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20 Dollars 1994, Australia

in Krause book Number: 53a
Years of issue: 31.10.1994
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia: Mr. Bernie W. Fraser (September 1989 – September 1996), Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. Ted Evans (24 May 1993 - 26 April 2001)
Serie: Polymer Serie
Specimen of: 31.10.1994
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 144 x 65
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Dollars 1994

Description

Watermark:

coat of arms watermark

Australian coat of arms depicted in the series as a watermark.

Arms of Australia is the official symbol of the state. The country was granted by King Edward VII, May 7, 1908, and the current version of the coat of arms - King George V 19 September 1912.

From the heraldic point of view, coat of arms is a six part shield with a silver border, burdened by fourteen black crosses.

coat of arms

In the upper half, from left to right, are the coats of arms of states: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. At the bottom, left to right, are: South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania.

Above the shield is a 7-face "Commonwealth Star" or the Star of Federation over blue and gold wreaths.

Supporting the shield kangaroos and emus are unofficial emblem of the nation. Probably, they were chosen because they are "indigenous" Australian animals, which are found only on the continent. It is often argued that they can not move back, only forward - and that is progress. In fact, both the animals can move back, but rarely do.

compass

A wind rose (compass).

A wind rose is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Historically, wind roses were predecessors of the compass rose (found on maps), as there was no differentiation between a cardinal direction and the wind which blew from such a direction. Using a polar coordinate system of gridding, the frequency of winds over a long time period is plotted by wind direction, with color bands showing wind ranges. The directions of the rose with the longest spoke show the wind direction with the greatest frequency.

Avers:

20 Dollars 1994

Mary ReibeyThis portrait of Mary Reibey is based on watercolour portrait of Mary Reibey on ivory, circa 1835. i.e. about 58 years old. It is the only known portrait of Reibey by unknown artist. Today it is in State Library of New South Wales.

Mary Reibey (12 May 1777 - 30 May 1855) was an Englishwoman who was transported to Australia as a convict but went on to become a successful businesswoman in Sydney.

Mary Reibey, née Haydock, businesswoman and trader, was born on 12 May 1777 in Bury, Lancashire, England. She was convicted of horse stealing at Stafford on 21 July 1790 and sentenced to be transported for seven years. When arrested she was dressed as a boy and went under the name of James Burrow, but at her trial her identity was disclosed. The whole episode which resulted in her conviction as a felon at the age of 13 and transportation to New South Wales was probably no more than a high-spirited escapade attributable to lack of parental control, for her parents were dead and she lived with her grandmother. She arrived in Sydney in the Royal Admiral in October 1792 and was assigned as a nursemaid in the household of Major Francis Grose. On 7 September 1794 she married in Sydney Thomas Reibey, a young Irishman in the service of the East India Co., whom she had met in the transport and who had returned to Sydney in the Britannia that year.

Thomas Reibey (1769-1811) appears to have been the first free settler outside the military ring to trade. The first years of his married life were apparently spent on the Hawkesbury, where he acquired property and was engaged in the grain-carrying business; later he established himself near the waterside in what is now Macquarie Place and turned his former association with the East India Co. to advantage by importing general merchandise. He named his trading establishment Entally House, after a suburb in Calcutta. The scope of his business activity was indicated when in 1801 he became indebted to Robert Campbell senior for the sum of £160 10s., and in October 1803 he mortgaged to Campbell three Hawkesbury farms totalling 260 acres (105 ha), their buildings, crops, livestock, and boats, along with certain other property and buildings in Sydney, for a further credit advance of £150 to enable him to carry on his business. By 1803 he also owned three small boats, James, Edwin and Raven, and traded to the Hunter and Hawkesbury Rivers in coals, cedar and wheat. He entered into partnership with Edward Wills (1778?-1811) and was engaged in sealing in Bass Strait in 1805; in 1807 they bought the schooner Mercury for trade with the Pacific Islands.

During the great Hawkesbury River floods of 1806 Reibey did heroic work and saved the lives of several people. He was appointed a pilot in Port Jackson in March 1809 which suggests that he thought of giving up the sea, but in October he undertook his last voyage to China and India made necessary by losses suffered in New South Wales. He left Sydney in the Lady Barlow and returned a year later in the Mary and Sally. He died at Entally House on 5 April 1811 after a lingering illness, the origin of which was attributed to a coup de soleil which he suffered while in India. Reibey appears to have been an astute trader and kept apart from the squabbles of Governor William Bligh and his antagonists.

