header Notes Collection
Top

5 Dollars 1967, Australia

in Krause book Number: 39a
Years of issue: 19.05.1967 - 1969
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia: Mr. Herbert Cole Coombs (January 1960 – July 1968), Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. R. J. Randall.
Serie: 1966 Serie
Specimen of: 1966
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 152.40 x 76.20
Printer: Note printing works at Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Melbourne (1924 - 1981)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Dollars 1967

Description

Watermark:

James Cook

Captain James Cook, The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, The Royal Navy (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Avers:

5 Dollars 1967

 Sir Joseph BanksSir Joseph Banks, Bt. By Anthony Cardon (1772-1813), published 1 January 1810 by "T. Cadell and W.Davies, Strand, London", after William Evans, after Sir Thomas Lawrence (13 April 1769 - 7 January 1830), stipple engraving. Owned by famous antiquarian and engraver Samuel Lysons FRS (1763 - June 1819).

Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, GCB, PRS (24 February [O.S. 13 February] 1743 - 19 June 1820)[1] was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.

Born in London into a wealthy family, on 13 February 1743, Joseph Banks received his earliest education at home under private tuition. At age nine he attended Harrow School and was then enrolled at Eton School which he attended from the age of 13 until 18. In 1760 he entered Christ Church at Oxford University as a gentlemen commoner. His passion for botany and dedication to Linnean precepts had developed to such an extent that, unable to study botany at Oxford, Banks employed a private tutor, Isaac Lyons, from Cambridge. As was usual for members of his social class, Banks did not take out a degree. He came down from Oxford in 1763 an independently wealthy man following the death of his father in 1761.

As an independent naturalist, Banks participated in a voyage to Newfoundland and Labrador in 1767. Although he did not publish an account of this expedition, he allowed others full use of his collection. In the same year he was elected a Fellow of both the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquities. In 1778 he was elected President of the Royal Society, a position he held with varying degrees of support, until his death in 1820. He remains the longest serving President in the history of the Royal Society, founded almost 350 years ago.

He successfully lobbied the Royal Society to be included on what was to be James Cook's first great voyage of discovery, on board the Endeavour (1768-1771). This voyage marked the beginning of Banks' lifelong friendship and collaboration with the Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, one of Linnaeus' most esteemed pupils, and the beginning of Banks' lifelong advocacy of British settlement in New South Wales. The Endeavour had sailed into Botany Bay in April 1770 and proceeded up the east coast and through Torres Strait, charting the east coast of Australia in the process.

Frustrated in his attempt at a second voyage to the South Seas, again with Cook, Banks set off in July 1772 for Iceland, his only other venture outside Europe.

From this time, Banks was actively involved in almost every aspect of Pacific exploration and early Australian colonial life. He was interested and involved in Cook's later voyages, despite his disappointing withdrawal from the seond voyage. He actively supported the proposal of Botany Bay as a site for British settlement. He proposed William Bligh to command two voyages for the transportation of breadfruit and other plants, including the ill-fated voyage on the Bounty which ended in mutiny in April 1789.

He had a role in choosing the governors of the settlement in New South Wales, founded in January 1788 with the arrival of the First Fleet. It was Banks who later recommended Bligh to succeed Philip Gidley King as the fourth Governor of New South Wales, Bligh's governorship ending in deposition during the Rum Rebellion in 1808. Banks corresponded with the first four Governors of New South Wales who, while they reported officially to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, also reported privately and therefore more intimately and openly to Banks.

Practically anyone who wanted to travel to New South Wales, in almost any capacity, consulted Sir Joseph Banks. He was the one constant throughout the first 30 years of white settlement in Australia, through changes of ministers, government and policy.

Banks organised Matthew Flinders voyage on the Investigator (1801-1803) which helped define the map of Australia. He had connections with Sir George Macartney's embassy to China (1792-1794), and with George Vancouver's epic voyage to the north-west coast of America (1791-1795).

