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1 Kroon 1992, Estonia

in Krause book Number: 69a
Years of issue: 20.06.1992
Edition:
Signatures: President: Rein Otsason, Noukogu Liige: R. Hagelberg
Serie: 1992 Issue
Specimen of: 1992
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 x 70
Printer: American Bank Note Company, New - York

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Kroon 1992

Description

Watermark:

1 Kroon 1992

Pikk Hermann or Tall Hermann (Langer Hermann) is a tower of the Toompea Castle, on Toompea hill in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

Avers:

1 Kroon 1992

1 Kroon 1992

The engraving on banknote is based after this portrait of Kristjan Raud by Estonian painter Eduard Wiiralt, 1939.

Kristjan Raud (properly Kristian Raud, 22 October [O.S. 10 October] 1865 - 19 May 1943) was an Estonian painter and draughtsman, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting..

His parents were Jaan Raud and Henriette Loviisa Raud. Kristian had a twin brother (Paulus; Paul Raud) who was born on 23 October and would become a painter as well.

He is most famous for his pencil and carbon drawings, having also illustrated the Estonian national epic Kalevipoeg.

Raud is buried at the Rahumäe cemetery in Tallinn.

Denomination in numeral is in top left corner, centered in numeral and in words.

Revers:

1 Kroon 1992

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Toompea Castle (Estonian: Toompea loss) is a castle on Toompea hill in the central part of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The castle, an ancient stronghold site in use since at least the IX century, today houses the Parliament of Estonia.

According to a myth, the whole hill of Toompea was made by the Linda, who built it boulder-by-boulder with her own hands. For reasons associated with this legend, Tallinn is sometimes traditionally referred to as Lyndanisse ("The nipple of Linda") in Estonian. The more prosaic truth is that settlers during the time of ancient Estonia made use of the natural hill as an easily defended stronghold. Over time, the place also developed into a commercial hub. It was probably one of the first inhabited areas of what later became Tallinn.

In 1219, the castle was taken over by Danish crusaders - led by Valdemar II. According to a popular Danish legend, the very first flag of Denmark (Dannebrog) fell from the sky during a critical stage of the battle (known as the Battle of Lyndanisse). This first proper castle was referred to as the "Castle of the Danes", in Latin Castrum Danorum and in Estonian Taanilinnus. From the latter, the modern name of the city of Tallinn is possibly derived (see Modern name of Tallinn).

In 1227, the castle was taken over by the Order of the Brethren of the Sword, who initiated rebuilding schemes. The castle they started building is to a large extent the castle that is visible today. The castle again befell the Danes just ten years later, but was sold to the Teutonic Order in 1346, and would remain in their hands for the remainder of the Middle Ages.

As the crusading Teutonic Order was a religious order, the castle came to resemble a monastery in several ways. It included a chapel, a chapter house and a dormitory for the knights. The order was also responsible for erecting the still visible towers of the church, including "Pilsticker" (translated as "arrow-sharpener"), "Stür den Kerl" ("ward off the enemy"), "Landskrone" ("crown of the land") and the probably most famous, "Pikk Hermann", "Tall Hermann".

Tall Hermann is 95 meters (312 ft.) tall and dominates the castle skyline. The flag of Estonia is hoisted at the top of the tower every day at sunrise, to the sound of the national anthem, and lowered at sunset.

With the upheavals of the Livonian War during the XVI century, the crusader orders formerly dominating the present-day Baltic states were dissolved and the region became contested by Sweden, Poland and Russia. By 1561, northern Estonia had become a Swedish dominion. The Swedes transformed the castle from a crusaders' fortress into a ceremonial and administrative center of political power in Estonia, a purpose the castle has served ever since.

The assembly hall of the Parliament of Estonia is the only expressionist parliament assembly hall in the world

In 1710, Sweden lost the territory of modern-day Estonia to the Russian Empire. The Russian administration eventually carried out large reconstruction schemes and turned the castle definitively into a palace. A new dominating wing in Baroque and Neoclassical style, designed by Johann Schultz, was added in the eastern part of the castle complex. It housed the administration of the Governorate and the living quarters of the governor. During the czarist era, a public park was also laid out to the south-east of the castle, and an archive building erected nearby.

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Following the Estonian Declaration of Independence in 1918, a building to house the parliament of the republic was erected at the site of the former convent building of the Teutonic Order. It was finished in 1922, and designed by architects Eugen Habermann and Herbert Johanson. Although its exterior is traditionalist, the interior is Expressionist in style - the world's only Expressionist parliament building.

Denomination in numeral is in lower left corner. Centered, at the top, in numeral and in words, just in words in lower right corner.

Comments:

I got this banknote in Tallinn, in January 1997.

On the right-hand side of the banknote there is a watermark depicting the Tall Hermann Tower of Toompea Castle.

The paper of the banknotes contains security fibres of different colour.

Each note contains a security strip.

Each banknote has a seven-digit serial number printed in black.

Security strip.

The Sketches of the bills in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 100 Krooni are made by artists Urmas Ploomipuu and Vladimir Taiger. On banknotes are depicted cultural and architectural monuments in Estonia.