On the death of her husband and his partner Edward Wills a month later, Mary Reibey was left with seven children and in entire control of numerous business concerns. She was a hotel-keeper, and already had had experience in assisting her husband and managing his interests when he was absent on voyages; she soon became a very prosperous member of the group trained in the tough school of competition with American, Chinese and Indian traders. Unlike many of her contemporaries she was not litigious but proved capable of conducting her business affairs with the utmost vigour. Perhaps she preferred her own more direct methods to enforce payment of debts, for in May 1817 she was found guilty of an assault upon one of her debtors, John Walker, at Windsor.

In the eyes of her contemporaries Mary Reibey gradually rose to respectability and affluence in the new emancipist society. She was a favourite of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. She opened a new warehouse in George Street in 1812 and continued to manage her husband's ships and extended her operations by buying the John Palmer and in 1817 the brig Governor Macquarie. In 1816 she advertised for sale all her property, which included seven farms on the Hawkesbury, with the intention of returning to England. She was then said to be worth about £20,000, and by 1820 held 1000 acres (405 ha) of land, half of them by grant. In March 1820 in the Admiral Cockburn she took her daughters Celia and Eliza to England, and in Lancashire amid the scenes of her childhood she was received with interest and admiration. After her return to Sydney next year with her daughters, her affairs continued to flourish. She made extensive investments in city property. By 1828 she had erected 'many elegant and substantial buildings in Macquarie Place, near the King's Wharf, and in the centre of George Street', and was turning her attention to Castlereagh Street. She gradually retired from active business and lived on her investments.

Mary Reibey, persevering and enterprising in everything she undertook, became legendary in the colony as the successful businesswoman. She took an interest in the church, education and works of charity. In 1825 she was appointed one of the governors of the Free Grammar School. Later Bishop William Grant Broughton commended her exertions in the cause of religion generally and of the Church of England in particular. On her retirement she lived in the suburb of Newtown until her death on 30 May 1855. The peace of her later years was disturbed a little by the publication in 1845 of Rev. Richard Cobbold's book on Margaret Catchpole, which led to understandable rumours that she was the heroine of Cobbold's colourful story.

Thomas and Mary Reibey's three sons, who founded the Tasmanian branch of the family, all followed their parents' lead in mercantile and shipping ventures. The eldest son, Thomas (b. 6 May 1796), went to sea with his father and in November 1822 became a partner of his brother as a general merchant and commission agent at Launceston, trading under the name of Thomas Reibey & Co. He died at his estate, Entally, Hadspen, near Launceston, on 3 October 1842. The second son, James Haydock (b.2 October 1798), was apprenticed in 1809 to John Campbell Burton, a merchant and agent from Bengal. In the 1820s he was trading in partnership with his elder brother and engaged in sealing and other coastal shipping activities. He was one of the first directors of the Derwent and Cornwall Banks in Van Diemen's Land in 1828. He originally settled near Hobart Town but later bought a property adjoining Entally and died in 1843. Of the four Reibey daughters, the youngest, Elizabeth Ann (b.1810), married Captain Joseph Long Innes.

The surname was variously spelt as Raby, Rabey, and Reiby, but after the death of Thomas Reibey in 1811 Reibey was usually adopted by the family. (Australian Dictionary of Biography)

Mercury

On the left side is an image of Schooner "Mercury", owned by Mary Reibey.

The trading business expanded into cedar, furs and skins and, by 1807, Thomas Reibey had bought a new schooner in partnership with Edward Wills and trading was extended into the Bass Strait, the Pacific Islands and, from 1809, to China and India.

Despite her widely acknowledged business acumen and wealth, not to mention Governor Macquarie’s approval, Mary and her family could not escape the ‘convict taint’ which

excluded them from Sydney’s social elite. This may have led to Mary’s decision in 1816 to sell her 12 Hawkesbury farms and her two houses in Sydney, and briefly return to England. The recession of 1811-1812 had affected business confidence, and

the properties failed to sell at the price Mary believed they were worth.

The fallen prices did, however, allow her to enlarge her ship fleet with the

purchase of two more ships in 1817. The "Mercury" was one of them.

buildingsThe engraving on banknote is made after this official issue "Sydney in 1848" printed by D. Wall, 76 York Street, and published by J. Fowles, 5outh Harrington Street. It is illustrated by copper-plate engravings of the principal streets, public buildings, churches, chapels, etc. from drawings by Joseph Fowles.

The building on banknote in Sydney's George Street was once owned by Mary Reibey and comprised shops and dwellings.