He sent botanists to all parts of the world, including New South Wales, often at his own expense. Their collections were added to both Kew Gardens and to Banks' own collections. His collectors voyaged to the Cape of Good Hope (Francis Masson and James Bowie); West Africa (Mungo Park); the East Indies (Mungo Park); South America (Allan Cunningham); India (Anton Hove); Australia (David Burton, George Caley, Robert Brown, Allan Cunningham, George Suttor). David Nelson was sent on Cook's third voyage and Archibald Menzies was sent on Vancouver's voyage.

King George III had appointed Banks adviser to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew some time after his return from the Pacific. His informal role as governmental adviser on a range of issues was recognised in 1797 with his appointment to the Privy Council. He served as a member of the committees on trade and on coin. In his capacity as President of the Royal Society he was also involved in the activities of the Board of Longitude and the Greenwich Royal Observatory, the Board of Agriculture (founded in 1793) and the African Association (founded in 1788). He was also a Trustee of the British Museum.

In addition to the Banks family estates in Lincolnshire, Banks acquired his main London residence at 32 Soho Square in 1776. It was established as his London home and scientific base. His natural history collections were housed there and made freely available to bona fide scientists and researchers. Until his death, this house was a centre for the wider scientific community. He did not discriminate between British and foreign scientists. He was, in fact, influential in maintaining scientific relations with France, for example, during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1819 he was appointed Chairman to two committees established by the House of Commons, one to enquire into prevention of banknote forgery, the other to consider systems of weights and measures.

Banks was created a baronet in 1781 and invested Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1795. In March 1779, he had married Dorothea Hugessen (1758-1828), daughter and heiress of William Western Hugessen. They had no children.

Sir Joseph Banks died on 19 June 1820. (State Library New South Wales)

There are 18 plants shown on the front of the Australian $5.00. Here is a list of the plants described as placed on the front of the note:

Allocasuarina littoralis1) Top left is 1. Cluster of fruit from Allocasuarina littoralis or Black She-Oak.

Allocasuarina littoralis, commonly known as black sheoak, black she-oak, or river black-oak, is an endemic medium-sized Australian tree (usually up to 8 meters, but sometimes to 15 meters - coarse shrub in exposed maritime areas). A. littoralis is named for its growth near the coast; this is somewhat misleading, as it will grow well both inland and in coastal zones. The species occurs in Queensland, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, and Tasmania. It grows in woodland and sometimes in tall heath, and it grows in sandy and other poor soils.

Eucalyptus pyriformis2 and 3) Lower, large fruit and a bud of Eucalyptus pyriformis or Pear-fruited or Large-fruited Mallee.

Eucalyptus pyriformis, Pear-fruited mallee, Dowerin Rose, is a small, straggly mallee with smooth, grey or salmon-pink bark often sheeding in ribbons at the base. Juvenile leaves are stalked, alternate, ovate, to 9 x 5 cm. Adult leaves are stalked, broad-lanceolate to 9.5 x 3.2 cm, concolorous dull, grey to grey-green with a firm texture. Flowers are red or creamy white in mid winter to mid-spring. Fruit hangs on long stalks, is ribbed and funnel shaped to 4 x 5.5 cm.

The distribution is limited to the western part of the northern Western Australian wheatbelt, from north-west of Geraldton, south to Dowerin, usually on white sandplains.

E. pyriformis is distinctive for its large, pendulous buds and spectacular coloured flowers.

Bottlebrush4) Under Eucalyptus pyriformis are Long slender clusters of the fruit of Callistemon citrinus or Red Bottle Brush.

Callistemon citrinus, also known as Crimson Bottlebrush, is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to south-eastern Australia.

Callistemon citrinus grows to between 1 and 3 meters in height, Its leaves are 3 to 7 cm. long and 5 to 8 mm. wide. The veins of the leaves are clearly visible on both sides. The flower spikes are 6 to 10 cm. in length and about 4 to 7 cm. in diameter; they appear in November and December (late spring to early summer) in the species native range. The stamens are red, purplish-red, or lilac, and the anthers are dark-colored. The seed capsules, which appear in clusters along the stems, are woody, cup-shaped, and about 7 mm wide.

