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5 Krooni 1992, Estonia

in Krause book Number: 71b
Years of issue: 20.06.1992
Edition:
Signatures: President: Siim Kallas, Noukogu Liige: R. Hagelberg
Serie: 1992 Issue
Specimen of: 20.06.1992
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 x 69
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Krooni 1992

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The picture of three azure leopards with red tongues in the middle, with golden oak branches placed on both sides (from Estonian coat of arms).

Avers:

5 Krooni 1992

Paul KeresThe engraving on banknote is based, presumably, after this photo of Paul Keres.

Paul Keres (January 7, 1916 - June 5, 1975) was an Estonian chess grandmaster, and a renowned chess writer. He was among the world's top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s.

Keres narrowly missed a chance at a world championship match on five occasions. He won the 1938 AVRO tournament, which led to negotiations for a title match against champion Alexander Alekhine, but the match never took place due to World War II. After the war Keres was runner-up in the Candidates' Tournament on four consecutive occasions.

Due to these and other strong results, many chess historians consider Keres the strongest player never to become world champion and one of the greatest players in history. He was nicknamed "Paul the Second", "The Eternal Second" and "The Crown Prince of Chess". Keres, along with Viktor Korchnoi and Alexander Beliavsky, defeated nine undisputed world champions-more than anyone else in history.

On January 7, 1916, Estonian chess grandmaster Paul Keres was born. Taught from his father and older brother, Keres found an interest in chess early in life. He won three separate tournaments as a student in Estonia, and was well-renowned for his brilliant and sharp attacking style. When attending the University of Tartu, Keres, like many other chess masters, studied Mathematics and represented his school in several interuniversity chess matches.

In 1935, Keres became the chess champion of Estonia, defeating Gunnar Friedemann for the title. Keres began earning acclaim by playing on the top board for Estonia in the 6th Chess Olympiad at Warsaw.

1937 proved to be a fantastic year for Paul Keres, earning him a win in Tallinn (+6=3-0), a tie for first in Margate against Reuben Fine (+6=3-0), placing him above Alexander Alekhine. In Ostend he tied once more with Fine and Henry Grob (+5=2-2), and in Prague he crushed his opponents, taking first place(+9=2-0). These are just a few of Keres’ many successes of 1937. These and many more earned him an invitation to the reputable tournament at Semmering, in which he triumphed(+6=6-2), placing him in first ahead of Fine, José Raúl Capablanca, Erich Eliskases and Reshevsky.

In 1938 in the all-star AVRO tournament Keres and Fine tied for first with 8.5/14, placing him ahead of legends such as Mikhail Botvinnik, Euwe, Alekhine, Reshevsky, Capablanca, and Flohr. Keres won the aforementioned tiebreak, beating Fine 1½-½. Keres was expected to become the next challenger for the World Champion title against Alexander Alekhine, but with WWII’s appearance, negotiations with Alekhine were brought to a halt. Keres returned to university studies, opting to concentrate more on schooling than his chess career.

Estonia later was invaded and subsequently controlled by Germany, and soon Keres and Alekhine seemed to become almost like rivals. They both participated in the Salzburg chess tournament and the European Individual Chess Championship in 1942 and at Prague (International Tournament) in 1943. Each of these battles found Alekhine directly ahead of Keres, with Alekhine in first and Keres in second. At the next Salzburg tournament in 1943, however, they tied for first with 7.5/10.

An Estonian in a German world, Keres found himself harassed by Soviet authorities on multiple occasions, most notably during the 1948 World Championship tournament, where Soviet chess officials threatened him to throw matches to allow Botvinnik to take the title of world champion. Keres chose to play fairly, but still did not manage to win the title.

Later achievements of Paul Keres include seven team gold medals in the Olympiads, five board gold medals again in the Olympiads, sharing first place with World Champion Tigran Petrosian in the 1963 Piatigorsky Cup, sharing first again with Petrosian in 1964 in Buenos Aires, and Tallinn in 1975.

