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500 Pesos 1984, Mexico

in Krause book Number: 79b
Years of issue: 07.08.1984
Edition: 137 400 000
Signatures: Unknown signature
Serie: 1981 Issue
Specimen of: 14.03.1983
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 157 x 67
Printer: Banco de México, Mexico

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

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500 Pesos 1984

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500 Pesos 1984

maderoThe engraving on banknote is made after the photo of Francisco Madero.

Francisco Indalecio Madero González (Spanish pronunciation: [30 October 1873 - 22 February 1913) was a Mexican statesman, writer, and revolutionary who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until his assassination in 1913. An advocate for social justice and democracy, Madero was instrumental in creating the revolutionary movement that began in 1910 and led to the fall of the dictatorship of then-president, Porfirio Diaz.

Born into a wealthy landowning family in northern Mexico, Madero was the prototypical upper-class politician. In his 1908 book entitled The Presidential Succession in 1910, Madero called on voters to prevent the sixth reelection of Porfirio Díaz, which Madero considered anti-democratic. His vision would lay the foundation for a democratic, XX-century Mexico but without polarizing the social classes. To that effect, he funded the Anti-Reelectionist Party (later the Progressive Constitutional Party) and incited the Mexican people to rise up against Díaz, which ignited the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Arrested by the dictatorship shortly after being declared Presidential candidate by his party, the opposition leader escaped from prison and launched the Plan of San Luis Potosí from the United States, in this manner beginning the Mexican Revolution.

Following the resignation of Díaz from the presidency on 25 May 1911 after the signing of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Madero became the highest political leader of the country. Known as "Maderistas", Madero's followers referred to him as the "caudillo de la Revolución" (leader of the Revolution). He was elected president on 15 October 1911 by almost 90% of the vote. Sworn into office on 6 November 1911, he became one of Mexico's youngest elected presidents having just turned 38. Despite considerable popularity amongst the people, Madero's administration soon encountered opposition both from more radical revolutionaries and from remnants of the former regime. In February 1913, a military coup took place in the Mexican capital led by General Victoriano Huerta, the military commander of the city. Madero was arrested and a short time later assassinated along with his Vice-President, José María Pino Suárez on 22 February 1913, following the series of events known as the Ten Tragic Days (la Decena Tragica). The death of Madero and Pino Suárez led to a national and international outcry which eventually paved the way for the fall of the Huerta Dictatorship, the triumph of the Mexican Revolution and the establishment of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico under maderista President Venustiano Carranza.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words centered.

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500 Pesos 1984

Piedra del Sol

The Aztec calendar stone, Sun Stone, or Stone of the Five Eras is a late post-classic Mexica sculpture saved in the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City, and is perhaps the most famous work of Aztec sculpture.

The stone is 358 centimetres (11.75 ft) in diameter and 98 centimetres (3.22 ft) thick, and it weighs about 24 tons. Shortly after the Spanish Conquest, the monolithic sculpture was buried in the Zócalo, or main square of Mexico City. It was rediscovered on December 17, 1790 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral. Following its rediscovery, the Calendar Stone was mounted on an exterior wall of the Cathedral, where it remained until 1885.

The sculpted motifs that cover the surface of the stone refer to central components of the Mexica cosmogony.

In the center of the monolith is the face of the solar deity, Tonatiuh, which appears inside the glyph for "movement" (Nahuatl: "ollin"), the name of the current era. The central figure is shown holding a human heart in each of his clawed hands, and his tongue is represented by a stone sacrificial knife (Tecpatl), expressing the need for sacrifices to allow the sun to continue moving across the sky.

The exact purpose and meaning of the Calendar Stone are unclear. Archaeologists and historians have proposed numerous theories, and it seems likely that there are many aspects to the stone.

Although it is known as the "Calendar Stone," modern archaeologists, such as those at the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City, believe it is more likely to have been used primarily as a ceremonial basin or ritual altar for gladiatorial sacrifices, than as an astrological or astronomical reference.

One aspect of the stone is its religious significance. One theory is that the face at the center of the stone represents Tonatiuh, the Aztec deity of the sun. It is for this reason that the stone became known as the "Sun Stone." Richard Townsend proposed a different theory, claiming that the figure at the centre of the stone represents Tlaltecuhtli, the Mexica earth deity who features in Mexica creation myths.

Another feature of the stone relates to time, hence the name, "Calendar Stone." Some of the circles of glyphs are the glyphs for the days of the month. Further, some of the symbols may represent the five ages that the Mexica believed the earth had passed through. Yet another characteristic of the stone may be its geographic significance. The four points may relate to the four corners of the earth or the cardinal points. The inner circles may express space as well as time. Moreover, there is the political aspect of the stone. It may have been intended to show Tenochtitlan as the center of the world and therefore, as the center of authority.

On the background is a bas-relief from Stone of Tizoc.

Stone of Tizoc

The Stone of Tizoc, Tizoc Stone or Sacrificial Stone is a large, round, carved Aztec stone, rediscovered on 17 December 1791. It is thought to have been a quauhxicalli, in which the hearts of victims of sacrifice were placed.

The stone is made out of Basalt and measures .88 meters deep by 2.67 meters wide.

The stone shows a depiction Texcatlipoca, a major Aztec god, holding the patron gods of other places by the hair. Aztec glyphs give the name of the conquered place, which may have already been conquered, or is considered divinely ordained to be conquered. The toponyms are written in a mixture of logographic and syllabic signs. One of the figures, however, is identified as Tizoc, the Aztec Emperor from 1481 to 1486, who is dressed in the costume of the god Huitzilopochtli and named with his name glyph. This has led to the stone's association with Tizoc. The stone also depicts the stars at the top rim, emphasizing the heavens and triangular points at the bottom edge represent the earth. The warriors carved into the stone are holding the hair of their enemies gods, which represented submission and defeat in the Aztec culture.

The Stone of Tizoc may have been used as a means of sacrifice or for the use of mock battles between a group of warriors and the victim, who was tied to the stone and given a feathery club while the warriors had sharp swords or clubs. The importance of the Stone of Tizoc is that it was used during the human sacrifices, which Tizoc the emperor wanted glorified through his name. Also, the emperor of the Aztecs would tend to conceive his children on this rock, soaking in the blood of his enemies.

Tizoc was the seventh emperor of the Tenochtitlán empire after his brother, Axayacatl, died in 1481. The Stone depicts Tizoc's image all over the stone; this was a way to glorify Tizoc's reign despite the many failed battles and military strategies. The Stone of Tizoc has become a staple of Aztec history along with the Aztec Calendar Stone. The Aztec sacrifice was held at the top of temples on specially chosen mountains such as Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan in which priests had the victims tied to a large, flat stone and then proceeded to cut their hearts out, lifting it up to the sun as an offering. The bodies were either thrown down the temple stairs or the heads were impaled on a rack, also known as a tzompantli.

Sacrifices had begun in the Aztec culture as a form of worship to the gods that demanded payment for creating humanity. The capital of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan, held thousands of sacrifices which involved men, women, and children.

Sacrifices were held to honor the gods such as: Huitzilopochtli, the god of sacrifice and war, Tlaloc, the god of rain and fertility, Tezcatlipoca, the chief god of the Aztecs, and Quetzalcoatl, the god of education, priesthood, and civilization.

The stone is currently in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City.

Centered, lower, is an emblem of Bank of Mexico. On the right side is a seal of Bank of Mexico.

Denominations in numerals are repeated in three corners, in words in lower left corner.

Comments:

UV fibers fluoresce green and blue.