It is native to the states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria in Australia, occurring in the vicinity of rocky streams and near-coastal swamps. In Victoria, the species occurs in the east of the state in association with tree species including Eucalyptus globoidea and E. consideniana.

5) To the right of Callistemon citrinus is Weathered wood grain.

Eucalyptus comitae-vallis6) Under large friut of Eucalyptus pyriformis is a fruit of Eucalyptus comitae-vallis or Comet Vale Marlock.

Australian endemic. Grows in south-west part of continent.

Eucalyptus fraxinoides Eucalyptus fraxinoides7) Right of fruit Eucalyptus comitae-vallis is a cluster of fruit of Eucalyptus fraxinoides.

Eucalyptus fraxinoides, the White Ash is a eucalyptus tree of mountain country of south eastern New South Wales. Eucalyptus fraxinoides is a medium to large tree, usually 20 to 40 meters tall, sometimes with a leaning trunk. The trunk is marked with broad descending coppery coloured scribbles. The gumnuts are truncate - globose, slightly urn shaped, with a small opening. Fraxinus americana (American Ash) is also commonly referred to as White Ash.

Phebalium squamulusom8) Lower and a little to the right of Eucalyptus fraxinoides is a flower of Phebalium squamulusom (Magnified scales).

Phebalium squamulosum is a shrub or tree species which is endemic to eastern Australia. It is known by the common names Scaly Phebalium or Forest Phebalium, the latter shared with the related species Leionema ambiens. It grows to between 1 and 7 meters in height.

Telopea speciosissima9) Under seed pods of Callistemon citrinus is a large seed pod of Waratah (Telopea Speciosissima).

Telopea Speciosissima

Telopea speciosissima, commonly known as the New South Wales waratah or simply waratah, is a large shrub in the plant family Proteaceae. It is endemic to New South Wales in Australia and is the floral emblem of that state. No subspecies are recognised, but the closely related Telopea aspera was only recently classified as a separate species.

T. speciosissima is a shrub to 3 or 4 m. (10-13 ft.) high and 2 m. (7 ft.) wide, with dark green leaves. Its several stems arise from a pronounced woody base known as a lignotuber. The species is most renowned for its striking large red springtime inflorescences (flowerheads), each including hundreds of individual flowers. These are visited by the eastern pygmy possum (Cercartetus nanus), birds such as honeyeaters (Meliphagidae), and various insects.

The floral emblem for its home state of New South Wales, Telopea speciosissima has featured prominently in art, architecture, and advertising, particularly since Australian federation.

Stenocarpus sinuatus10) Above seed pod of Telopea speciosissima is the Firewheel tree.

Stenocarpus sinuatus, known as the Firewheel Tree is an Australian rainforest tree in the Protea family. The range of natural distribution is in various rainforest types from the Nambucca River (30°S) in New South Wales to the Atherton Tableland (17°S) in tropical Queensland. However, Stenocarpus sinuatus is widely planted as an ornamental tree in other parts of Australia and in different parts of the world.

Other common names include White Beefwood, Queensland Firewheel Tree, Tulip Flower, White Oak and White Silky Oak.

A medium to large tree, up to 40 meters tall and 75 cm. in trunk diameter. The bark is greyish brown, not smooth and irregular. The base of the cylindrical trunk is flanged.

Leaves alternate and variable in shape, simple or pinnatifid, the leaf margins wavy. 12 to 20 cm long. Leaf venation is clearly seen above and below the leaf. Leaves are characteristic and easily identified as part of the Protea family.

The ornamental flowers are bright red in umbels, in a circular formation, hence the name Firewheel Tree. Flowers form mostly between February to March. The fruit is a follicle, in a boat shape, 5 to 10 cm. long. Inside are many thin seeds 12 mm. long. Fruit matures from January to July.

