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1 Rupee 1960, Sri Lanka

in Krause book Number: 56c
Years of issue: 18.08.1960
Edition: 20 000 000
Signatures: Felix Reginald Dias Bandaranaike, D. W. Rajapatirana
Serie: 1956 Issue
Specimen of: 30.07.1956
Material: 100% raw cotton
Size (mm): 110 х 60
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Rupee 1960

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The Sri Lanka Lion (Panthera leo sinhaleyus), also known as the Ceylon Lion, was a prehistoric subspecies of lion, endemic to Sri Lanka. It appears to have become extinct prior to the arrival of culturally modern humans, c. 37,000 years BC.

This lion is only known from two teeth found in deposits at Kuruwita. Based on these teeth, P. Deraniyagala erected this subspecies in 1939. However, there is insufficient information to determine how it might differ from other subspecies of lion. Deraniyagala did not explain explicitly how he diagnosed the holotype of this subspecies as belonging to a lion, though he justified its allocation to a distinct subspecies of lion by its being "narrower and more elongate" than those of recent lions in the British Natural History Museum collection.

Avers:

1 Rupee 1960

On the left side is an emblem of Dominion Ceylon (1948 - 1972).

coat

The emblem was not strictly in the heraldic tradition, however was granted by the College of Arms in 1954. It was derived from the Royal Banner of the Kandyan Kingdom. It largely reflected the Buddhist traditions of the Sinhalese people. At its center had a disk with a gold lion passant holding a sword (here called the Ceylon lion) in its right fore paw, on a maroon background, was taken from the Royal Banner of the Kandyan Kingdom.

The Sri Lanka Lion (Panthera leo sinhaleyus), also known as the Ceylon Lion, was a prehistoric subspecies of lion, endemic to Sri Lanka. It appears to have become extinct prior to the arrival of culturally modern humans, c. 37,000 years BC.

This lion is only known from two teeth found in deposits at Kuruwita. Based on these teeth, P. Deraniyagala erected this subspecies in 1939. However, there is insufficient information to determine how it might differ from other subspecies of lion. Deraniyagala did not explain explicitly how he diagnosed the holotype of this subspecies as belonging to a lion, though he justified its allocation to a distinct subspecies of lion by its being "narrower and more elongate" than those of recent lions in the British Natural History Museum collection.

Around it were the golden petals of a water lily and topped with the crown ensigning the roundel is called the Ceylon crown; it follows the design of the crown worn by the kings of Kandy. The crown apparently symbolized Queen Elizabeth as Head of State of Ceylon, and it disappeared from the country's arms after change of status to a republic.

On the banner below is an inscription "Ceylon" (three times) in Indian, Ceylonese and English languages.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners, in words in lower corners and centered.

Revers:

1 Rupee 1960

Vatadage Vatadage

An entrance of the Polonnaruwa Vatadage.

The Polonnaruwa Vatadage is an ancient structure dating back to the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa of Sri Lanka. It is believed to have been built during the reign of Parakramabahu I to hold the Relic of the tooth of the Buddha or during the reign of Nissanka Malla of Polonnaruwa to hold the alms bowl used by the Buddha. Both these venerated relics would have given the structure a great significance and importance at the time. Located within the ancient city of Polonnaruwa, it is the best preserved example of a vatadage in the country, and has been described as the 'ultimate development' of this type of architecture. Abandoned for several centuries, excavation work at the Polonnaruwa Vatadage began in 1903.

Built for the protection of a small stupa, the structure has two stone platforms decorated with elaborate stone carvings. The lower platform is entered through a single entrance facing the north, while the second platform can be accessed through four doorways facing the four cardinal points. The upper platform, surrounded by a brick wall, contains the stupa. Four Buddha statues are seated around it, each facing one of the entrances. Three concentric rows of stone columns had also been positioned here, presumably to support a wooden roof. The entire structure is decorated with stone carvings. Some of the carvings at the Polonnaruwa Vatadage, such as its sandakada pahanas, are considered to be the best examples of such architectural features. Although some archaeologists have suggested that it also had a wooden roof, this theory is disputed by others.

Theories vary among archaeologists and historians regarding who built the Polonnaruwa Vatadage, and when. One such theory suggests that it was built by Parakramabahu I during his reign in the 12th century. The Culavamsa, an ancient chronicle, mentions that he built a circular stone shrine to hold the tooth relic of the Buddha. Archaeologist Harry Charles Purvis Bell believed that this shrine is the Polonnaruwa Vatadage. This is contradicted by several ancient sources of the island, including Rajavaliya and Poojavaliya, which mention that it was built by Nissanka Malla. However, according to the studies of Arthur Maurice Hocart, Nissanka Malla only renovated an already existing building and made some additions such as the entrance and outer porch. Wilhelm Geiger, who translated the ancient Mahavamsa, and historian H. W. Codrington both agree with this theory. A nearby stone inscription set by Nissanka Malla lists the Vatadage among his constructions. In this, he claims that it was built by one of his generals under his own direction.

A unique feature of architecture of ancient Sri Lanka, vatadages were built for the protection of small stupas that had an important relic enshrined in them or were built on hallowed ground. If the Polonnaruwa Vatadage is the shrine built by Parakramabahu I, the relic of the tooth of the Buddha would have been enshrined within it. Another possibility is that the alms bowl used by the Buddha may have been enshrined here. Both these relics were important objects in ancient Sri Lankan culture, and would have made the Polonnaruwa Vatadage one of the most significant and venerated buildings in the country. (www.muvtravel.com)

Denominations in numerals are in three corners, in words in lower left corner.

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