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100 Pounds 1974, Syria

in Krause book Number: 98d
Years of issue: 1974
Edition: --
Signatures: Mohammad al-Imadi, Governor: Nasouh Al Dakkak (in office 1971-1978)
Serie: 1963 - 1966 Issue
Specimen of: 1966
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 169 х 80
Printer: Unknown printer

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Pounds 1974

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The Arabian or Arab horse (Arabic: الحصان العربي ‎ [ħisˤaːn ʕarabiː], is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world. It is also one of the oldest breeds, with archaeological evidence of horses in the Middle East that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses have spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and strong bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse.

Avers:

100 Pounds 1974

In the center is the view of the port of Latakia and the ship at the pier. Port facilities reminds the conveyor for loading of bulk products or materials.

port

Latakia - Syria's seaport and naval base on the Mediterranean coast. It includes raid outer harbor, protected by a breakwater, and 2 indoor pools. Naval base and port of Latakia are available for ships with a draft of up to 8 m. The length of the berthing front of about 2 km. with depths of 3,3-9,5 m. The total turnover of the port of shipping is about 2.4 million tons.

In Latakia seaport berths simultaneously can handle 18 vessels. There are coastal and floating cranes for loading and unloading of sea cargo, warehouses, incl. the fuel capacity of 5 m3, ship repair workshops, and a floating dock. Latakia imports the following goods: machinery, equipment, petroleum products; exporting - cotton, agricultural products, bitumen. (portsinfo.ru rus.)

LatakiaLatakia; Lattakia or Latakiyah (Arabic: اللَاذِقِيَّة‎ al-Lādhiqīyah), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate. In addition to serving as a port, the city is a manufacturing center for surrounding agricultural towns and villages.

It is the 5th-largest city in Syria after Aleppo, Damascus, Homs and Hama, and it borders Tartus to the south, Hama to the east, and Idlib to the north.

Though the site has been inhabited since the second millennium BC, the modern-day city was first founded in the IV century BC under the rule of the Seleucid empire. Latakia was subsequently ruled by the Romans, then the Ummayads and Abbasids in the VIII-X centuries. Under their rule, the Byzantines frequently attacked the city, periodically recapturing it before losing it again to the Arabs, particularly the Fatimids. Afterward, Latakia was ruled by the Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Ottomans. Following World War I, Latakia was assigned to the French mandate of Syria, in which it served as the capital of the autonomous territory of the Alawites. This autonomous territory became the Alawite State in 1922, proclaiming its independence a number of times until reintegrating into Syria in 1944.

Until 1991, it housed the base of the Mediterranean squadron of the Soviet Navy.

In August 2011, in the city there were armed clashes between government forces and the Syrian opposition.

Latakia is the home of Russia's largest foreign electronic eavesdropping facility.

Denominations are in all corners.

Revers:

100 Pounds 1974

On the left side is unknown ornamental rosette.

On the right side is ancient Syrian vase, decorated by floral pattern, with flowers in it.

Tabqa DamI've been looking for a long time - what is the Dam, shown on banknote. I found out that, most likely, it is the dam from a water cascade in the area of the water reservoir El Assad.

The first version of the banknote with this image came out in 1966, the works on Tabqa Dam and Lake Assad fully were fully completed in 1973. From this it can be assumed that:

1) in 1966 some objects from cascade were ready

2) an object appeared on the bill were depicted before it have been built, because its construction was a matter of the nearest future.

Biblical River Euphrates is of great importance in the life of just three countries - Turkey, Syria and Iraq. The needs of these countries in fresh water and power are great, and the limited resources of the river leads to tensions between states.

Most of the Euphrates are formed in the mountainous areas of Turkey, the rest - in Syria. In Iraq river flow is not replenished, but since the time of the Sumerians is very actively used for irrigation - much of the country's population is concentrated in the valleys of the Euphrates and the Tigris.

In the 1970s, Turkey has launched an ambitious project to develop the South-Eastern Anatolia, providing for the creation of on the Euphrates cascade, as well as irrigation systems on 1 mln.700 ha. At the same time, its program of development of hydropower and irrigation potential of the river began Syria. Immediately between the three countries came the friction, and the Iraqi even threat to bomb Syrian Tabqa Dam in 1975. Relations between Syria and Turkey over the issue section of the river flow remain tense even today, several times putting the countries on the brink of war with each other.

Dam planHowever, to date the establishment of the hydropower cascade on the Euphrates River is almost completed. The scheme presented in the basins of the dam the Tigris and Euphrates, as the current (signed their names in black), planned or under construction (in yellow).

Tabqa DamLake Assad (Arabic: بحيرة الأسد‎, Buhayrat al-Assad) is a reservoir on the Euphrates in Ar-Raqqah Governorate, Syria. It was created in 1974 when the Tabqa Dam was closed. Lake Assad is Syria’s largest lake with a maximum capacity of 11.7 cubic kilometers (2.8 cu mi) and a maximum surface area of 610 square kilometers (240 sq mi). A vast network of canals uses water from Lake Assad to irrigate lands on both sides of the Euphrates. In addition, the lake provides drinking water for the city of Aleppo and supports a fishing industry. The shores of Lake Assad have developed into important ecological zones.