Eucalyptus stellulata11) Directly under Firewheel Tree is small cluster of fruit of Eucalyptus stellulata or Black Sally.

Eucalyptus stellulata, commonly known as Black Sallee or Black Sally, is a high altitude tree found in south-eastern Australia. The species was described in 1828, in Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, authored by Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. The specific epithet stellulata ("star-shaped") refers to the appearance of the clustered flower buds.

Black Sallee is small to medium sized tree, up to 15 m in height. The bark is dark and rough at the base. About halfway up the tree, the bark sheds revealing smooth branches, of a yellowish olive green, somewhat oily to the touch. The juvenile leaves are opposite on the stem, round and stalk-less. Mature leaves are 50 to 90 mm. long, 13 to 25 mm. wide, lanceolate to egg shaped. The leaves are the same shade of green above and below. The leaf veins are almost parallel and glossy. The flower buds form between April and October. The fruits are stalk-less, cup shaped or truncate-globose, around 5 mm. in diameter, with three enclosed valves.

Black Sallee occurs from near the border of New South Wales and Queensland, southwards along the Great Dividing Range to the eastern highland Victoria. It is a common plant in grassy eucalyptus woodland, often near swamps and by streams. The soils are usually of a relatively good fertility.

Stenocarpus salignus12) In the very center of the design is a Blossom of Stenocarpus salignus or Beefwood.

Stenocarpus salignus, known as the Scrub Beefwood is an Australian rainforest tree in the Proteaceae family. Found in warmer rainforests on the coast and ranges. It is often found in warm temperate rainforest on poorer sedimentary soils, or on volcanic soils above 750 meters (2500 ft.) above sea level. It was originally described by the botanist Robert Brown in 1810.

Stenocarpus salignus is noticeable for the tessellated bark and the sparse foliage high in the canopy. The range of natural distribution is from Kioloa (35°S) near Batemans Bay in south coastal New South Wales, to Rockhampton, Queensland (23°S) in tropical Queensland.

Xylomelum pyriforme13) Below and to the right of Stenocarpus salignus is a blossom of Xylomelum pyriforme or Woody Pear.

Xylomelum pyriforme, commonly known as the woody pear, is a tree species in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to Australia. First documented at Botany Bay by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander in 1770, it was first described as Banksia pyriformis by German botanist Joseph Gaertner in 1788 in De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum. It was given its current name in 1809 by the gardener Joseph Knight in his On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae. The species name "pear-shaped" is derived from the Latin words pyrus "pear" and formis "shape".

Xylomelum pyriforme grows as a large shrub or small tree, usually reaching 4-5 m. (13-16 ft.) high, although trees to 15 m. (50 ft.) have been recorded in the Howes Valley northwest of Sydney. The large juvenile leaves have dentate (toothed) margins with 6 to 11 teeth along each edge, while the adult leaves have entire margins. The prominently veined leaves measure 10 to 20 cm. (4-8 in.) and are up to 5 cm. (2 in.) wide. They are glabrous (smooth) and dark green. New growth is covered in a fine rust-coloured fur. Flowering from September to November, the inflorescences measure 5 to 8 cm. (2-3.4 in.) and are rusty coloured. Flowers are followed by the development of the large, woody, pear-shaped seed pod which is up to 9 cm. (3.6 in.) long and 5 cm. (2 in.) wide.

The plant's range is from the New South Wales mid-north coast south to Mittagong, with an outlying record from the vicinity of Cooma. Xylomelum pyriforme grows on nutrient-poor well-drained sandstone soils in open eucalypt woodland. It is associated with such species as yellow bloodwood (Corymbia eximia), red bloodwood (C. gummifera), scribbly gum (Eucalyptus haemastoma), silvertop ash (E. sieberi), brown stringybark (E. capitellata), grey gum (E. punctata) and scribbly gum (E. sclerophylla).

