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5 Pesos 1972, Mexico

in Krause book Number: 62c
Years of issue: 27.06.1972
Edition: 91 500 000
Signatures: Unknown signature
Serie: 1969 - 1974 Issue
Specimen of: 03.12.1969
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 157 x 67
Printer: Banco de México, Mexico

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Pesos 1972

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5 Pesos 1972

María Josefa Crescencia Ortiz Téllez-Girón, popularly known as Doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez or La Corregidora (April 19, 1773 - March 2, 1829) was an insurgent and supporter of the Mexican War of Independence, which fought for independence against Spain, in the early XIX century. She was married to Miguel Domínguez, corregidor of the city of Querétaro, hence her nickname.

Ortiz de Domínguez was the daughter of don Juan José Ortiz; a captain of Los Verdes regiment, and his wife doña Manuela Girón Ortiz was born in Valladolid (today Morelia, Michoacán). Her godmother was doña Ana María de Anaya. Ortiz's father was killed in a battle during her infancy and her mother died soon after. María Sotera Ortiz, Josefa's sister, took care of her upbringing and managed to secure a place for her in the prestigious Colegio de las Vizcaínas in 1789. She married Miguel Domínguez, a frequent visitor to the college, on January 24, 1791 in Mexico City.

In 1802, Miguel Domínguez was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain to the office of "Corregidor" (a magistrate) in the city of Querétaro. During that period, Ortiz de Domínguez took care of household chores and the education of their 14 children. Ortiz de Domínguez developed an early sympathy for the Amerindian, mestizo and the criollo community who were oppressed by the Spanish colonial government. Amerindian people were oppressed; mestizos and criollos were often seen as second-class citizens and were relegated to secondary roles in the administration of the colony. This obviously created discontent among many criollos who soon started to organize secret and literary societies where works of the Enlightenment banned by the Roman Catholic Church were discussed. Ortiz de Domínguez herself attended some of the early meetings and eventually convinced her husband to organize a number of political meetings in their house. The meetings, attended by educated figures including Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende, quickly turned to revolutionary issues.

The overthrow of King Ferdinand VII of Spain as a result of the Peninsular War in Spain suddenly increased the prospect of independence for the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The meetings in Ortiz de Domínguez's house became the official location of the revolutionary conspiracy and much of the insurgent planning was carried out there, including gathering weapons and supplies and storing them in various houses. The beginning of the revolution was planned for December 8, 1810. However, on September 13, the conspirators were betrayed by a supporter, who informed the Spanish colonial authorities about rebel activities in Querétaro. Unaware of his wife's allegiance, Miguel Domínguez was asked to conduct a house search in the town in order to apprehend the rebel leaders. He imprisoned Ortiz de Domínguez in her room to prevent her from exchanging information with her fellow conspirators.

The rebels had a large following, and Ortiz de Domínguez eventually managed to get a warning out through the town mayor, Don Ignacio Pérez. The news allowed the leaders of the conspiracy to abandon the town and prompted Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla to declare war against the Spanish colonial authorities, in which he made a speech to his followers known as Grito de Dolores ("Cry of Dolores"), in the early morning of September 16 of 1810, an event that signaled the start of the Mexican War of Independence.It honors all of those who fought and who died for Mexico.

Eventually, the role of Ortiz de Domínguez and her husband played in the conspiracy was uncovered. They were imprisoned separately. She was sent to the monastery of Santa Clara, in Querétaro, and then to Mexico City to stand trial. Despite her husband's efforts as her lawyer, she was found guilty and placed in reclusion in the monastery of Santa Teresa. Due to her rebellious character, she was soon transferred to the convent of Santa Catalina de Sena. Ortiz de Domínguez was released in 1817, under an oath that she would refrain from supporting the rebellion.