When Thomas Reibey died on 5 April 1811, Mary assumed sole responsibility for the care of seven children and the control of numerous business enterprises. She was no stranger to this task, having managed her husband's affairs during his frequent absences from Sydney. Now a woman of considerable wealth by her husband's businesses, Mary Reibey continued to expand her business interests. In 1812 she opened a new warehouse in George Street and in 1817 extended her shipping operations with the purchase of further vessels. In the same year, the Bank of New South Wales was founded in her house in Macquarie Place (on the intersection of Bridge and Loftus Streets).

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner.

Revers:

20 Dollars 1994

FlynnThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo of John Flynn. Today this photo is in National Library of Australia.

John Flynn OBE (25 November 1880 - 5 May 1951) was an Australian Presbyterian minister who founded what became the Royal Flying Doctor Service, the world's first air ambulance.

The Very Reverend John Flynn, OBE, DD, "Flynn of the Inland" was born at Moliagul, central Victoria on 25 November, 1880.

The third child of Thomas and Rosetta, John was raised in Sydney by his mother’s sister after his mother died during childbirth. When he was five, John was reunited with his family at Snake Gully, near Ballarat.

The Flynn family later moved to Sunshine in Melbourne's western suburbs. Here John first heard romantic tales about Australia's vast outback when his father's business partners mounted an unsuccessful business venture to the far north of the country.

Graduating from secondary school in 1898 John began school teaching. In 1903, he joined the ministry and studied theology at Ormond College, at the University of Melbourne. Initially he financed his studies working at Church Home Missionary Centers around Victoria and in 1907 commenced a four year course in divinity at Melbourne University. Flynn graduated in 1910 and was ordained as a Minister of the Presbyterian Church on 24 January, 1911.

Throughout his training, Flynn continued to develop an interest in working in the Outback and helped other Presbyterian Ministers like Donald Cameron and Andrew Barber with missionary work in rural and remote areas throughout Victoria and South Australia. Flynn and Barber published "The Bushman's Companion¨, a very popular book of information and hints for people in the bush. In early 1911 however, John was on the road to the real outback.

In February, John Flynn arrived at the tiny Smith of Dunesk Mission at Beltana, over 500 km. north of Adelaide, South Australia. At Beltana, he saw first hand the rigours of outback life and learnt there was no medical care available to inland residents and travelers.

Within a year he was commissioned to prepare a report on life in the Northern Territory, to be presented to the Presbyterian Church in 1912. After conferences in Melbourne and Sydney, he traveled by ship to Darwin where he visited Katherine, Bathurst Island and Adelaide River researching his paper. Flynn's report which included proposals for Inland Missions, prompted the General Assembly to act upon his recommendations and they appointed Flynn the head of a new organization, the Australian Inland Mission (AIM).

John Flynn was 51 when he married the secretary of AIM, Miss Jean Baird in 1932. The years to follow saw Australia struggle through the Great Depression and Mrs Flynn became a great support to her visionary and hard-working husband.

Flynn, was twice Moderator General of the Presbyterian Church. In May 1950, Flynn attended what was to be his last Flying Doctor Council meeting; sadly he died of cancer in May the following year. Flynn was cremated and his ashes placed at rest under the Flynn Memorial, just west of Alice Springs at Mount Gillen - the very center of the vast territory to which he brought communication, medical comfort and pastoral care.

The burial service for Flynn was linked up to the Flying Doctor network and was heard at remote stations and settlements across the outback.

The RFDS and the AIM are working testimonials to Flynn's drive and vision.

Flynn once said "If you start something worthwhile - nothing can stop it."

A former Governor General of Australia, Sir William Slim once said of Flynn "His hands are stretched out like a benediction over the Inland." (Royal Flying Doctor Service)

Patrol Padres

Right of Flynn's portrait is the image based on a photograph taken of Reverend Col Harland in 1919 and provided by the National Library of Australia. Reverend John Flynn purchased five camels in 1913 for his "Patrol Padres", who undertook mission work throughout central Australia.

Where does it HurtLeft of Flynn's portrait is the "Where does it Hurt?" chart, introduced in 1951.

Telehealth consultations across remote Australia have been provided by the RFDS since 1929 when the Traeger Pedal Wireless was introduced. Consultations were initially conducted in Morse code, moving to voice radio in the mid-1930s. Difficulty in reception and accurately hearing detailed message content resulted in ambiguity in describing the location of pain and other symptoms and signs. In 1951 a simple device to address this issue was developed by Sister Lucy Garlick, the flying nurse working from the Wyndham base in Western Australia: the "Where Does It Hurt Chart?".