Cladium procerum14) Below and to the left of Xylomelum pyriforme is Cladium procerum or Sedge.

Big rhizomatous perennials, forming big clumps.

Culms ± terete, smooth, glabrous, 1-2.5 m. high, 5-10 mm. diam., often branching at nodes.

Leaves with blade to 2.5 m. long, 5-20 mm wide; sheath yellow-brown at base, dull. Inflorescence big, interrupted-oblong in outline, 18-35 cm. long, 6-9 cm. diam.; involucral bracts longer than inflorescence. Spikelets often with only the lower flower bisexual, 3-5 mm. long. Glumes 5 or 6, obtuse to acute, shorter than fertile, red-brown, glabrous, about 4 lowest empty; fertile glumes 3.5-4.0 mm. long. Anthers 1.8-2.2 mm. long. Style 3-fid; style base inconspicuous at maturity.

Nut ellipsoid to ovoid, 2.0-2.5 mm. long, 1.3-2 mm. diam., glabrous, smooth, shining, mid-brown, with basal disk inconspicuous and often remaining with spikelet.

Grows in coastal swamps and margins of lakes; sporadic. Mainly along the coast, but extending inland to the Goulburn River Gorge, where it grows out of seepage lines in the sandstone rock face.

15) Below and to the right of Xylomelum pyriforme is a leaf skeleton.

Eucalyptus Virgata16) Directly to the right of Stenocarpus salignus is a cluster of fruit from either Eucalyptus Virgata or Eucalyptus leuhmannianaâ, also known as Yellow-top Ash.

Eucalyptus Virgata is an average forest tree, stated by Rodway to attain a height of over 100 feet; branchlets glaucous; bark thick, laminated, running down in ridges, friable, inner portion hard, close, compact, in cross-section, the duramen difficult to determine from the normal wood.

Fruit - Pyriform, contracted at the top; rim countersunk; valves inserted; up to 6 lines long, 3 lines in diameter.

Banksia integrifolia17) Up the top to the right, directly under the first "A" of Australia is a cluster of fruit from Banksia integrifolia or Coast Banksia.

Banksia integrifolia, commonly known as coast banksia, is a species of tree that grows along the east coast of Australia. One of the most widely distributed Banksia species, it occurs between Victoria and Central Queensland in a broad range of habitats, from coastal dunes to mountains. It is highly variable in form, but is most often encountered as a tree up to 25 meters (82 ft.) in height. Its leaves have dark green upper surfaces and white undersides, a contrast that can be striking on windy days.

It is one of the four original Banksia species collected by Sir Joseph Banks in 1770, and one of four species published in 1782 as part of Carolus Linnaeus the Younger's original description of the genus. It has had a complicated taxonomic history, with numerous species and varieties ascribed to it, only to be rejected or promoted to separate species. The taxonomy is now largely settled, with three subspecies recognised: B. integrifolia subsp. integrifolia, B. integrifolia subsp. compar and B. integrifolia subsp. monticola.

A hardy and versatile garden plant, B. integrifolia is widely planted in Australian gardens. It is a popular choice for parks and streetscapes, and has been used for bush revegetation and stabilisation of dunes. Its hardiness has prompted research into its suitability for use as a rootstock in the cut flower trade, but has also caused concerns about its potential to become a weed outside its natural habitat.

Callitris rhomboidea18) Close to the right of Joseph Banks collar (his left shoulder) are cones of Callitris rhomboidea or Oyster Bay pine.

Callitris rhomboidea, or Oyster Bay Pine, is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family. It is found only in Australia. It is native to South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, and has also naturalised in parts of Victoria and Western Australia.

The information above is from "Australian decimal banknotes" by Michael P. Vort-Roland (Mannum, S. Aust: M.P. Vort-Roland, 1985) pages 85-87.

Denominations in numeral and in words are in top corners. In words on left side.