After the war of independence in 1822, Mexican Emperor Agustín de Iturbide offered Ortiz de Domínguez the role of lady-in-waiting for his wife, Ana María de Huarte y Muñiz. However, Ortiz de Domínguez believed the establishment of a Mexican Empire, instead of a Republic, was against the ideals she had fought for during the revolutionary period, and she refused the honor. In 1823, she was designated a "woman of honor" by the empress, a tribute which she also denounced.

During the late years of her life, Ortiz de Domínguez was involved with several radical political groups. She always refused any reward from her involvement in the independence movement arguing that she was only doing her duty as a patriot.

Ortiz de Domínguez died in 1829, in Mexico City. She was originally buried in the convent of Santa Catalina de Sena, but later her remains were moved to Querétaro. The government of Querétaro declared her "Benemérita del Estado".

Lower is a stylized Northern crested caracara with Crotalus viridis snake from Mexican coat of arms.

The northern crested caracara (Caracara cheriway), also called the northern caracara and crested caracara, is a bird of prey in the family Falconidae. It was formerly considered conspecific with the southern caracara (C. plancus) and the extinct Guadalupe caracara (C. lutosa) as the "crested caracara". It has also been known as the Audubon's caracara. As with its relatives, the northern caracara was formerly placed in the genus Polyborus. Unlike the Falco falcons in the same family, the caracaras are not fast-flying aerial hunters, but are rather sluggish and often scavengers.

Crotalus viridis (Common names: prairie rattlesnake, western rattlesnake, plains rattlesnake, and others) is a venomous pit viper species native to the western United States, southwestern Canada, and northern Mexico.

Under them is a cactus Nopalea cochenillifera (also from mexican coat of arms).

Nopalea cochenillifera (Linnaeus) Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849: 64. 1850 (as coccinellifera).

Nopal chamacuero, cochineal nopal cactus, tunita.

Cactus cochenilliferus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 468. 1753 (as cochenillifer); Opuntia cochenillifera (Linnaeus) Miller.

Shrubs or trees to 4-5 m; trunks 15-20 cm diam. Stem segments linear to narrowly obovate, some-times slightly falcate, (10-)15-35(-50)×5-15 cm; areoles 2-3+ cm apart, 2-5 mm diam.; wool tawny, whitening with age. Spines usually absent or 1(-3), particularly on older pads, straight or curved, brown, aging gray, stout, to 2 cm. Glochids inconspicuous. Flowers 4-7 cm; inner tepals spatulate; crowded pink filaments and white style much longer than tepals, to 15 mm; nectar chamber elliptic to obconic. Fruits ellipsoid, 25-40×20-25 mm; areoles well distributed. Seeds tan to gray, 3-5×1.5-3 mm, slightly pubescent. 2n=22 (Mexico, Puerto Rico as an escape).

Flowering winter (Sep-Mar). Hammocks, fields, sandy soils; 0 m; introduced; Fla.; Mexico; West Indies (Cuba, Puerto Rico); Central America (Panama).

The stem segments, or pads, of Nopalea cochenillifera are used as food, fodder, and poultices, and for rearing cochineal insects to obtain a red dye (once a major industry). This species may have been selected for spinelessness in Mexico, much like Opuntia ficus-indica, to ease the culturing and collection of cochineal scale insects for red dye. (Flora of North America)

Denominations in numerals are in three corners and centered, in words centered.

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5 Pesos 1972

Pattern on background.

Queretaro

Centered is a view at city Santiago de Querétaro in XIX century.

Santiago de Querétaro is the capital and largest city of the state of Querétaro, located in central Mexico. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío. It is located 213 kilometers (132 mi) northwest of Mexico City, 63 kilometers (39 mi) southeast of San Miguel de Allende and 200 kilometers (120 mi) south of San Luis Potosí. The city of Querétaro is divided into seven boroughs: Josefa Vergara y Hernández, Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Centro Histórico, Cayetano Rubio, Santa Rosa Jáuregui, Félix Osores Sotomayor and Epigmenio González. In 1996, the historic center of Querétaro was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Querétaro has repeatedly been recognized as the metro area with the best quality of life and as the safest city in Mexico and also as the most dynamic in Latin America. It is a strong business and economic center and a vigorous service city that is experiencing an ongoing social and economic revitalization.

