry of the Manx triskelion can be traced to the triquetra in a coin of Olaf Cuaran, a X-century Norse-Gaelic warlord who was king of Northumbria and king of Dublin. Lending credibility to this theory is the current belief that the mediaeval Manx dynasty was related to that of Olaf Cuaran. However, the gap between the X century and late 13th century, when the Manx triskelion is first recorded, is wide indeed, and it has been noted that several kings from this period are known to have borne a galley as their emblem, and not a triskelion.

Early examples of the symbol are present in the Royal Arms ascribed to the King of Mann in several late XIII century armorials. The Manx triskelion also appears on the Manx Sword of State, which is popularly said to date to the time of King Olaf the Black (d. 1237), although recent analysis has shown it more likely dates to about the XV century. Another example can be seen on a XIV-century stone cross in the churchyard of Maughold. Another is example is a late XIV-century seal of Sir William le Scrope, Lord of Mann, in which the Manx triskelion is depicted in plate armour, rather than mail. Early representations of the Manx triskelion show the legs running clockwise, and later representations show the legs running in both directions.

The motto is "quocunque jeceris stabit", which is Latin and means: "whichever way you throw, it will stand". The motto dates to the XVII century, where it is first recorded as being present on Manx coinage dating to the year 1668. It is possible that the motto became associated to the Manx triskelion through these coins.

Behind denomination in words is the map of Isle of Man.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and bottom right corners. In words centered.

Revers:

1 Pound Sterling 1961

Tynwald HillTynwald Hill (Cronk-y-Keeillown) and St.John's church.

TYNWALD - written in the Chronicles of Rushen, "Tingualla" is the Thingwall of Iceland, the Danish Thingvollr, (pronounced Tingveuller, the eu sounded French fashion,) the "fields of the Judicial Assembly." The term "thing" is a Scandinavian equivalent of the Saxon mote.

This four-tiered hill is one of the Island’s most distinctive landmarks and a signal of the Isle of Man’s independence as a self-governing crown dependency.

Tynwald Hill, which is located in St Johns, plays host to an open air meeting of the Island’s parliament, Tynwald, once a year.

The hill, which measures around 72 feet high, is thought to be made from piles of stones bonded together with soil from all of the Island’s 17 ancient parishes.

Tynwald HillIt is believed that the open air ceremony, which takes place on July 5th, was established by Norse Viking settlers over a thousand years ago with the hill thought to have been built in the XIII century.

Ancient graves have been also uncovered near the hill and a temple dedicated to the Norse god Thor was found near to the site of St John’s Church.

If you visit Tynwald Hill on the Manx National Day you’ll observe a reading of the summary of laws that have been passed throughout the year in both English an Manx. On this day only local residents may also request a petition for redress of grievance to the Tynwald Court.

Following the formal aspect you’ll enjoy a festival style atmosphere with stalls, entertainment and amusements. (Isle of Man)

St.Johns churchSt John the Baptist, St John's.

Built on the site of an ancient keeill, the chapel of St John was first referred to in 1557, but was likely to have been built before this date.

In 1847 the chapel was demolished and in 1849 the current building was constructed from local granite and marble.

Combines roles of Parish Church and National Church. Present building consecrated 1849 with the British Government providing £1,500 of the £2,535 cost. Designed by Richard Lane of Manchester in the English transitional style of the XIII century.

The church has a full complement of stained glass windows (gift of late W.H.Collister) of which those in the chancel depict various saints to whom ancient parish churches of the Island are dedicated.

The church was known locally (and historically) as "The Royal Free Chapel of St John the Baptist" and "Tynwald Church" due to its associations with Tynwald. It's "official" name is now "The Parish Church of St John the Baptist, The Royal Chapel".

The Church has been a parish church since 1949 when it ceased to be the chapel of ease in the Parish of German and became the Parish church of the newly created Parish of St Johns.

In 2012 the Parish was reunited with the Parish of German along with the Parishes of Kirk Michael and Patrick to form the new Parish of the West Coast - Skeerey yn Clyst-marrey.

The Church is open daily from 9 until 18.

Do visit and find out more about our unique place within the history of the Isle of Man, our life today, and our future journey under the guidance of God. (www.achurchnearyou.com)

Celtic crossBehind the Tynwald Hill is Celtic round cross - The National War monument.

Celtic cross resting on an inclined base which sits on five tiered steps.

The memorial was unveiled on 08 November 1923 by the Lieutenant Governor Sir William Fry KCVO CB. It was dedicated by the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. It was designed by P.M.C. Kermode and carved by T.H. Royston.

The memorial was built on a field which was originally part of Ballahown Farm, German. It was purchased from the owner by Government Property Trustees on 21st August 1923, for the sum of £300. The memorial was unveiled on Thursday 08 November 1923 by Lt. Governor General, Sir William Fry, in front of a crowd of some 1,800. The bronze name tablets on the memorial were made by J. Youle & Co. Ltd, of Rotherham.

Celtic cross1,165 names of killed soldiers in two world wars are recorded on it. On the top of cross are the names of soldiers, killed in World war I, bottom - in World War II.

It was set on the place, where the ancient customs were conducted, in celebrating of Midsummer day, related to the sea god Manannan, and the sun god Lugh.

