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3 Mark 1921, Tilsit, Germany

Manfred Mehl. Deutsche Serienscheine Number: 1324.1
Years of issue: 12.11.1921
Edition: --
Signatures: Unknown signature
Serie: Notgeld of East Prussia (today Russia)
Specimen of: 12.11.1921
Material: Dirt-resistant cotton paper with Anti Soil Treatment
Size (mm): 115 х 74
Printer: Unknown printer

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

3 Mark 1921, Tilsit

Description

Watermark:

watermark

On banknote is watermark type Hermann-Stimmgabel.

Avers:

3 Mark 1921, Tilsit

Tilsit

Centered is the Parish church (Deutsche Kirhe) in Tilsit (the view from Dammstrasse).

The German church was a Lutheran church in the East Prussian Tilsit, located on the south bank of the Memel. Even city church, popularly known as Old Church and from 1933 German monastery church, it was the symbol of the city.

From 1598 built and expanded several times in a row and modified, the church was demolished by progressive destruction in the war and post-war period in 1965. Only the altar and two confessionals are received.

Already in 1524, as Tilsit was a market town, was a Protestant church in the same place. Evidence of the location in front of the altar tombstone of Gallius terminal, passed away on 10 December 1550. This church was demolished in 1598. The new hall church was completed in 1610, during the twelve years of construction, the service was held in the Lithuanian Church. The wooden bell tower on the masonry to the roof shaft had to be canceled in 1695. From 1699 (or 1702) of the Baroque spire replaced him. 1752 was the entrance building on the south side to Fletcherplatz. [Note. 1] As the masonry 1855-1856 renewed, the style of the Renaissance to New Gothic walked. The basic shape is not changed.

In the length the church had 40.8 m. level, in the width - 20.7 m. It was slopes were tiled, plastered and supported by external buttresses. The choir had a straight (not the usual round) final. The solid masonry of square tower, each side about 9 m, was 29 meters high. In addition there was the wooden, clad with copper 34 m. high tower. He had three superposed domes. The lower rested on the masonry and mediated the transition into an octagon. The top two domes resting on broken lamps, the lower dome was surrounded by a gallery. As support for the central dome served eight balls, each 1.6 meters in diameter. A slender spire crowned the upper dome. Napoleon Bonaparte admired the ball design in the peace of Tilsit. In 1878 the tower was thoroughly overhauled. Next to the church the Queen Louise Bridge was built in 1906.

After the Second World War and the conquest of Tilsit in 1945 the church stood outside almost intact. The wooden interior was completely stolen for obtaining firewood, removed the spire. When Russians and Lithuanians built the wooden arch bridge to replace the Queen Louise Bridge, the nave was used as a lumberyard and sawmill. From 1956 to the early 1960s, it served as a collection point for waste materials. The roof was leaking, the roof and the building fell into disrepair rotten. After an arson in 1965 this beautiful piece of Tilsits landmark was demolished. Now stands in its place an empty space.

Disassembled and packed into boxes, the altar and the two confessionals in the 1980s were found in the Polish part of the former East Prussia. Renewed by Polish conservators, they are (the altar since 1990) in the parish church (Saint Johannes the Evangelist and Our Lady of Częstochowa) in Bartoszyce (Bartenstein).

Tilsit Tilsit Tilsit

On the left side is the monument to Max von Schenkendorf, on Schenkendorfplace in Tilsit, right in front of Tilsit's Town Hall.

The monument to Maximilian von Shenkendorf, in the hometown of the poet - Tilsit. It was located on the street of Friendship. The base of the pedestal has survived, on which, since 1967, standing a monument to Lenin.

In 1890, in Tilsit, on the square, named after the poet, thanks for donations of townspeople, was installed a bronze monument to the "son of the city" Maximilian von Schenkendorf.

It was the work of the sculptor Martin Engelke. Under the monument was laid a capsule with a letter, signed by Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II. In October 1944, with the approach of the Red Army, the monument was dismantled and taken away in an unknown direction, now lost. He was last seen in Braunsberg (in Poland), on the railway platform. The search for traces of the monument or its results is not allowed. However, the pedestal of the monument stood until the mid-60s, the text of the inscription on it was shot down.

The monument depicted the poet in the form of bare-headed officer, raised his right hand to the sky, as if holding it in the oath to the Kaiser and Fatherland. In his left hand he is holding a book with his poems. The bronze figure has a height of 2.8 meters, stood on a pedestal of pink granite.