He continued to play chess actively until his death in 1975. (www.chessmastercoach.com)

Above, to the right, is the backdrop of a chess board and two, artistically executed, chess pieces - black bishop and white horse.

emblem

In upper right corner is the emblem of the Bank of Estonia.

In fact, it is the same three azure leopards from coat of arms of the country.

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners and at the top.

Revers:

5 Krooni 1992

Narva NarvaThe engraving on banknote is made after the photo with the view at Narva and Ivangorod, exactly: at Hermann Castle, river Narva, Ivangorod Fortress, Johanneskirche (Jaani kirik), new bridge and the Transfiguration Cathedral (its top is barely visible behind Hermann Castle). The photo have been made before II world war, because Johanneskirche, new bridge and the Transfiguration Cathedral are still there (they were destroyed in 1941-1945, in II world war, and never restored).

Narva (Russian: Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia. It is located at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, at the Russian border, on the Narva River which drains Lake Peipus.

NarvaOn the left bank of the river is Hermann Castle (also Hermannsfeste, Herman Castle, Narva Castle, and Narva fortress) (Estonian: Hermanni linnus) is a castle in Narva, eastern Estonia. It was founded in 1256 by the Danes and the first stone castle was built in the beginning of the XIV century. The German Livonian Teutonic knights order purchased the castle on 29 August 1346, and for most of its history the castle was German Teutonic.

Although the exact age of Narva Castle and the town cause still arguments between historians, they agree on the sequence of events.

Firstly, in about the XIII century, the Danes, who had conquered Northern Estonia (see Danish Estonia) built a wooden border stronghold at the crossing of the Narva River and the old road. Under the protection of the stronghold, the earlier settlement developed into the town of Narva, which obtained the Lübeck town rights in the first half of the XIV century.

Following several conflicts with the Russians, the Danes started building a stone stronghold at the beginning of the XIV century. It was a small castellum-like building with 40-meter sides and a tower, a predecessor of the today's Herman Tower, at its north-western corner.

At the beginning of the XIV century, a small forecourt was established at the north side of the stronghold and, in the middle of the century, a large forecourt was added to the west side, where citizens were allowed to hide in case of wars as the town of Narva was not surrounded by a wall during the Danish rule.

In 1347 King Valdemar IV of Denmark sold Northern Estonia, including Narva, to the Livonian Order, who rebuilt the building into a convent building according to their needs. The stronghold has for the most part preserved the ground plan with its massive wings and a courtyard in the middle.

The Herman Tower was also completed at the time of the Order, necessitated by the establishment of Ivangorod Castle by the Russians to the opposite side of the Narva River in 1492. The Order surrounded the town with a wall, which unfortunately has not been preserved (in 1777 there came an order to pull it down).

On the basis of descriptions, we know that the wall had four gates: the Viru Gate in the west, the Herd (Karja) Gate in the north, the Old (Vana) Gate leading to the river port in the east and the Water (Vee) or Small (Vaike) Gate in the south. The gates were covered with iron plates and preceded by drawbridges. The town wall, with a length of about a kilometer, was fortified with at least seven towers. The town wall was surrounded by a moat.

Towards the end of the Order's period, the town wall was supplemented, the gates were strengthened by adding foregates, and several medieval wall towers were adapted to use as special cannon towers or rondels, two of which can be seen today in their reconstructed shape in the corners of the castle's western court.

NarvaThe view at Church of St.John (German Johanniskirche, Estonian - Jaani kirik), new bridge and the Transfiguration Cathedral from Ivangorod's bank. The photo made in 1920s.

soborA little further of Herman Castle, still on the left bank, is the Transfiguration cathedral in Narva.

It was the Orthodox church (destroyed in 1944, during the war. In the 1950s were demolished the ruins). The Cathedral was the oldest church of the city.

The temple belongs to the XV century (tombstone in the floor with the inscription in 1314 entitles you to think about the XIV century). It was constructed from limestone, in the form of a square in plan. Church refers to the spread in the northern Estonian knitting type and had a nave basilica, overlain by cross vaults. On the south side wall propped powerful buttresses.

