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500 Korun 1944, Slovakia

in Krause book Number: 12a
Years of issue: 26.10.1944 - 31.10.1945
Edition:
Signatures: Viceguverner: Fundárek Jozef , Riaditel: Pázman Július
Serie: Banking Act No. 44 of April 4, 1939
Specimen of: 12.07.1941
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 177 x 81
Printer: TB NBČM, Praha

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

500 Korun 1944

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Linden leaves and seeds.

During the period of recovery of the national movement in Western Slavs middle of the XIX century it was created Czech patriotic national organization, called "Slavic linden." It acted at the time of the bourgeois revolution of 1848-1849 in Austria-Hungary and publish a newspaper of the same name, had branches in the province, also known as the local "limes", and in 1849 held a congress of all the "limes" of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia, where it was created "Union Slavic limes". Twenty years later, in 1869, the same name given to your organization and the Young Czechs, fighting for national equality of the peoples of the Habsburg Empire.

Thus, a long historical tradition did linden national tree of the Czech people, and this historical fact, of course, reflected in the fact that the lime leaves, lime tree branch with flowers, or linden wreath became signs of national dignity in Czechoslovakia. That is why many orders and medals of Czechoslovakia before 1945, and after we can see a picture of linden leaves as one of the main national emblems. Not a laurel branch, but the branch of linden speak of more feelings of the Czechs and Slovaks, and so they decorate the most honorable, the most important of the Order of the Republic - the Order of the White Lion, the Order of the Republic, and many medals.

Avers:

500 Korun 1944

Slovak manThe the right side is the portrait of Slovak man, a resident of the region Liptov (north of Slovakia), in national dress.

The main part of men's clothing in Slovakia is a shirt (kosel'a). It has a tunic cut - made without seams on the shoulders, and is worn over the head. Men's shirt is found in several variants.

Since the second half of the XIX century Slovak men wore black felt hats with a wide brim, which are found throughout the country. Feathers or long ribbon on the hat worn only by single men. (costumer.narod.ru rus.)

There is another version about the image of man on banknote. According to some Slovak sources, it is Juraj Jánošík.

Juraj Jánošík (first name also Juro or Jurko, baptised January 25, 1688, died March 17, 1713) was a famous Slovak highwayman. Jánošík has been the main character of many Slovak and Polish legends, novels, poems and films. He is a semi-legendary character in East-Central Europe.

According to the legend, he robbed nobles and gave the loot to the poor, a deed often attributed to the famous Robin Hood. The legend was also known in neighboring Silesia, the Margraviate of Moravia and later spread to the Kingdom of Bohemia. The actual robber had little to do with the modern legend, whose content partly reflects the ubiquitous folk myths of a hero taking from the rich and giving to the poor. However, the legend was also shaped in important ways by the activists and writers in the XIX century when Jánošík became the key highwayman character in stories that spread in the north counties of the Kingdom of Hungary (much in present Slovakia) and among the local Gorals and Polish tourists in the Podhale region north of the Tatras (Tatra). The image of Jánošík as a symbol of resistance to oppression was reinforced when poems about him became part of the Slovak and Czech middle and high school literature curriculum, and then again with the numerous films that propagated his modern legend in the XX century. During the anti-Nazi Slovak National Uprising, one of the partisan groups bore his name.

coat

Above is the coat of arms of Slovakia and two white doves, as peace symbol..

The coat of arms of Slovakia consists of a red (gules) shield, in early Gothic style, charged with a silver (argent) double cross standing on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. Extremities of the cross are amplified, and its ends are concaved. The double cross is a symbol of its Christian faith and the hills represent three symbolic mountain ranges: Tatra, Fatra and Mátra (the last one is in northern Hungary).

One of the modern interpretations of the double cross is that it represents Slovakia as an heir and guardian of Christian tradition, brought to the region by St. Cyril and St. Methodius, two missionaries from the Byzantine Empire.

Denominations are in all corners. In words centered.

Revers:

500 Korun 1944

Across all field of banknote is foliate ornament.

Gear and hammer (to the right of the center table) - allegory of industry (industry).

The book (to the left of the center table) - an allegory of science and knowledge.

Sheaf of wheat and the sickle (to the left of the center table) - allegory of agriculture.

Centered is a bowl of fruit - apples, pears, grapes.

Grapes - one of the most ancient solar symbol of fertility, abundance and wealth.

Also there is a clay jug of wine.

Above, again, are two doves, as a symbol of peace.

In the background are Slovak Tatra mountains.

I received an answer from Chief Archivist of Archives Section in National Bank of Slovakia, Mr. František Chudják - and I am very grateful to him for the answer, regarding languages on reverse of this banknote.

