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100 Korun 1940, Slovakia

in Krause book Number: 10a
Years of issue: 01.07.1941 - 31.10.1945
Edition:
Signatures: Guverner: Imrich Karvaš (1939 - 1944), Riaditel: Martin Kollár (03.1939 - 1950)
Serie: Banking Act No. 44 of April 4, 1939
Specimen of: 07.10.1940
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 127 x 73
Printer: Giesecke und Devrient GmbH, Leipzig

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Korun 1940

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Unknown woman.

Avers:

100 Korun 1940

The effigy of Prince Pribina, as he looked like in year 833.

Pribina (c. 800 - 861) was a Slavic prince whose adventurous career, recorded in the Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians (a historical work written in 870), illustrates the political volatility of the Franco-Slavic frontiers of his time. Pribina was the first ruler of Slavic origin to build a Christian church on Slavic territory in Nitra, and also the first to accept baptism.

He was attacked and expelled from his homeland by Mojmir I, duke of Moravia. Pribina first fled to Ratpot, one of the border lords in East Francia. Thereafter he was wandering in Central and Southeastern Europe for several years. Finally, in the late 830s, Louis the German, king of East Francia granted Pribina lands near Lake Balaton (now in Hungary) where he set up his own principality under the king's suzerainty. He died fighting against the Moravians.

The Principality of Nitra (Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo; Hungarian: nyitrai fejedelemség), also known as the Duchy of Nitra, was a Slavic polity encompassing a group of settlements that developed in the IX century around Nitra in present-day Slovakia. Its history remains uncertain because of a lack of contemporary sources. The territory's status is subject to scholarly debate; some modern historians describe it as an independent polity that was annexed either around 833 or 870 by Great Moravia while others say that from its inception it was part of Great Moravia. No final list of the princes or dukes of Nitra has been agreed upon by historians.

The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin caused the fall of Great Moravia in the early 900s and the occupation of the lowlands of present-day Slovakia. The local population survived the Hungarian conquest. Although most Slovak historians believe that some noble families continued their landholding after the disintegration of Great Moravia, other historians are less certain.

The history of the wider region of Nitra in the X and XI centuries is also disputed. The region is thought to have formed a separate political unit - the so-called "Nitra appanage duchy" - until 1108. Historian Ján Steinhübel writes that "Nitra was an autonomous duchy, a clear political entity, which laid the territorial and historical foundation of Slovakia". According to a concurrent theory, the Nitra region was fully incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, although it was sometimes administered as part of the so-called ducatus or "duchy" - which encompassed one-third of the kingdom - by non-ruling members of the royal Árpád dynasty.

The remains of a IX-century fortress covering 12 hectares (30 acres), the age of which has not been determined, were unearthed in the center of Nitra. Beeby writes that the fortress belongs to the "Great Moravian period". According to Steinhübel, the fortress may have been named after the river Nitra, which flows below the hill upon which it stood. Archaeological research shows that a settlement inhabited by blacksmiths, goldsmiths and other artisans developed at the fortress. An extensive network of settlements emerged around it in the IX century.

The main source of information about the polity now known as the Principality of Nitra is the Conversion of the Bavarians and Carantanians, a document dated to approximately 870. The manuscripts state that "one Pribina", who had been "driven across the Danube by Mojmir, duke of the Moravians", fled to Radbod, Margrave of Pannonia (c. 833-856) in East Francia around 833. Radbod introduced him to King Louis the German, who ordered that Pribina should be "instructed in the faith and baptized". According to a sentence in three of the eleven extant manuscripts of the Conversion, Archbishop Adalram of Salzburg (r. 821-836) consecrated a church for Pribina "on his estate at a place over the Danube called Nitrava" at an unspecified date. Modern historians debate whether this sentence was part of the original text or was only a marginal note which was interpolated into the main text in the XII century.

Modern historians have not accepted a uniform interpretation of the cited texts. According to Bartl, Kirschbaum, Steinhübel, and many others, Pribina was initially the ruler of an independent polity which was centered around Nitra. Lukačka describes this polity as the "first demonstrable Slavic state north of the middle Danube". Barford writes that Pribina "was apparently prince of Nitra". According to Marsina, it "can hardly be unambiguously decided whether Pribina was prince of a greater tribe or of two or three smaller joined tribes". He adds that Pribina may have belonged to the second or third generation of the heads of this polity, which emerged in the valleys of the rivers Hron, Nitra, and Váh. Lukačka says that Pribina had a retinue and that most its members "certainly descended from the former tribal aristocracy" but some of them "could have come from the free strata of the mass of the people".