Since it was built in the name of the Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary, in the XVI century, the temple turned into a Lutheran Church of St. John of Jerusalem.

June 29, 1708 (after taking the city in 1704 by Peter I) former St. John Kirch was over-sanctified in the presence of Peter in honor of the Transfiguration of the Lord, from now until the end of the church was Orthodox. In the creation of an Orthodox church, probably, participated Domenico Trezzini.

As soon as the cathedral was turned into an Orthodox church began its organic changes: first of all, was attached to the altars. This extension is not particularly significantly changed its architectural advantages, especially thanks to a device that Orthodox altar in the cathedral appeared the iconostasis, marvelous in its beauty, original in conception and execution of the magnificent. Especially was beautiful iconostasis of the main chapel.

The bell tower of the cathedral has a relatively low height - 51.12 meters. This bell tower was built in 1843. The old bell tower was hit by lightning and burned it. The bell two large bells cast in 1763, respectively, and in 1779, respectively.

The second bell was considered paramount. Its weight is 3930 kg. In addition, the bell tower had four small bells cast in the Swedish times in 1674, 1687, 1688, 1694 years.

Each bell has a weight of 655 kg.

In the second half of the XVIII century on the north side of the cathedral chapel attached stone warm in the name of St. Nicholas, built at the expense of the Narva merchant Demid Demidov.

C 1907 to 1916 was a cleric of the Transfiguration Cathedral Holy Martyr John Kochurov.

The building of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Narva destroyed in 1944, during the II world war. In the 1950s were demolished its ruins.

"Saint John Kochurov (Russian: Ива́н Алекса́ндрович Кочу́ров), hieromartyr of the Soviet revolution, was one of a number of young educated priests who came to the United States in the late 1890s as missionaries among the émigrés from Carpathian Ruthenia and Galicia. He was active in establishing parishes and aiding communities, mainly in the Midwest. After returning to Russia he was assigned to Estonia where he put into action the teaching skills he learned in America before he was assigned in 1916 to Tsarskoe Selo. Here he was martyred during the early days of the Bolshevik revolution. His feast day is celebrated on October 31. He is also commemorated on the feast of the New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia, celebrated on the Sunday nearest to January 25, which was the date of the martyrdom of Metropolitan Vladimir of Kiev, the first of the new martyrs".

Jaani kirikMore to the right side, still on the left bank, is the Church in the name of St. John of Jerusalem/Johanniskirche/Jaani kirik/Püha Apostel Johannese kirik.

It was built in 1636-1648 as a Church of Sweden parish. Before the Second World War it was located in the Old Town, on Viru Street 18 (between the streets of Koidu and Rahu). They both (Viru street and the church) were built by masters: Elias Moore, Hans Skrintter and Zaharias Hoffmann older. Later it came to the ownership of German parish.

During the War of Liberation (1918-1920) the church was hit by artillery fire. After the war it was restored.

Almost completely destroyed by bombing in World War II. Finally, the ruins were removed in the early 1950s.

The new bridge was built to replace the old wooden bridge, made by Swedes in the late 1700s, in 1828-1829. It was an impressive (at its time) structure with granite pillars, connecting Narva and Ivangorod. The bridge was blown up by the retreating Red Army in 1941.

The Narva (Estonian: Narva jõgi, Russian: Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge. Draining Lake Peipsi, the river forms the border of Estonia and Russia and flows through the towns of Narva/Ivangorod and Narva-Jõesuu into Narva Bay. Though the river is only 77 kilometers (48 mi.) long, in terms of volume discharged it is the second largest river flowing into the Gulf of Finland. The river gives its name to the Narva culture and the city of Narva.

NarvaOn the rigth bank of the river is Ivangorod Fortress.

Ivangorod Fortress (Estonian: Jaanilinn, Votic: Jaanilidna) is a Russian medieval castle established by Ivan III in 1492 and since then grown into the town of Ivangorod. The fortress overlooks the Narva River opposite the Narva Hermann Castle and the Estonian city of Narva.

