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20 Mark 1980, Germany

in Krause book Number: 32d
Years of issue: 02.01.1980
Edition: --
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Dr. h.c. mult. Karl Otto Pöhl (01.01.1980 - 31.07.1991), Vizepräsident: Prof. Dr. oec. publ. Dr. h.c. mult. Helmut Schlesinger
Serie: Serie 1960
Specimen of: 02.01.1980
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 х 70
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Mark 1980

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The Portrait of Elsbeth Tucher (née Pusch) by famous German painter Albrecht Dürer, 1499.

Avers:

20 Mark 1980

Elsbeth Tucher

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of the Nuremberg patrician and merchant's wife Elsbeth Tucher after a painting by Albrecht Dürer. It can be seen in the "Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister" (Old masters gallery) in the Wilhelmshöhe Palace, in Kassel (Oil on wood, size 29 x 23 cm, 1499).

Elsbeth Tucher (née Pusch) is portrayed against an ornate brocade hanging. At the top of the panel is the inscription: "Elsbeth Niclas Tucher at 26 years, 1499".

This is the right wing of a diptych, but the left wing portraying her husband Niclas is missing. Elsbeth holds her wedding ring and the clasp of her blouse is formed with the initials "NT", presumably a gift from her husband. The initials "WW", worked into her blouse and the mysterious letters "MHIMNSK" on the band over her voluminous headscarf have so far defied interpretation. Just visible on her shoulders is a gold necklace, evidence of her social standing.

Above the parapet on the left of the panel is a landscape, with a wood-fringed lake leading to distant mountains, set beneath a stormy sky. (Web Gallery of Art)

Revers:

20 Mark 1980

A violin, a clarinet and a bow are symbolize the world of German music.

In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned composers, producers and performers of the world. Germany is the largest music market in Europe, and third largest in the world.

German Classical is one of the most performed in the world; German composers include some of the most accomplished and popular in history, among them Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Robert Schumann and Richard Wagner. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born in Salzburg (now in Austria), was among the composers who created the field of German opera.

The beginning of what is now considered German music could be traced back to the XII-century compositions of mystic abbess Hildegard of Bingen, who wrote a variety of hymns and other kinds of Christian music.

German popular music of the XX and XXI century includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle (Nena, Alphaville), Disco (Boney M., Dschinghis Khan, Milli Vanilli), Ostrock (City, Keimzeit), Metal/Rock (Rammstein, Scorpions), Punk (Die Ärzte, Die Toten Hosen), Pop rock (Beatsteaks, Tokio Hotel), Indie (Tocotronic, Blumfeld) and Hip Hop (Die Fantastischen Vier, Deichkind). Especially the German Electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk being a pioneer group in this genre, and the Minimal and Techno scenes in Germany being very popular (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Tomcraft, Paul Kalkbrenner and Scooter).

Germany hosts many large rock music festivals annually. The Rock am Ring festival is the largest music festival in Germany, and among the largest in the world. German artists also make up a large percentage of Industrial music acts, which is called Neue Deutsche Härte. Germany hosts some of the largest Goth scenes and festivals in the entire world, with events like Wave-Gotik-Treffen and M'era Luna Festival easily attracting up to 30,000 people. In addition, the country hosts Wacken Open Air, the biggest heavy metal open air festival in the world.

Since about 1970, Germany has once again had a thriving popular culture, now increasingly being led by its new-old capital Berlin, and a self-confident music and art scene. Germany is also very well known for its many renowned opera houses, such as Semperoper, Komische Oper Berlin and Munich State Theatre. Richard Wagner established the Bayreuth Festspielhaus.

The seal of German Bundesbank is nearby.

The inscription on the right top: "Wer Banknoten nachmacht oder verfälscht oder nachgemachte oder verfälschte sich verschafft und in Verkehr bringt, wird mit Freiheitsstrafe nicht unter zwei Jahren bestraft".

Translation reads: "Those who forge bank notes or runs the counterfeit into circulation will be subject to imprisonment for at least two years."

DM printed until 1963 (then have been changed the interpretation of this article in the German law) instead of the word "Freiheitsstrafe" (deprivation of freedom) have the word "Zuchthaus" (penitentiary). At that time, the notion of a house of correction has become obsolete, so it was replaced.

Among the collectors the third series of banknotes (Series 1960) with the word "Zuchthaus" valued much higher then releases of the same series in 1970, 1977 and 1980. Although, in general, all notes in this series are valued higher then exchange rate, according to which, by the way, the Bundesbank still takes them for exchange to Euro.

Comments:

This version of Twenty-Mark banknote was outstanding as the longest unchanged bill. It was the first bill of the third series issued on February 10, 1961 for the first time, and only after 11 371 days (about 31 years) the successor note was put into circulation.

The signatures on banknote belongs to:

Karl Otto Pöhl

Karl Otto Pöhl (01.12.1929 - 09.12.2014).

Helmut Schlesinger

Helmut Schlesinger (04.09.1924).

Hermann Eidenbenz

Graphic artist: Hermann Eidenbenz.

Hermann Eidenbenz (September 4, 1902 - 25 February 1993) was a Swiss graphic artist and stamp artist.

The time of his birth his father managed several companies in India, his mother came from Germany (Schwaben). But he received his education in Switzerland.

His training as a graphic artist took place in Switzerland, first at "Orell Füssli" in Zurich and then in the School of Applied Arts in Zurich. 1923 was followed by a stay abroad at "Deffke and Hadank" in Berlin. As early as 1926 he became a teacher of writing and graphics at the arts and crafts school in Magdeburg. He practiced six years of this profession before he opened his own graphic studio in Basel with his brothers - Reinhold and Willi. In 1937 he was involved in the Pavilion of Switzerland for the World Exhibition in Paris from 1940 to 1943 he taught at the general trade school in Basel.

For Haas'sche type foundry he designed in 1945 the Graphique Font, in 1950 was followed by the Clarendon Font. Today these fonts are available from Linotype Library.

In 1953 he returned to Germany and became head of the department of commercial art at Werkkunstschule, in Braunschweig. In 1955 he joined the company "Fa.Reemtsma", in Hamburg, there to act as artistic collaborator.

He created numerous logos and posters. This also includes the logo of "Basler Verkehrsbetriebe" (BVB). The supported by two arms of Basilisk in Basel graced so many BVB vehicles than any other Signet before or since. In 1947 thus drove the first motor car. In addition Eidenbenz took over even the graphic design of the car numbers used from 1947 until today.

He created for Switzerland and for Germany In addition, banknotes and stamps. So he designed the first series of the D-Mark banknotes, issued by the Deutsche Bundesbank and the fifth series of banknotes of the Swiss franc, which came into circulation from 1956. The stamp of the German Post Office for the 100th anniversary of Carl Friedrich Gauss from 1955 was designed by him.