According to Vlasto, Pribina was Duke Mojmir of Moravia's lieutenant in Nitra and his attempts to achieve independence led to his exile. Vlasto identifies an early medieval church - the remains of which were unearthed on St Martin's Hill in Nitra - as the church which was consecrated by Archbishop Adalram in Pribina's Nitrava, according to the Conversion. Bowlus and Püspöki Nagy refute the identification of Pribina's Nitrava with Nitra. Scholars who write that Pribina was an independent ruler also say that his principality was united with Moravia after he was exiled from his homeland in around 833. Kirschbaum and Steinhübel add that the forced unification of the two principalities - Mojmir's Moravia and Pribina's Nitra - under Mojmir gave rise to the empire of Great Moravia. Marsina writes that the inhabitants of Pribina's principality who "definitely were aware of their difference from the Moravian Slavs" preserved their "specific consciousness" even within Great Moravia, which contributed to the development of the common consciousness of the ancestors of the Slovak people.

Under the portrait is Pribina's sword, stuck in the ground and ears of wheat - an allegory of peace and tranquility.

NitraAlso under the effigy of Pribina depicted the first church-rotunda consecrated in Nitra.

The so-called "mother of Slovak towns," Nitra not only served as the base of the first political entity on modern-day Slovak territory ruled by Slavs, but it also housed the area's first Christian church.

By the early IX century, a Slav named Pribina ruled the principality from Nitra, which was part of the greater Frankish kingdom. A confirmed pagan, Pribina nevertheless allowed the building and consecration of the church around 828. The main reasons probably had to do with Slavic-Frank politics - the Franks had set about Christianisation as a way to increase their power over the Slavs. (Some accounts cite a more romantic motivation: that Pribina welcomed the church as a gift to his Christian wife who hailed from Germany.) Here also stayed Cyril and Methodius.

St. Emmeram's Cathedral (Slovak: Bazilika svätého Emeráma) is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Nitra, Slovakia. The entire cathedral is housed in the Nitra Castle precinct, much like Prague Castle.

It was originally built in the Gothic style and is composed of many parts. The upper church dates from 1333-1355. The rotunda dates back to the XI-XII century and houses a silver reliquary made in 1674. Another reliquary in the cathedral houses some relics of Saint Cyril. The lower church was built between 1621-1642. Later on the entire cathedral complex was remodelled in the Baroque style.

NitraThe oldest part of this complex structure is the church-rotunda of the XI century, the rounded walls of which are visible, if you come to the cathedral from the eastern side of the altar. The original church doesn't exist anymore. But some sources claim that the rotunda stands on the site of the remains of the first church in Nitra (which was consecrated as the first church in Nitra on Pribina's call) and built on its similarity.

Denominations are across all field of banknote.

Revers:

100 Korun 1940

A young Slovak girl - an allegory of the young Slovak Republic.

Next to her:

Gears and a hammer - allegory of industry (industry).

The book - an allegory of science.

Collapsed parchment in her hand - an allegory of knowledge.

Sheaf of wheat - an allegory of agriculture.

On the left, top, grapes - one of the most ancient solar symbol of fertility, abundance and wealth.

coat

At the girl's feet is the shield with the coat of arms of Slovakia.

The coat of arms of Slovakia consists of a red (gules) shield, in early Gothic style, charged with a silver (argent) double cross standing on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. Extremities of the cross are amplified, and its ends are concaved. The double cross is a symbol of its Christian faith and the hills represent three symbolic mountain ranges: Tatra, Fatra and Mátra (the last one is in northern Hungary).

One of the modern interpretations of the double cross is that it represents Slovakia as an heir and guardian of Christian tradition, brought to the region by St. Cyril and St. Methodius, two missionaries from the Byzantine Empire.

In the background is Slovak mountainous landscape, above it - the rising sun, against which, once again, is the Byzantine double-cross.

Above it are two doves, as a symbol of peace.

I received an answer from Chief Archivist of Archives Section in National Bank of Slovakia, Mr. František Chudják - and I am very grateful to him for the answer, regarding languages on reverse of this banknote.

That is what he wrote to me:

"..referring to your request of 11 August 2015 regarding an inscription on 500 Korun 1944 banknote, we would like to inform you that all paper money, which were issued in the period of the war Slovak republic in 1939-1945, were marked on reverse in four languages - in Slovak, German, Hungarian and Russian. The Government of the Slovak republic resolved at a meeting held on 1 June 1939 that the entire issue of banknotes should be marked on reverse in four languages. The Russian language was used because there lived about 60 000 Ruthenians (Rusyns) and Ukrainians in the territory of the Slovak republic in 1939-1945. Sincerely yours, František Chudják".

