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10 Pesos 1960, Cuba

in Krause book Number: 88c
Years of issue: 1960
Edition: --
Signatures: Presidente del Banco: Ernesto Che Guevara (29 November 1959 - 23 February 1961), Ministro de Hacienda: Rufo López-Fresquet
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1956
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 157 х 66
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Pesos 1960

Description

Watermark:

Avers:

10 Pesos 1960

Text throughout the field of banknote: "Banco Nacional de Cuba".

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del CastilloThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes.

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo (April 18, 1819 - February 27, 1874) was a Cuban planter who freed his slaves and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years War.

Céspedes was a landowner and lawyer in eastern Cuba, near Bayamo, who purchased La Demajagua, an estate with a sugar plantation, in 1844 after returning from Spain. On October 10, 1868, he made the "Grito de Yara" (Cry of Yara), declaring Cuban independence, which began the Ten Years War. That morning, after sounding the slave bell that indicated to his slaves it was time for work, they stood before him waiting for orders, and Céspedes announced they were all free men, and were invited to join him and his fellow conspirators in war against the Spanish government of Cuba. He is called "Padre de la Patria" (Father of the Country). In April 1869 he was chosen President of the Republic of Cuba in Arms.

The Ten Years War was the first serious attempt to achieve independence from Spain, and to free all slaves. The war was fought between two groups. In the East of Cuba the tobacco planters and farmers, joined by mulattoes and some slaves, fought against the West of Cuba, with its sugarcane plantations (which required many slaves) and the forces of the Spanish Governor-General. Hugh Thomas summarizes thus: The war was a conflict between criollos (creoles, born in Cuba) and peninsulares (recent immigrants from Spain). The Spanish forces and the peninsulares, backed by rich Spanish merchants, were at first on the defensive, but in the longer run their greater resources told.

Céspedes was deposed in 1873 in a leadership coup. Spanish troops killed him in February 1874 in a mountain refuge, as the new Cuban government would not let him go into exile and denied him an escort. The war ended in 1878 with the Pact of Zanjón. The pact did make concessions: liberation of all slaves and Chinese who had fought with the rebels, no action for political offences; but not freedom for all slaves, and no independence. The Grito de Yara had achieved something, though not enough; but it had lit a long-burning fuse. Lessons learned there were later put to good use in the Cuban War of Independence.

On the left side is the red seal of Cuban National Bank (the coat of arms of Cuba, on background is the five-pointed star).

La Demajagua SugarmillCentered are the ruins of Sugarmill at former estate of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes "La Demajagua" in the municipality of Manzanillo, Granma province.

About the Sugar refinery La Demajagua is known that was a small sugar mill located in the municipality of Manzanillo, Granma province, of which no one knows the exact date of its foundation, but that in 1840 already exists with that name.

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, a fervent and progressive man developer of independence ideas, decides to establish in Demajagua in 1866, bought to his brother Francisco Javier the Sugar Refinery, and makes it important technical changes, develops for the first time the paid work and uses it in the preparation of the conspiracy that led to the revolutionary struggle.

After a period of preparation and to achieve important steps in the organization of the uprising, planned for October 14th 1868. A telegram sent to Bayamo by the General Captain, in which he ordered a lower pressure to revolutionaries, led Céspedes to advance the start of the fight, and began on day 9 the mobilization of the groups that were going to take part in the insurrection in Manzanillo.

On October 10th 1868 in the morning, Cespedes gathered at the Batey of the Sugar Refinery La Demajagua, in front of the men who had come to his call, presented the flag and in conjunction with the release of his slaves, he reads the Manifest to their compatriots and to all nations, which identifies the causes of the fighting that began; as well as proclaims the two basic principles that would be their battle flags, independence and equality of all men, initiating with it the war against Spanish domination.

This place became the current National Park Museum La Demajagua, was declared a National Monument on June 6th 1978, it is revered by all Cubans, and rated as one of the most relevant sites to our emancipatory gesture.

Only a few remnants of the sugar mill, destroyed by a combination of factors ranging from the war to weather conditions, have survived the passage of time. However, the huge gear wheels of its machinery have remained untouched until today, resting majestically under the shadow of a tree. (Consejo Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural de Cuba)

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words on the right and left sides.

Revers:

10 Pesos 1960

The coat of arms is centered.

coat

The Cuban Coat of Arms is the official heraldic symbol of Cuba. It consists of a shield, in front of a Fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch on one side and a laurel wreath on the other. The coat of arms was created by Miguel Teurbe Tolón and was adopted on April 24, 1906.

The shield is divided into three parts:

In the chief, a key charging a blue sea between two rocks, symbolizing Cuba’s geographical position between Florida and the Yucatán Peninsula. A bright rising sun in the background symbolizes the rising of the new republic. A key is a symbol of Cuba as Cuba is the key to the Americas. On the left are the stripes of the flag of Cuba but turned so as they are bendwise. On the right is a common Cuban landscape, Royal Palm tree, a symbol of Cuba with mountains in the background.

The shield is supported by an oak branch on one side and a laurel wreath on the other. The oak branch symbolizes the strength of the nation; and the laurel wreath: honor and glory. These symbols were meant to represent the rights of man: Equality, Liberty and Fraternity.

A Phrygian Cap (Gorro Frigio) or liberty cap is located at the top, as a crown symbolizing liberty, with a sole star on it standing for independence.

On left side are two dairy cows, symbolizing the development of the dairy industry in Cuba.

For the pre-revolutionary Cuba was characterized by high levels of social inequality, for this reason, the use of integrated indicators for measuring the standard of living not very applicable - "de facto there were two Cubas - elite lived beautiful and comfortable, and the other were surviving without most necessary things for living."

One of the most important steps the government headed by Fidel Castro was the adoption of 17 May 1959. the agrarian reform law. Under this law, the maximum size of land holdings were limited to 30 Caballero (400 hectares), and a foreign land ownership were abolished. As a result of the reform, the implementation of which took less than two years, 60% of cultivable land was transferred to the peasants, the owners, and 40 percent came in the public sector. Reforms carried out in Cuba for the first time in Latin America, has led to a really revolutionary changes in the system of land ownership.

Also, the government has launched a program to build on the island of dairy cattle:

Before the 1959 revolution in Cuba was just zebu type cows of local breed - large, viable, but non-productive - they were given no more than two liters of milk per day. In 1964, Canada was acquired by the first cow, the cows began crossing from the northern latitudes. It adopted a National genetic program. By climatic conditions came only animals of Holstein dairy cattle, which had to buy in Canada. However, in 1973, milk production reached 1 million. Liters, and in 1982 - 70 mln. Liters.

On right side is the process of bottling milk at milk factory.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words on the right and left sides.

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