Revers:

5 Dollars 1967

Caroline ChisholmThe engraving is made after this portrait of Caroline Chisholm by Angelo Collen Hayter, 01.09.1852. Today is in National Library of Australia.

The clothes worn by Caroline Chisholm in her portrait by Angelo Collen Hayter convey the sense of modesty and respectability often associated with day attire of the Victorian period, with the dark tones of her silk dress, shawl and cap being relieved only by the white lace cuffs and collar. During the long reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901), fashion underwent a number of changes. Generally, women’s dresses became larger and more elaborate than the light, simple garments of the XIX century’s first decades. Layers of petticoats or hooped undergarments ribbed in metal supported the wide shape of the dress.

Caroline Chisholm (30 May 1808 - 25 March 1877) was a progressive XIX century English humanitarian known mostly for her involvement with female immigrant welfare in Australia. She is commemorated on 16 May in the Calendar of saints of the Church of England. There are proposals for the Catholic Church to also recognize her as a saint.

Caroline Chisholm was known as "the emigrant’s friend" for her work with poor immigrants in the XIX century. Born in England in 1808, she moved to Australia with her husband in 1839. In Sydney, Chisholm was shocked at the conditions in which female immigrants lived. Thousands were unemployed and many slept destitute and vulnerable on the streets. Some were forced into prostitution.

Although the Government had paid for their passages to Australia, no assistance was provided for them on arrival. Chisholm persuaded the Governor to give her a building, in which the women could live. "The Female Immigrants Home" was a great success, and in the next few years she found jobs and homes for 11,000 immigrants.

Family Colonization Loan Society After two years of official indifference to her principal object, family emigration, she decided to act unaided. Her first plan for a land-ticket system was defeated by the influence in London of alarmed squatters. Next she formed a committee of wealthy London merchants and, after a lecture tour of Scotland, her Family Colonization Loan Society became a reality in 1849, with Lord Ashley president of the London central committee, branch committees throughout the British Isles and agents in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. The society received the savings of intending emigrants or their colonial relations and lent them the balance of the passage money. The Australian agents found them employment and collected the repayment of the loan by easy instalments. A reserve fund bore losses through death or default. Thanks to Baroness Burdett-Coutts, remittances from Australia were received by "Coutts & Co". to avoid the prohibitive charges of other banks. Mrs Chisholm's best-written pamphlet, The A.B.C. of Colonization (1850), denounced the landed interests and the renewed government scheme, describing in contrast her own society, founded in defiance of the squatters and with no official support.

Charles Dickens gave the society powerful aid and in 1851-52 advertised the society in Household Words, although his unsympathetic portrait of Mrs Jellyby (Bleak House) was partly drawn from Mrs Chisholm. When the first chartered ship Slains Castle sailed on 1 October 1850, she personally supervised the embarkation of passengers, placing friendless girls with families and the aged with the young. A reliable surgeon was appointed and he, not the captain, issued the rations. The Blundell and the Athenian followed, before news of the gold discoveries reached England to stimulate emigration and give the society financial security; in 1852 they dispatched six ships. Yet Mrs Chisholm feared that gold seekers would neither produce colonial stability nor create an environment suitable for her young females.

In March 1851 Captain Chisholm left for Australia to work gratuitously as colonial agent, leaving Caroline with the increasing duties in Britain. In 1852 she toured the British Isles and later Germany, France and Italy, where she visited the Pope. She agitated with some success for lower colonial postage rates and the introduction of colonial money orders. Her comments on shipboard conditions ensured the passing of the Passenger Act of 1852. A shipowner, W. S. Lindsay built for the society the Caroline Chisholm, and on her maiden voyage in September 1853 the passengers included a party of girls from the Jewish Ladies' Benevolent Society. Mrs Chisholm was now one of the most famous women in England; her portrait by Angelo Collen Hayter, of which the original was lost, hung in the Royal Academy exhibition of 1852, a panoramic picture 'Adventures of Mrs Chisholm' "sold by the thousands", and she was the subject of many poems, articles and cartoons.