The fortress was intended to reaffirm Russia's right to access the sea and at the same time form a bulwark against the Teutonic Order, which dominated the Baltics. On the left bank stands since the XIII Century the powerful Hermann Castle, a castle of the Teutonic Order. In the following decades, the structures of the fort have been expanded and strengthened. After the collapse of the German order of Estonia came under Swedish rule, and since the end of the Livonian War in 1583 the Ivangorod fortress also belonged to Sweden.

The original castle was constructed in one summer, in the year 1492. It was named after Moscovian Grand Prince Ivan III. Its purpose was to fend off the Livonian Knights. The castle is strictly quadrilateral, measuring 1,600 sq ft. (150 m2), with walls 14 meters tall.

Ivangorod was won back later in the year by Muscovite forces from the Livonians, under the command of Prince Ivan Gundar and Mikhail Klyapin. Three thousand troops arrived to retake the castle, rebuild it, and construct a new barracks and stronger bastions. For almost 10 years, the land around the castle was in constant warfare. The fortress and the land around changed hands repeatedly. The castle was reconstructed and fortified many times, becoming one of the strongest defensive structures in the XVI century. The castle was in development until the XVII century, becoming a large, sprawling fortress with several lines of defense.

The Treaty of Teusina (1595) returned the fortress to the Russians. In 1612, the Swedes conquered the fortress, which was bravely defended by a voivode, Fyodor Aminev (b 1560s, d 1628) and his sons. By the Treaty of Stolbova, Ingria was ceded to Gustav II Adolf, king of Sweden. In 1704, Peter the Great captured the castle from Swedish troops, bringing the fortress back into Russian control. Inside the fortress, there are two churches: one is dedicated to the Virgin's Assumption (1496) and the other to St. Nicholas (built in the late XVI century but later reconstructed).

The churches of St. Nicholas (1498) and the Virgin's Dormition (1558) inside the fortress walls.

After the early XVIII century, the military role of the fortress dwindled due to technological advances. In 1728, a review was carried out of the fortresses in this area, which concluded that the installation had been neglected, and had a low fighting efficiency. An order was issued for restoration of Ivangorod fortress, but after the inspection of 1738 the fortress was designated not adequate for defence purpose.

In 1840, some improvements were carried out in the fortress (roofs were changed), further improvements took place in 1863 and 1911-1914. During World War I, the fortress was captured by Germans on 25 February 1918. From 1919 to 1940, the fortress belonged to Estonia. Despite changing hands several times in the first half of the XX century, the fortress played no significant role in fighting.

During World War II, it was first controlled by the Soviet Union (1940-1941) and then by the Nazi Germany (1941-1944), which established two POW camps within the fortress and left many of its buildings damaged after their retreat. After the annexation of Estonia by the Soviet Union in 1940 Ivangorod fortress was part of the Russian Soviet Republic. The town and fortress remained with Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the restoration of the independent Republic of Estonia in 1990. Currently, the fortress serves as a museum.

Denomination in numeral and in words is at the bottom.

Comments:

Many thanks for the help by information about the temples of Narva to very sympathetic woman - Tatyana Krivolap, bibliographies of Narva's Central Library.

She provided me with a lot of links and scans on my request.

The info benefited from following websites and books:

"Old Narva: buildings and people: (postcards from Sven

Karjahärm collection/ koostanud Toomas Karjahärm)".

"Narva: cultural and historical reference/ the originator - Galina Smirnova - Narva: Narva Museum 2001 - page 243".

(tellis.ucoz.ru rus.)

(www.vidania.ru rus.)

(www.narva-news.ee rus.)

(http://www.gazeta.ee rus.)

Also thanks so much to Mr. Ivar Leimus from the Estonian History Museum in Tallinn (Eesti Ajaloomuuseum) and Mrs. Siri Ries from the Museum of the Bank of Estonia.

The paper of the banknotes contains security fibres of different colour.

Each banknote has a seven-digit serial number printed in black.

Security strip.

The Sketches of the bills in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 100 Krooni are made by artists Urmas Ploomipuu and Vladimir Taiger. On banknotes are depicted cultural and architectural monuments in Estonia.