Tilsit

In the mid-70s underground, where was standing a monument, by the workers of pulp and paper factory of Sovetsk been found the metal box. The initial hope about the treasure of gold has not been confirmed - in the box was a volume of poems by Maximilian von Shenkendorf and a poster from the opening day of the monument.

Gottlob Ferdinand Maximilian Gottfried von Schenkendorf (11 December 1783 - 11 December 1817) was a German poet, born in Tilsit and educated at Königsberg. During the War of Liberation, in which he took an active part, Schenkendorf was associated with Arndt and Körner in the writing of patriotic songs. His poems were published as Gedichte (1815), Poetischer Nachlass (1832), and Sämtliche Gedichte (1837; fifth edition, 1878). For his Life, consult Hagen (Berlin, 1863); Knaake (Tilsit, 1890); E. von Klein, M. von Schenkendorf (Vienna, 1908).

Koenigin Luise

On the right side is the monument to the Queen Luise in Park Jakobsruhe, Tilsit.

The total height of the monument was 8 meters, the height of the statue of Queen Louise - 3 meters, and the height of the pedestal - 5 meters.

The author of the monument - German sculptor Gustav Eberlein, a professor at the Royal Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. The monument, made of white Carrara marble, was inaugurated on September 22, 1900, in the presence of the Emperor of Prussia Wilhelm II.

Gustav Eberlein carved white marble sculpture of Louise, strolling, maybe in the park, probably in the surrounding picturesque river Tilze - one hand it supports the dropdown cape, and the other was holding a modest bouquet of discreet wildflowers - cornflowers. This detail gave the statue a special poignancy.

The Park of Tilsit - Jakobsruhe owes its birth to enthusiastic nature lovers. It was a pretty vigorous people of Tilsit which, in 1823, merged into "Union of ornamental horticulture" and became engaged in tree planting device alleys and flower beds, by one word - the decoration of the city and embody the romantic attitude as opposed to a slow, but inexorable onslaught of the era of steam engines and noisy factories.

In 1825, the society drained the territory by making available approaches on both sides. In 1826, the beginning of town and country planning - were laid nurseries of fruit trees, ornamental shrubs planted. Orchestral sink and Theatre "Apollo" were built in 1828.; in 1829 it was made a wooden arch entrance (in 1861 it was replaced by a stone portal, which still standing). In 1855 Meerwisches creek turned into a beautiful pond with a net, with picturesque islands in the middle. In 1890 was created a new music hall, then in the park was built a canalization.

After World War II the park was partially rebuilt in 1951, the park area is 15.7 hectares.

Koenigin Luise

Queen Louise never run the state, not ruled on the throne. She was just the wife of Prussian King Frederick William III, a mother of eight children, but the decisive and fateful moment in the history of the Prussian state its hitherto undiscovered qualities of the person suddenly appeared bright: she arrived in 1807 in Tilsit, where the talks began Alexander I and Napoleon, in order to achieve a soft peace terms for Prussia. Although historians ambiguously estimate its diplomatic role in the run-up Peace of Tilsit, Queen Louise, she was able to subdue the mind and the beauty of the French emperor and the Russian tsar, left with an unblemished reputation. She won the sympathy of his contemporaries and is an example for women and girls, and the whole of Prussia. In Tilsit, except at home, where the queen stayed, after her name was called: the bridge, the school, theater, the mall and pharmacy.

Koenigin Luise

The Legend of cornflowers (she have them in hand, monument):

During the Napoleonic invasion, when the enemy troops approached Berlin, which was the residence of King of Prussia, Queen Louise with their children and the entire royal court were forced to flee in the most remote provinces of his kingdom - in East Prussia.

In a small estate near Königsberg She spent sad days of exile, horror getting used to the idea of ​​the loss of the kingdom. One day, during a walk with the children, they noticed how dark woods came a young farmer. Bold gait was a beautiful girl, proudly carrying a wicker basket full of cornflowers. Then the queen experienced something akin to inspiration - a bright color Blue cornflowers and fearless woman, she shows the symbols of her homeland that she is trying to take away her chief enemy - Napoleon. Queen Louise called out to the girl and bought all the flowers, generously paid.

