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5 Mark 1960, Germany

in Krause book Number: 18a
Years of issue: 06.05.1963
Edition: --
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Dr. rer. pol. h.c. Karl Blessing (01.01.1958 - 31.12.1969), Vizepräsident: Dr. Heinrich Troeger
Serie: Serie 1960
Specimen of: 02.01.1960
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 120 х 60
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Mark 1960

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Portrait of a Young Venetian Woman.

Avers:

5 Mark 1960

young VenetianThe engraving on banknote is made after the Portrait of a Venetian Woman (Oil on wood, 1505 year). Today is in Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Style: Northern Renaissance.

Portrait of a Young Venetian Woman is a small bust length oil on elm panel painting by the German artist Albrecht Dürer from 1505. It was executed, along with a number of other high society portraits, during his second visit to Italy.

The woman wears a patterned gown with tied-on sleeves that show the chemise beneath. Her hair frames her face in soft waves, and back hair is confined in a small draped cap. The work's harmony and grace is achieved through its mixtures of tones, from her pale, elegant skin and reddish blond hair and to her black-and pearl necklace and highly-fashionable patterned dress; all of which are highlighted against a flat black background. It is similar in pose and colour tone to his c 1507 A German Woman from Venice, while at least two studies of Venetian women are known, both of which are very daring. One shows the model with a plunging neckline, the other with bare shoulders.

During his visit to Italy Dürer became fascinated by and befriended Giovanni Bellini, an established master when Dürer was still a relative unknown outside of Germany. The Franconian artist's influence can be seen in this work's soft modeling, dramatic lighting and vivid colours and tones.

The work was not identified as a Dürer original until it was found in a private Lithuanian collection in 1923. The identity of the sitter is lost, however in dress and hairstyle she appears to be Venetian rather than Germanic. The portrait is unfinished; a number of elements, noticeably the black bow above her chest, are not as well described as other passages.

Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 - 6 April 1528) was a German painter, printmaker, mathematician, and theorist born in Nuremberg. His high-quality woodcut prints established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance. His vast body of work includes engravings, his preferred technique in his later prints, altarpieces, portraits and self-portraits, watercolours and books. The woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series (1498), retain a more Gothic flavour than the rest of his work. His well-known engravings include the Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in his Study (1514) and Melencolia I (1514), which has been the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation. His watercolours also mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium.

Dürer's introduction of classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of Italian artists and German humanists, has secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance. This is reinforced by his theoretical treatises, which involve principles of mathematics, perspective and ideal proportions.

Revers:

5 Mark 1960

A branch with oak leaves and acorns symbolizes the German Nature.

The oak leaf clusters are also used as symbols for various awards and decorations. In Germany, the German oak is the national tree of Germany, thus oak leaves are a prominent symbol on most German military orders. During World War II, the Knight's Cross of the German Iron Cross could be awarded with the additional distinction of oak leaves (mit Eichenlaub). Of the 7,313 awards of the Knight's Cross, only 882 received oak leaves. After World War II, Iron Crosses awarded previously could be worn by the recipient if the swastika was replaced by oak leaves. The Bundeswehr awards the Cross of Honour for Bravery for extraordinary bravery. The Cross of Honour for Bravery differs from the Badge of Honour by an adornment in the shape of stylized double oak leaves. Furthermore, it was featured on the Pfennig in Germany and since the introduction of the euro in 2001 it is used on the obverse side of the German euro coinage. In earlier times, the Pour le Mérite, the highest military order in the Kingdom of Prussia, could also be awarded with oak leaves. A civil version of the order, for accomplishments in the arts and sciences, still exists in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The seal of German Bundesbank is nearby.

The inscription on the right top: "Wer Banknoten nachmacht oder verfälscht oder nachgemachte oder verfälschte sich verschafft und in Verkehr bringt, wird mit Zuchthaus nicht unter zwei Jahren bestraft".

Translation reads: "Those who forge bank notes or runs the counterfeit into circulation will be subject to imprisonment for at least two years."

DM printed after 1963 (then have been changed the interpretation of this article in the German law) instead of the word "Zuchthaus" (penitentiary) have the word "Freiheitsstrafe" (deprivation of freedom). At that time, the notion of a house of correction has become obsolete, so it was replaced.

Among the collectors the third series of banknotes (Series 1960) with the word "Zuchthaus" valued much higher then releases of the same series in 1970, 1977 and 1980. Although, in general, all notes in this series are valued higher then exchange rate, according to which, by the way, the Bundesbank still takes them for exchange to Euro.

Comments:

The signatures on banknote belongs to:

Karl BlessingKarl Blessing (05.02.1900 - 25.04.1971).

Heinrich TroegerHeinrich Troeger (4 March 1901 - 28 August 1975).

Hermann EidenbenzGraphic artist: Hermann Eidenbenz.

Hermann Eidenbenz (September 4, 1902 - 25 February 1993) was a Swiss graphic artist and stamp artist.

The time of his birth his father managed several companies in India, his mother came from Germany (Schwaben). But he received his education in Switzerland.

His training as a graphic artist took place in Switzerland, first at "Orell Füssli" in Zurich and then in the School of Applied Arts in Zurich. 1923 was followed by a stay abroad at "Deffke and Hadank" in Berlin. As early as 1926 he became a teacher of writing and graphics at the arts and crafts school in Magdeburg. He practiced six years of this profession before he opened his own graphic studio in Basel with his brothers - Reinhold and Willi. In 1937 he was involved in the Pavilion of Switzerland for the World Exhibition in Paris from 1940 to 1943 he taught at the general trade school in Basel.

For Haas'sche type foundry he designed in 1945 the Graphique Font, in 1950 was followed by the Clarendon Font. Today these fonts are available from Linotype Library.

In 1953 he returned to Germany and became head of the department of commercial art at Werkkunstschule, in Braunschweig. In 1955 he joined the company "Fa.Reemtsma", in Hamburg, there to act as artistic collaborator.

He created numerous logos and posters. This also includes the logo of "Basler Verkehrsbetriebe" (BVB). The supported by two arms of Basilisk in Basel graced so many BVB vehicles than any other Signet before or since. In 1947 thus drove the first motor car. In addition Eidenbenz took over even the graphic design of the car numbers used from 1947 until today.

He created for Switzerland and for Germany In addition, banknotes and stamps. So he designed the first series of the D-Mark banknotes, issued by the Deutsche Bundesbank and the fifth series of banknotes of the Swiss franc, which came into circulation from 1956. The stamp of the German Post Office for the 100th anniversary of Carl Friedrich Gauss from 1955 was designed by him.