The widespread roll out of fixed-line telephone services to remote Australia in the 1980s, followed by satellite telephone services in the mid-1990s and mobile telephone services in remote towns by the turn of the century, have consolidated the integrity of the communication system between doctor and patient. Modern communications means the doctor remains accessible regardless of location: home, office, traveling, aircraft, during aeromedical retrieval and at remote locations. Similarly, patients can speak direct to the doctor whether they are at the homestead or some distance away. Another notable benefit is that consultations are no longer held through a publicly accessible radio band but through private point-to-point telephone services. The radio telephone service remains in place for emergencies but in recent years it has rarely been used. Distance-based services are centered on the 24/7 telehealth consultation with a doctor service for those living in remote Australia.

Royal Flying Doctor tele-pharmacy services development.

In 1939 Dr Keith Sweetman, the flying doctor working from the Wyndham base in Western Australia, identified that telehealth was of limited value in the absence of pre-positioned medications for the patient to access12. He also realized that considerable radio time was being wasted by questioning the outposts as to what was available in their first aid kits. The majority had haphazard collections of patient medicines, "a first aid set augmented by this and that". He suggested standardizing the medical equipment held in remote locations so that people at those locations could self-administer treatment under the instruction of the doctor through radio consultations11. This was subsequently adopted by the RFDS Federal Council in 1942 after an inquiry conducted by Dr Simpson and Dr Vickers, including that each item be numbered to avoid confusion12. Prior to the advent of a reliable telephone service the high-frequency radio phone often distorted sound, making it difficult to hear exactly what was said. The advent of a numbered system of medications facilitated accuracy in the face of difficult communication systems.

medical chest

The RFDS medical chest has evolved over many years to cover a number of medical conditions, not just emergencies, which it would be difficult for people living and working in remote areas to otherwise treat. Apart from pharmaceuticals, the chest contains a variety of equipment including bandages and dressings of various types and sizes, hypodermic syringes and needles, a scalpel, dressing scissors, a kidney dish, urinary catheter, first aid manual and a video on how to give intramuscular injections. There are a large number of ‘prescription only’ pharmaceutical items that (as a condition of the provision of the chest) can only be dispensed on the advice of a registered RFDS medical practitioner. The use of a simple numbering system ensures that correct medications are dispensed independent of changes in brand and packaging over time.

Funding and government regulation are important considerations in tele-pharmacy. Under normal circumstances, the dispensing of medications is the province of pharmacists, with the cost to the consumer at times subsidised through government or private insurance schemes. For those living in remote areas where few pharmacists reside, this inevitably means travelling to a distant larger town to visit a pharmacy in person or using a mail order service. Although this may be suitable for stable chronic disease, it is unsatisfactory in the event of acute or unexpected illness. In recognition of this, government regulations in Australia specifically allow remote dispensing of the medications held in the medical chest without the services of a pharmacist. Funding is directly addressed by government sponsorship of the medical chest program, and medications are provided free of charge to the consumer on the condition the chest is assigned to a person living and working in the same location for greater than 6 months, and which is greater than 80 km from the nearest health service. Additionally, private companies such as mining and exploration, and coastal shipping may obtain the chest at cost. Each chest is registered to a specific location with the responsibility for maintaining and dispensing resting with the registered chest holder. This responsibility includes ensuring that used and expired medications are replaced in a timely fashion. In 2006 there were over 3500 medical chests throughout Australia, including 1330 in Queensland. (Rural Health History)

pedal operated generatorLeft of chart is the scheme of pedal-operated generator to power a radio receiver developed by Alfred Herman Traeger.

Traeger was keen on using bicycle pedals and on the 17th November 1928 the famous pedal generator, which produced 180 volts DC for the valve plates, was unveiled in Adelaide, and Flynn took the famous photograph.

Traeger also developed a unique typewriter which converted letters into Morse code. This was a boon to the Morse-challenged settlers. These transceivers could receive the reply by voice telephony transmitted by the more powerful base stations. Improved sets followed.

The plan for the Flying Doctor Service was conceived in 1912 by the Rev. John Flynn , superintendent of the Australian Inland Mission of the Presbyterian Church, became practical when an Adelaide electrical engineer, A.H. Traeger, developed a low-powered, portable, pedal-driven, Morse radio transmitter-receiver with a range of 300 miles. This transceiver, together with the use of aeroplanes, made possible a system of regular long-distance medical consultations and the flying of doctors to patients in emergencies.

Alfred Herman Traeger was born into a Balaclava family on 2.8.1895. At the age of 12 he constructed a telephone link between the house and a near by tool shed. Years later he obtained a diploma in electrical engineering from the “Adelaide School of Mines”. After several posts he was offered a position as an electrical mechanic at the Hannan Brothers garage in Wakefield Street.