And a basket of flowers into the hands of children, who immediately began to weave wreaths and worn on top of each other. The children had fun. And the queen was relieved. She saw in a wreath of cornflowers symbol of what her family did not lose the royal power and not to lose their homeland. With these thoughts, she went resolutely to Tilsit to negotiate with Napoleon. And at all times it has become an example of boundless love for their homeland.

Name of Louise entered the history of the world. Her memory kept many monuments and structures, dedicated to her. But touching all the inhabitants of East Prussia recalled his valiant queen whenever found cornflowers.

Koenigin Luise

After World War II, a sculpture of Louise stood in the park for almost 10 more years, but on its pedestal, already in 1956, was a plaster figure of a football player with the ball, which later was destroyed. After that, the place, where the monument was standing, was abandoned. It remained only 4 steps to, once established here, pedestal.

Tilsit Tilsit

On the 6th of July 2014 in Sovetsk (Tilsit) festive events initiated to celebrate 207th anniversary of signing of the Tilsit Pease Treaty took place.

The celebration was organized as part of the activities being implemented in the framework of the Project LPR1/010/185 "Creation of Tourist Route from the Tilsit Peace Treaty of 1807 to Tauroggen Convention of 1812" under Lithuania-Poland-Russia ENPI CBC Programme 2007-2013.

The event included concerts of a string ensemble and an orchestra of the Baltic Fleet, theatrical performance of signing of the Tilsit Peace Treaty and the opening ceremony of the monument of Queen Louise of Prussia.

Opening of the monument became a major event in this celebration. The sculpture duplicates the one that was installed in Sovietsk over a century ago. It was restored by masters of the St. Petersburg restoration workshop. It’s made of the same material as the original one - Carrara marble. The best ancient sculptures are made of this marble (for example, "David" by Michelangelo). The monument was restored by means of the Project as well. (www.lt-pl-ru.eu)

The inscription lower: "City Savings Bank will pay to the bearer of this coupon the amount of 3 Mark".

Denomination is lower.

Revers:

3 Mark 1921, Tilsit

tilsitz treaty

The image on banknote is based after the painting by the French artist Adolphe Roehn - "Meeting of Napoleon I-th and Alexander I-th on the river Memel (Neman) at June 25, 1807" ("Entrevue de Napoléon Ier et d'Alexandre Ier sur le Niemen. 25 Juin 1807" or "Treaty of Tilsitz").

The size of the painting: 125×152 cm. Oil on canvas. Finished in 1807. Today located in Versailles.

The inscription on the top of the note: "The meeting of monarchs on the river Memel"

The inscription on the bottom of the note: "The Peace in Tilsit. 1807".

The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. The first was signed on 7 July, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Neman River. The second was signed with Prussia on 9 July. The treaties were made at the expense of the Prussian king, who had already agreed to a truce on 25 June after the Grande Armée had pursued him to the easternmost frontier of his realm, and in Tilsit ceded about half of his pre-war territories. From those territories, Napoleon had created French client states which were formalized and recognized at Tilsit: the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Free City of Danzig; the other ceded territories were awarded to further French clients and to Russia.

Napoleon not only cemented his control of Central Europe, but also had Russia and the truncated Prussia ally with him against his two remaining enemies, Great Britain and Sweden, triggering the Anglo-Russian and Finnish War. Tilsit also freed French forces for the Peninsular War. Central Europe became a battlefield again in 1809, when Austria and Great Britain engaged France in the War of the Fifth Coalition.

Denominations are in all corners.

Comments:

Notgeld (German for "emergency money" or "necessity money") refers to money issued by an institution in a time of economic or political crisis. The issuing institution is usually one without official sanction from the central government. This occurs usually when sufficient state-produced money is not available from the central bank. Most notably, notgeld generally refers to money produced in Germany and Austria during World War I and the Interbellum. Issuing institutions could be a town's savings banks, municipality and private or state-owned firms.

Notgeld was mainly issued in the form of (paper) banknotes. Sometimes other forms were used, as well: coins, leather, silk, linen, postage stamps, aluminium foil, coal, and porcelain; there are also reports of elemental sulfur being used, as well as all sorts of re-used paper and carton material (e.g. playing cards). These pieces made from playing cards are extremely rare and are known as Spielkarten, the German word for "playing card".

Notgeld was a mutually-accepted means of payment in a particular region or locality, but notes could travel widely. Notgeld is different from occupation money that is issued by an occupying army during a war.