When Caroline Chisholm sailed for Australia in the Ballarat in 1854, her departure was widely reported and over £900 was subscribed as a testimonial. The society then had more than £15,000 in hand and had sent out over 3000 emigrants. She arrived in Port Phillip in July: at one welcome meeting tribute was paid to Captain Chisholm, who almost alone in Australia had ensured the success of his wife's scheme. The Victorian Legislative Council voted the Chisholms £5000 and another £2500 was privately subscribed. The family was in desperate need and opened a store with some of this money, although Caroline accepted it with reluctance.

In October 1854 she toured the Victorian goldfields, and at a meeting in Melbourne in November proposed a series of shelter sheds along the routes to the diggings; with some government help ten were under construction by the end of 1855. Because of her passionate belief in the beneficial effects of a small farmer class, she agitated in support of unlocking the lands. She developed a kidney disease in 1857, and in November the family moved to Kyneton, where Archibald Chisholm, who had been promoted major on the retired list in November 1854, sat on the magistrates' bench and their two elder sons ran the store. Later Caroline had to go to Sydney for medical attention but she also gave public lectures there on the land question in 1859-61. Financial necessity forced her in July 1862 to open a girls' school at Newtown, later moved to Tempe.

Caroline Chisholm's scorn for material reward and public position contributed to the obscurity of her last years in Australia. Yet, although almost unknown to the new population of gold seekers, she saw many of her earlier aims accepted by the new society. In June 1866 the Chisholm's left for England. Granted a pension of £100, they lived first in Liverpool, then in dingy lodgings at Highgate, London. Mrs Chisholm died on 25 March 1877. Her husband died next August and was buried in the same grave at Northampton; it bears a headstone inscribed "The emigrant's friend". They were survived by three of their four sons and two daughters.

Russet-haired, tall and sweet-voiced, her serene face lit by grey eyes, Caroline Chisholm began her work accepting established conventions, but when she encountered the obstruction and indifference of officialdom, her attitude began to harden and she became an uncompromising radical, expounding her belief in universal suffrage, vote by ballot and payment of members. Herself a devoted wife and mother, she helped to give dignity to woman and family in a harsh colonial society. Her achievement was made possible by her idealism and courage allied to her executive ability and personal charm, and by the presence and unwavering support of her husband. (Australian dictionary of biography)

Sydney 1848On background are the buildings on streets of Sydney after sketches of Joseph Fowles book "Sydney in 1848".

Nearby is the top of "Shipping Gazette" article, saying about the opening by Chisholm of the "Family Colonization Loan Society".

On foreground are the women-immigrants on the meeting in front of the office of "Family Colonization Loan Society".

In top right corner is a barque "Slains Castle". The Slains Castle, commanded by Captain H.T. Andrew, was commissioned in 1850 by the Family Colonisation Loan Society to carry its first sailing of emigrants bound for Australia. In his book "Migrant Ships to South Australia 1836 - 1866" Ronald Parsons describes the Slains Castle as a 3-masted barque of 503 tons, built in London in 1836. She was owned by "Money Wigram & Co". and registered in London. Prior to this trip she had made previous voyages between England and New Zealand in 1841 under Captain James Petrie, in 1846 and later to Otago, NZ in 1852.

The "Family Colonization Loan Society" was a body, which was founded by Mrs. Caroline Chisholm, on her return to England after 7 years in Australia. It was a philanthropic organization dedicated to assisting families of an "industrious and frugal class" to make a paid passage to Australia in relative comfort and safety. It also invited persons already in Australia to sponsor relatives to join them.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners.

Comments:

Designs by Gordon Andrews were accepted and detailed design work began with the specialist firm "Organisation Giori" in Milan, Italy. New note printing machinery was obtained from the UK.

Also participated an artistic consultant of Bank of Australia Russell Drysdale.