The first plans for a dam in the Syrian part of the Euphrates date to 1927, but these were not carried out. In 1957, an agreement was reached with the Soviet Union for technical and financial aid for the construction of a dam in the Euphrates, and in 1960 a financial agreement was signed with West Germany. Another agreement to finance the project was signed with the Soviet Union in 1965. The project included a hydroelectric power station in the Tabqa Dam, and the construction of a vast irrigation network capable of irrigating 640,000 hectares (2,500 sq mi.) of land on both sides of the Euphrates. Construction of the dam lasted between 1968 and 1973 and the flooding of the reservoir commenced in 1974 by reducing the flow of the Euphrates. In 1975, Iraq complained that the flow of the Euphrates had been reduced below an acceptable level and threatened to bomb the Tabqa Dam; mediation by Saudi Arabia and the Soviet Union eventually settled this dispute.

In anticipation of the flooding of the Tabqa Dam reservoir, an intensive, international program of archaeological rescue excavations was carried out in the threatened area between 1963 and 1974. As part of this program, excavations have been carried out at sites ranging in date from the Late Natufian to the Ottoman period. Excavated sites include Tell Abu Hureyra, Emar, Habuba Kabira, Mureybet, Tell es-Sweyhat, Tell Fray and Dibsi Faraj. At Qal'at Ja'bar, a castle on a hilltop that would be turned into an island by the flooding of Lake Assad, a protective glacis was built and two minarets at Mureybet and Meskene were relocated to an area beyond the flood zone.

Tabqa DamThe Tabqa Dam (Arabic: سد الطبقة‎), or al-Thawra Dam as it is also named (Arabic: سد الثورة‎, literally dam of the revolution), is an earth-fill dam on the Euphrates, located 40 kilometers (25 mi.) upstream from the city of Ar-Raqqah in Ar-Raqqah Governorate, Syria. The dam is 60 meters (200 ft.) high and 4.5 kilometers (2.8 mi.) long and is the largest dam in Syria. Its construction led to the creation of Lake Assad, Syria's largest water reservoir. The dam was constructed between 1968 and 1973 with help from the Soviet Union. At the same time, an international effort was made to excavate and document as many archaeological remains as possible in the area of the future lake before they would be flooded by the rising water. When the flow of the Euphrates was reduced in 1974 to fill the lake behind the dam, a dispute broke out between Syria and Iraq that was settled by intervention from Saudi Arabia and the Soviet Union. The dam was originally built to generate hydroelectric power, as well as irrigate lands on both sides of the Euphrates. The dam has not reached its full potential in either of these objectives.

I found an article on the subject, I cite an excerpt from it:

"The Turks, literally strangling Syria. They take half of the 30 billion cubic meters of water, which carries the Euphrates. This not only deprives the water of the Syrians, but also reduces their ability to produce electricity.

The Euphrates River is the main source of water in Syria. Only a quarter of the length of the river falls on Syria. 41% - for Turkey and 35% - on Iraq. Also flows through Syria and Tiger, but much of the river is in Iraq. Other important rivers should be mentioned Afrin (also starting and leaving Turkey) Orontes (starts in the Bekaa and goes to Turkey), the Nahr el-Kabir (Homs), Yarmouk (Hur) and Jordan.

History Assad dam is one of the most instructive examples of the "boomerang effect" in modern politics. In 60 years, Syria has taken a decision in principle on the construction of a dam on the Euphrates. Like the Aswan dam in Egypt, the dam was to perform several functions - to create a water reservoir, hydroelectric power stations, to provide cheap electricity and water periphery. In 1973 he was put into operation the first phase of the dam Assad. Capacity of Lake Assad was 7.4 billion cubic meters. With the commissioning of the second phase of capacity should increase to 12 billion cubic meters - but the second phase has not been completed. Turkey bothered about it, building a system of dams on its own territory, and thereby reduced the water supply to Syria twice.

With these surface water sources, Syria has 4-5 billion cubic meters of water in aquifers. Population growth, drought and restrictions on the production of water of the Euphrates lead to what aquifers are exhausted and are not restored. The deficit of the water balance in Syria in 1995-2001 exceeded 3.1 billion cubic meters, the worst situation - in the province of Damascus.

This, plus the climate refugees, plus more than one million refugees from the war in Iraq, and the limits within which closed a tremendous amount of nationalities and religions, set the stage for a civil war. It should be noted that the war has begun in the most arid regions of the country - in Deraa in the south and in Qamishli, north-east.

The forecasts were the most disappointing even before the Syrian war. Inaction, or any government action, for that will not be a strong financial base for the establishment of desalination industry, can produce two possible scenarios:

- The state is divided into several quasi-states: Druz, Alawite, Kurdish, Damascus, Aleppo. At the same time Syria is literally dying out: the huge tracts of land will be abandoned by the population because of the drought.

- Syria has become part of the new Ottoman Empire.

Syria, even in the event of sudden termination of civil war, is on the brink of disaster. The same applies to the Jordan and the Gaza Strip.

Only two stable countries in the region - Israel and Turkey - have sufficient water resources.

Turkey controls the two major rivers of the region - the Tigris and Euphrates. In terms of practical politics, this means that both Syria and Iraq depend on it - from its products, water and electricity. This, plus the strategic location of Turkey - a bridge between Asia and Europe, only further enhances the neo-Ottoman an agenda.

In Israel, thanks to the desalination, conservation measures and treatment of waste water, the threat of drought and lack of water eliminated. This creates an enormous strategic advantage in the region."

Denominations are in top corners, in words top, centered.

Comments:

Sea Fleet of USSRI was surprised, when I learned, that once existed passenger line Odessa - Latakia (Syria). It was served by the ship "Felix Dzerzhinsky" from Odessa. It was depicted in a series of stamps "Marine Transport of the USSR", issued in April 1959 (in top line, centered. Denomination - 20 Kopecken)