The festival on June 24th, Midsummer-day, and on its eve, Midsummer-eve, kept since the change in the Calendar on July 5th and July 4th, seems to have been of Scandinavian origin, for, among the ancient Celts, the longest day, as far as is known, was of no especial account. But to people living within the Arctic circle, who for months in the winter were altogether deprived of the sun, his ascent and descent were naturally of greater importance than to people living further south. This festival was probably originally in honour of Balder, the northern Sun-God, who at Midsummer attained his greatest splendour and duration, and from thence began to decline.

The beginning of his declination was commemorated by the lighting of his funeral pyre, which the modern bonfires have perpetuated. Of the later celebration of this eve and day in Scandinavia, Vigfusson writes:

"St. John Baptist's Day is in the northern countries a kind of Midsummer Yule, and was in Norway and Sweden celebrated with bonfires, dance, and merriment; and tales of fairies and goblins of every kind are connected with St. John's Eve in the summer as well as Yule-eve in winter." And with regard to its origin, he says:

"The origin of this feast is no doubt heathen, being a worship of light and the sun, which has since been adapted to a Christian name and a Christian Calendar."

Very similar are the observances of this eve in Man. Bonfires were lit on the hills, and blazing wheels were formerly rolled from their tops, probably originally with the intention of typifying the beginning of the sun's declination.

Cattle were also driven between or over fires to keep them from disease, and men and boys leaped over the flames. Train says that "on the eve of St. John the Baptist, the natives lighted fires to the windward side of every field, so hat the smoke might pass over the corn; they folded their cattle and carried blazing furze or gorse round them several times."

These fire observances were in fact the same as on May-day Eve, and they seem to have been designed as Charms to secure as much sunshine as possible, which, considering our dull and cloudy climate, is not to be wondered at; and they were at one time connected with human sacrifices.

There was also a notion that the corn would grow well as far as the bonfires were seen, and, therefore, numerous bonfires were lit on these occasions, and it was supposed that the height of the straw depended on the height that the men jumped over the flames.

Fairies are supposed to be especially powerful on this eve, and Witches are said to hold a saturnalia.

A curious belief that the souls of all people left their bodies when asleep on this night, and wandered to the place where they would die was formerly prevalent, and from this probably arose the custom of sitting up to watch, and so avoiding such an occurrence. Those who watched in the church porches were rewarded with the sight of those who would die in the year, as on St. Mark's eve and Hollantide eve. On this eve, too, was gathered the Bollan-Feaill-Eoin, "John's Feast-day wort" (mugwort), which was made into wreaths to be worn on the heads of man and beast to protect them from witchcraft.

St.John's fairThe next morning the great Tinwald Court, 1 corresponding to the Icelandic Althing, was held, when the laws were promulgated, and the festival proper, all Witches and evil Spirits having been disposed of on the previous evening, began. At this festival, which probably lasted a fortnight in old times, there took place not only the Court, but probably a religious feast and merry-makings of all kinds, such as hurling and football, match-making, feasting, and, above all, recitals of legends and traditions. As regards Man, however, we have no definite information about the observance of this day from tradition, except that there was a fair, which still continues; and from written sources there is only preserved a letter written, in 1636, by Bishop Parr to Archbishop Neile, in which he states that on St. John Baptist's day he found the people in a chapel dedicated to that Saint "in the practice of gross superstitions," which he caused "to be cried down," and, in the place of them, "appointed Divine services and sermons." We can only wish that the good Bishop had informed us what these "gross superstitions" were. We have already seen (Chapter I.) that Manannan received his tribute of rushes on this day, and it is curious that the pathway leading up to the chapel is still covered with rushes supplied by a small farm close by, which is held on the tenure of doing this service.

As we have already seen from the name, St, John, the Church adopted this heathen festival as that Saint's feast, Feaill Eoin, "John's-Feast," as it is called in Manx. It has been ingeniously suggested by Mr. Tylor that this adoption, or rather adaptation, may have arisen from the same train of symbolism which adapted the heathen Midwinter solar festival to the Nativity of our Lord, i.e., from our Lord's own words "He must increase, but I must decrease." It seems, however, much more probable that St. John was merely substituted for Balder, as our Saviour was substituted for him in other portions of the northern faith.

The following proverb attached to St. John's Day probably refers to the desirability of having rain to bring on the straw of the corn crops at this time rather than later, when it would interfere with the maturing of the grain: Lane croie cabbyl dy ushtey L’aal Eoin feeu mayl Vannin, "A full horse-shoe of water (on) John's Feast-day is worth the rent of Man." (www.sacred-texts.com)

As the frame of the banknote is a Celtic pattern.

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners. In words at the top.

Comments:

Many thanks for co-operation and photos to Mrs. Pamela Martin from Isle of Man and Mr.Paul Weatherall, Library & Archive Services Officer, Manx National Heritage (Eiraght Ashoonagh Vannin), Manx Museum, Douglas, Isle of Man, IM1 3LY.

Designers: John H. Nicholson (1911-1988) and R.I.Pinx.

Security thread.

TDLR Portrait Bradbury Wilkinson Portrait De La Rue version of the portrait. In this version, the darker shading on the side of The Queen's face below her temple has a distinct edge, highlighting her cheekbone. In addition, the braid on her cloak is drawn more simply and regularly.

Bradbury Wilkinson version of the portrait. The distinguishing features of this portrait are the even shading on side of The Queen's face, below her temple, and the distinct highlights given to the braid on the front of Her cloak, which originates from the bow on Her left shoulder.