It was here he met John Flynn for the first time I June 1925 and sold him a 600 volt generator for £29.10s. a power source for Flynn’s early radios. Flynn returned to Adelaide a year later and engaged Traeger’s help in the promotion of radio communications in the Outback. At this time camel trains, horses, and Flynn’s “Dodge” buckboard car were used for transport in these remote areas.

In November 1926 Traeger and Flynn traveled to Hermansberg Mission and established radio contact with Adelaide using copper oxide batteries to power the filaments and a 32 volt generator, for the plates. Contact with Alice Springs occurred later, due to an incorrect coil being inserted there so they were trying to receive on the wrong frequency. Eventually the test was a success and Traeger was appointed Radio Engineer for the Australian Inland Mission. This involved travel to Cloncurry and many other areas to develop radio communications.

The survivors of that era speak in glowing terms of the Traeger radio sets and the pedal generators. The frequently used phase is "Traeger opened up the Outback" Contact with the Royal Flying Doctor Service was routine, and many lives were saved. The School of the Air provided education. It became common to switch the set on in the morning and "listen in". Problems were solved and advice given. Later arrival of telephone sets and direct private communication was therefore not popular. However the recent popularity of "Outback" travel and exploration, has resulted in the fitting of Flying Doctor mobile radios in private 4wds. Which may be used outside the coverage of the mobile net. (South Australian Medical Heritage Society Inc)

air ambulance VictoryOn the left side in an image of biplane "Victory". The air ambulance Victory flew the first Flying Doctor mission from Cloncurry, Queensland, on 17 May 1928 after Qantas entered into a unique venture with Reverend John Flynn of the Australian Inland Mission Service.

In 1917 Flynn received an inspirational letter from Lieutenant Clifford Peel, a Victorian medical student with an interest in aviation. The young airman and war hero suggested the use of aviation to bring medical help to the Outback. Shot down in France, he died at just 24 years of age and never knew that his letter became a blueprint for the creation of the Flying Doctor Service.

Inspired by Clifford Peel about the potential of aviation for bringing medical assistance to the bush, the Rev Flynn began a campaign within the Presbyterian Church to find the money to buy an aircraft for the Australian Inland Mission (AIM). When H.V.McKay, founder of the Sunshine Harvester Company, left a large bequest to AIM for an "aerial experiment", Flynn was determined to get his idea off the ground. His acquaintance with Hudson Fysh, a WWI fighter pilot who founded QANTAS, helped him to do just that. In 1927, QANTAS and the Aerial Medical Service signed an agreement to operate an aerial ambulance from Cloncurry, Queensland.

When the first pilot of service took off from Cloncurry on 17 May 1928, he was flying a single engine, timber and fabric bi-plane named "Victory" (leased by QANTAS for two shillings per mile flown). He had with him the very first of our flying doctors, Dr Kenyon St Vincent Welch.

The aircraft had the cabin, capable of carrying a pilot and four passengers at a cruising speed of just under 80 miles per hour. "Victory", was greeted at the Julia Creek airstrip by more than 100 people. The distance traveled was 85 miles. "Victory" went on to fly 110,000 miles in the service of the Flying Doctor until 1934, when it was replaced by QANTAS with a DH83 Fox Moth.

The first pilot, Arthur Affleck, had no navigational aids, no radio and only a compass. He navigated by landmarks such as fences, rivers, river beds, dirt roads or just wheel tracks and telegraph lines. He also flew in an open cockpit, fully exposed to the weather, behind the doctor's cabin. Airstrips were, at best, claypans or, at the worst, hastily cleared paddocks.

Flights were normally made during daylight hours although night flights were attempted in cases of extreme urgency. Fuel supplies were also carried on flights until fuel dumps were established at certain strategic outstations. (Royal Flying Doctor Service)

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner.

Comments:

Designer: Garry Emery.

Those discrete to this note include:

(a) Microprint is very small but well-defined text that usually requires a magnifying glass to read. The words "TWENTY DOLLARS" are microprinted on the $20 banknote.

(b) When the banknote is held up to the light, a seven-pointed star within a circle is formed by four points on one side of the banknote combining perfectly with three points on the other side.

(c) On all genuine banknotes the window should be very clear and look like it's an integral part of the banknote, not an addition. Inside the clear window on the $20 banknote is an image of a compass, along with embossing of the number "20".

(d) Multi-coloured and multi-directional patterns of fine lines appear on each side of the banknote.

(e) Under ultraviolet light, the serial numbers on the back of the $20 banknote glow and a patch showing the value of the banknote becomes visible.

(f) When the banknote is held up to the light, an image of the Australian Coat of Arms can be seen faintly, under other printing.

(g) Intaglio is raised dark printing with a distinct feel. It's used for the portraits on banknotes and some other design elements.