And here is the small extract from Wikipedia, regarding Reform of Russian orthography in 1918 (On banknote is Russian spelling, used before 1918):

"Despite the fact, that the reform was designed long before the revolution without any political goals of professional linguists (in fact, among its development was a member of the far-right Union of the Russian people, Academician Alexei Ivanovich Sobolewski, who proposed, in particular, to eliminate ять and the ends -ыя/-ія), the first steps towards its practical implementation occurred after the revolution, but actually adopted and implemented it was the Bolsheviks. This determined sharply critical attitude to it by the political opponents of Bolshevism (this ratio aphoristic expressed by Bunin: "By order of the Archangel Michael will never accept the Bolshevik spelling. Already at least one that had a human hand did not write anything like that that is now written on the spelling"). It is not used in most editions, is printed on the white-controlled areas, and then in exile. Russian editions abroad for the most part moved to the new spelling only in the 1940s - 1950s, in connection with the second wave of emigration from the USSR; although some of them publishing so far in old spelling."

Denominations are across all field of banknote.

Comments:

Designer: Štefan Bednár.

The signatures on banknote made by:

signature

Martin Kollar (October 23, 1889 - May 3, 1956)/

Career at the central bank began to banking authorities of the Ministry of Finance (BUMF) in Prague, which was actually the forerunner of the National Bank of Czechoslovakia (NBCS), where he joined in May 1920. At the end he was transferred to the Košice branch BUMF. Shortly after he was appointed inspector in August 1923, becoming deputy head of the branch. From Kosice him in March 1927, already as a senior auditor, they were transferred to Banska Bystrica branch NBCS in the capacity of head. Six years later he goes to Bratislava for the post of deputy head of. Since April 1938 he was a Head of the branch, which was the most important Slovak branch of NBCS. He holds this post with the title - director of branch NBCS.

Top business allocated to them in the pre-war Issuing Bank gained 1 January 1939, when he was appointed deputy director of NBC-S II. Class A member of the Business Administration NBC-S in Prague. Shortly after the declaration of Slovak autonomy, specifically in the second half of October, have been developed specific proposals to decentralize NBCS. Detailed processing proposal foresees the creation of the Slovak NBCS led by the Deputy Governor, the Bank Board, business administration as well as rebuilding the Bratislava branch to the main institute. While addressing the equal representation of Slovaks in the central organs of the bank and the consequent further necessary changes. At the end of March 1939 began to create a new organizational structure of the Central Bank and its final form it was largely the result of his work. He became the director of the administrative department and function in Slovak National Bank (SNB) and, also, a member of the SNB Directorate. In a short time he built the largest banks and the terms of the functioning of the most important departments - administrative department. After the governor Rudolf Kubis (as sick) left the office in early February 1945, the governor routine internal agenda were entrusted by SNB directors' corps under the leadership by Kollár. Appointment of Interim SNB remain unaffected by Kollar in office. At that time, ensured by one of the main tasks of the Bank; procrastination means of payment and exchange, which was successfully implemented at the turn of October and November 1945. The discontinued operations SNB remained Although the director and the NBCS administrative department, as well as Regional Institute for Slovakia, were existed until the 1950s. (Narodna Banka Slovenska slv.)

signature

Imrich Karvaš (February 25, 1903 - February 22, 1981).

He worked at the Bratislava Law School, where in 1934 he qualified as associate professor and in 1940 as professor of national economy. He has held a variety of duties: secretary of the Association of Slovak banks, Secretary General of the Economics Institute of Slovakia and Ruthenia and Vice President of the Export Institute in Prague. He was a minister in one of the last Czech-Slovak governments.

In April 1939 he was appointed as governor of the Slovak National Bank. Actively promote the preservation of as much independence Slovak economic policy. Particular protective measures included the introduction of various clearing accounts in Slovakia-Germany Commodity contact, compulsory registration of shares of enterprises in Slovakia, maintaining duty-free regime between the Slovak Republic and Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Has made significant steps in favor of the Slovak National Uprising in August 1944 (moving means of payment to affiliates of the Slovak National Bank in Ruzomberok and Banska-Bystrica, as head of the Supreme Authority for Supply moved in favor of the uprising fuel supplies, distributed to the population for three months in advance), and was arrested by gestapo for that.

After 1945, he was to head the Slovak and Czechoslovak banking. He devoted himself to the work of the Faculty of Law (years 1947-1948 he was the Dean) and was chairman of the International Executive Committee spa. After February 1948, he was persecuted and imprisoned several times. At the end of the sixties it was received rehabilitated. He co-founded the University of Economics in Bratislava in 1940, of chief editor of the monthly economic rozhľady; He wrote more than 50 scientific articles and is the author of an extensive book Foundations of Economics. (Narodna Banka Slovenska slv.)