That is what he wrote to me:

"..referring to your request of 11 August 2015 regarding an inscription on 500 Korun 1944 banknote, we would like to inform you that all paper money, which were issued in the period of the war Slovak republic in 1939-1945, were marked on reverse in four languages - in Slovak, German, Hungarian and Russian. The Government of the Slovak republic resolved at a meeting held on 1 June 1939 that the entire issue of banknotes should be marked on reverse in four languages. The Russian language was used because there lived about 60 000 Ruthenians (Rusyns) and Ukrainians in the territory of the Slovak republic in 1939-1945. Sincerely yours, František Chudják".

And here is the small extract from Wikipedia, regarding Reform of Russian orthography in 1918 (On banknote is Russian spelling, used before 1918):

"Despite the fact, that the reform was designed long before the revolution without any political goals of professional linguists (in fact, among its development was a member of the far-right Union of the Russian people, Academician Alexei Ivanovich Sobolewski, who proposed, in particular, to eliminate ять and the ends -ыя/-ія), the first steps towards its practical implementation occurred after the revolution, but actually adopted and implemented it was the Bolsheviks. This determined sharply critical attitude to it by the political opponents of Bolshevism (this ratio aphoristic expressed by Bunin: "By order of the Archangel Michael will never accept the Bolshevik spelling. Already at least one that had a human hand did not write anything like that that is now written on the spelling"). It is not used in most editions, is printed on the white-controlled areas, and then in exile. Russian editions abroad for the most part moved to the new spelling only in the 1940s - 1950s, in connection with the second wave of emigration from the USSR; although some of them publishing so far in old spelling."

Denominations in numerals are on the right side, in top left corner and centered. In words lower.

Comments:

Obverse engraver: Ladislav Jirka.

Obverse designer: Aurel Kajlich.

Reverse engraver: B. Fojtasek.

Reverse designer: Aurel Kajlich.

The signatures on banknote made by:

signature

Fundarek Jozef (October 1, 1898 - August 17, 1991).

From 1 April 1925, he served as Secretary and by the end of 1936 to April 1939 the Secretary General of the Bratislava Stock Exchange. In February 1939 he was on a proposal from the Slovak Government appointed a member of the Bank Board, while the Deputy Governor of the National Bank of Czechoslovakia (NBCS). From mid-March 1939 he has performed the function of the Plenipotentiary of the Slovak Government in matters of the National Bank and headed the expert group was actively involved in the preparatory work related to the establishment of the Slovak National Bank (SNB), where he was appointed the Deputy Governor. In connection with the appointment of the Governor Imrich Karvaš for the Chief Supply Office (1942) he was temporarily appointed to head the bank. Fundárek supported the steps taken by Imrich Karvaš in connection with the preparation of the Slovak National Uprising, namely concentration and currency reserves of the precious metal in Metro Manila affiliated company SNB. Participate in organizing the transfer of monetary gold reserves in the Swiss National Bank, and thereby to save them before the same deported to Germany. From his post he was removed March 14, 1945.

From August 1940 until December 1941 he was a member of the State Council in the same year he was co-opted to the Council of the Slovak Republic as a legal expert to work in the committees (chairman of the immune, Vice constitutional, member of the national economic committee). At the time, he was also chairman or member of the management boards and supervisory committees of several banks, corporations, national economic institutions, as well as chairmen and members of examination committees and advisory teaching staff.

After 1945, he was persecuted. In the so-called B-action, in 1952, he emigrated outside Bratislava. After returning to the capital, he worked first as a senior in the Municipal Museum, later in the regional library in the years 1970-1976 again in the Municipal Museum where he worked Bratislava's history and numismatics. (Narodna Banka Slovenska slv.)

signature

Pazman Julius (September 7, 1907 - June 15, 1982).

From 1934 he worked in the Principal Institute of the National Bank of Czechoslovakia (NBCS) in Prague, the foreign exchange department. Later he worked as a clerk in the department for payment transactions with foreign countries. After returning to Bratislava he created in a short time the foreign exchange department of the Slovak National Bank (SNB) and was appointed its Director. In addition to the Governor Imrich Karvaš, Vice-Governor Joseph Fundarek and Director Joseph Trnovc, he was interested to implement such a credit and exchange rate policies SNB, which aimed to mitigate the German economic and financial pressure on Slovakia.

After the war he was awarded the title Director of the SNB, but remained in its services as an expert in the foreign exchange area. In the summer of 1945 he began to work on tasks related to uniform regulation of conditions in both previously separate parts of the state, especially in the reconstruction of the Czechoslovak currency. At that time actively participated in monetary negotiations in this regard he was appointed a member of the Coordination Committee at NBCS for the unification of price and wage policies. Representing NBCS was from the beginning of 1946 the Government gradually appointed Deputy Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Fund for settlement of foreign exchange transactions and the representatives of the Czechoslovak Governors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In December 1947 the government was still appointed to the presidency of liquidating the fund currency, but in view of the fact that on 31 December 1947 with untied NBCS service relationship was at the end of April 1948 that suspended. Next twenty-five years, ie until 1972, he taught at the University of Economics in Bratislava (former High School of Commerce), while in the years 1948 to 1949 to perform functions of the Chancellor. (Narodna Banka Slovenska slv.)