On the foreground is the city aqueduct.

On October 17, 1738, the city of Querétaro exploded in a frenzy. Enthusiastic crowds from every class of society filled the streets with colorful processions, overjoyed to see water bubbling from fountains all over the colonial city.

A jubilant group of Indians gathered outside the mansion of the Marqués del Villar del Aguila - the guiding force behind the spectacular aqueduct that had, at last, brought fresh water to the parched city. To the sound of the teponaxtle, or native drum, they regaled residents with songs of praise for the recently deceased marquis, including verses extolling the role of the indigenous peoples in the project and in the life of colonial Querétaro.

As chief benefactors of Las Capuchinas convent, the marquis and marquesa had heeded the requests of the concerned sisters for a supply of clean water for the growing city.

Twelve years earlier he had provided funds for a long aqueduct to bring in spring water from the ancient settlement of La Cañada, some nine kilometers distant, personally supervising the construction and even laying stones with his own hands.

Although the first section of the channel traveled underground, the final length of the waterway ran atop a long arcade that stretched almost five kilometers down into the valley where the city lay. The aqueduct terminated at La Caja de Agua, a cistern near the hillside monastery of Santa Cruz, which released water under pressure to a dozen public fountains and some 60 private ones in the city, many of them located in its numerous cloisters and also provided through the generosity of the Marqués.

Recently restored to pristine condition, the elevated structure is of Roman dimensions, comprising some 74 arches, some as high as 30 meters. Although it no longer carries municipal water, the colonial aqueduct ­ one of the most ambitious hydraulic projects of the colonial era in Mexico ­ is an imposing sight as it sweeps into the city from the surrounding hills. (Exploring colonial Mexico)

On the right side, presumably, is Temple and former Convent of Santa Cruz.

Santa Cruz

This temple is dedicated to a cross from the quarry s. XVI Chichimecas carved by hand, which represents which saw the founding of the city in the battle for the hill Sangremal after 8 hours of fighting on July 25, 1531. The convent was the first ecclesiastical college of Propaganda Fide in America. Hence, many missionaries came as Fray Junipero Serra, the builder of the Franciscan missions of Sierra Gorda and the Alta California. It has also been of great importance for the history of the country served as a prison for Don Miguel Dominguez, Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez and Epigmenio Gonzales during the conspiracy; Iturbide was taken to end the colonial regime in Queretaro, Maximilian was barracks and afternoon during his first imprisonment in Queretaro site.

Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to many bands and tribes of nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited northern modern-day Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe people living outside settled, agricultural areas. The name and its pejorative sense was adopted by the Spanish. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. They had no fixed dwelling places, lived by hunting, wore no clothes and fiercely resisted foreign intrusion into their territory, which happened to contain silver mines the Spanish wished to exploit.

Lower, on the left side, and centered are Agave americana.

Agave americana

Agave americana, common names centuryplant, maguey, or American aloe, is a species of flowering plant in the family Agavaceae, originally native to Mexico, Arizona, and Texas but cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. It has become naturalized in many regions including the West Indies, parts of South America, the Mediterranean Basin, parts of Africa, India, China, Korea, Thailand, New Zealand, Australia, and an assortment of oceanic islands.

Agave americana is cultivated as an ornamental plant for the large dramatic form of mature plants - for modernist, drought tolerant, and desert style cactus gardens - among many planted settings. The plants can be evocative of XVIII-XIX-century Spanish colonial and Mexican provincial eras in the Southwestern United States, California, and xeric Mexico.

By the name of this plant was named Mexico, which means "place of agave" (from the words of the ancient Aztecs, who inhabited Mexico, "metl" - "agave").

In lower left corner is the seal of Bank of Mexico. In top right corner is an emblem of Bank of Mexico.

Denominations in numerals are in three corners, in words at the top.

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Designer: Santana.