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10 Pounds 1960, Australia

in Krause book Number: 36a
Years of issue: 1961 - 1965
Edition: 32 841 000
Signatures: Governor, Reserve bank of Australia: Mr. H. C. Coombs, Secretary to the Treasury: Mr.Roland Wilson
Serie: 1961 Issue
Specimen of: 1960
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 180.34 х 78.74
Printer: Note printing works at Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Melbourne (1924 - 1981)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Pounds 1960

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Captain James Cook, The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, The Royal Navy (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

watermark

Under each signature is an inscription: "Ten Pounds"

Avers:

10 Pounds 1960

Arthur PhillipThe engraving on banknote is, probably, made after this portrait by English portrait and landscape painter Francis Wheatley (1747 - 28 June 1801) in 1786.

Captain (later Admiral) Arthur Phillip (11 October 1738 - 31 August 1814) was the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the settlement which became Sydney.

HMS Sirius was the flagship of the First Fleet, which transported convicts and their guards from England to the new colony of Botany Bay in the late 1780s. The Sirius was commanded by Captain John Hunter and carried Arthur Phillip, the governor of the colony. The Sirius was wrecked off Norfolk Island in 1790. Its anchor and cannon were retrieved and were placed in Macquarie Place down near Circular Quay in 1907.

Arthur Phillip governed the penal colony of NSW for its first five difficult years. He ruled the colony and its 1500 inhabitants with absolute power and responsibility for its survival.

He laid the foundation for the first Government House only three months after the First Fleet landed at Sydney Cove.

The site of Sydney’s first Government House is where the Museum of Sydney now stands. One of the most significant items in the Museum of Sydney collection is an inscribed copper Foundation Plate that was laid on 15 May 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip during the construction of Australia’s first Government House. Remarkably the plate was discovered between two sandstone foundation blocks by a telegraph line worker in 1899.

Governor Phillip tried to obtain information about the Aboriginal people, their country, life and language by abducting men. Arabanoo was the first, but he died of small pox. Bennelong and Colebee were next. Bennelong travelled to England and back, and taught the settlers much about Aboriginal language and culture. Colebee became familiar with the Europeans but disappeared after 1806.

Arthur Phillip named many bays and suburbs around Sydney. Here are just a few:

1) Field of Mars (around Ryde and Eastwood)

2) Looking Glass Bay - after giving a looking glass (mirror) to an Aboriginal man they met there in the bay, whilst exploring the Parramatta River

3) Manly - The first official dispatch in 1788 from Arthur Phillip, governor of the newly founded imperial outpost in New South Wales, noted the "confidence and manly behaviour" of the Aboriginal people encountered on the northern side of the entrance to Sydney Harbour. Thus Manly derived its name.

4) Neutral Bay - Neutral Bay was named by Governor Phillip, when he decreed in 1789 that all non-British "neutral" ships visiting Port Jackson were to anchor there. (City of Sydney)

By December 1790 Phillip was ready to return to England, but the colony had largely been forgotten in London and no instructions reached him, so he carried on. In 1791 he was advised that the government would send out two convoys of convicts annually, plus adequate supplies. But July, when the vessels of the Third Fleet began to arrive, with 2,000 more convicts, food again ran short, and he had to send a ship to Calcutta for supplies.

By 1792 the colony was well established, though Sydney remained an unplanned huddle of wooden huts and tents. The whaling industry was established, ships were visiting Sydney to trade, and convicts whose sentences had expired were taking up farming. John Macarthur and other officers were importing sheep and beginning to grow wool. The colony was still very short of skilled farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, and the convicts continued to work as little as possible, even though they were working mainly to grow their own food.

In late 1792 Phillip, whose health was suffering, at last received permission to leave, and on 11 December 1792 he sailed in the ship Atlantic, taking with him many specimens of plants and animals. He also took Bennelong and his friend Yemmerrawanyea, another young Indigenous Australian who, unlike Bennelong, would succumb to English weather and disease and not live to make the journey home. The European population of New South Wales at his departure was 4,221, of whom 3,099 were convicts. The early years of the colony had been years of struggle and hardship, but the worst was over, and there were no further famines in New South Wales. Phillip arrived in London in May 1793. He tendered his formal resignation and was granted a pension of £500 a year.

Phillip's wife, Margaret, had died in 1792. Margaret Charlotte Phillip is buried with her companion Mrs Anna Maria Cane at St Beuno's Churchyard, Llanycil, Bala, Merionethshire. In 1794 he married Isabella Whitehead, and lived for a time at Bath. His health gradually recovered and in 1796 he went back to sea, holding a series of commands and responsible posts in the wars against the French. In January 1799 he became a Rear-Admiral. In 1805, aged 67, he retired from the Navy with the rank of Admiral of the Blue, and spent most of the rest of his life at Bath. He continued to correspond with friends in New South Wales and to promote the colony's interests with government officials. He died in Bath in 1814.

Phillip was buried in St Nicholas's Church, Bathampton. Forgotten for many years, the grave was discovered in 1897 and the Premier of New South Wales, Sir Henry Parkes, had it restored. An annual service of remembrance is held here around Phillip's birthdate by the Britain-Australia Society to commemorate his life.

In the middle, above, is Australian coat of arms.

coat of arms Australia

The coat of arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The initial coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts.

In the top half of the shield, from left to right, the states represented are: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. In the bottom half, from left to right: South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. Six of the points on the star represent the original six states, while the seventh point represents the combined territories and any future states of Australia. In its entirety the shield represents the federation of Australia.

The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield are the unofficial animal emblems of the nation. They owe this recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent), and likely chosen because they are the most well-known native Australian animals large enough to be positioned together in scale holding up the shield. It is often claimed these animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only forward - i.e. progress. In reality both animals can move backwards, but infrequently do. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate.At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of the nation. Neither the wreath of wattle nor the scroll are technically part of the official design described on the Royal Warrant that grants the armorial design.

Swainsona galegifoliaOn right side, vertically, is Swainsona galegifolia.

The Darling Pea (Swainsona galegifolia) of inland New South Wales and Queensland is a long-lived shrubby perennial worth having in every garden because of its easy cultivation and very long flowering season.

Branches grow annually from the crown and reach a height of about 1 m. each year. In a crown crowded with new shoots, the outer ones tend to be pushed outward and lead to a more spreading shape, especially if the shrub is allowed ample room when it is first planted. In groups, plants support each other and lead to a more upright habit.

Top growth is susceptible to frost and in a cold area such as Canberra, plants may be partly frosted. However, if this wood is cut out at the end of winter it is replaced by strong new stems. Branches are well clothed to ground level with fine pinnate leaves about 10 cm long. They are smooth and sometimes grayish, forming a bold, graceful outline, even without flowers.

Flower spikes are up to 15 cm. long and are held well on long stems. They open to sturdy pea flowers nearly 2.5 cm. across in colours from pure white through clear pinks and mauves to magenta crimson; these are followed by balloon-like pods, often tinted pink. The best display is in November.

The old flowered branches must be cut out each year at the end of winter, or in warmer climates after the main flowering season in autumn. If this wood is not removed the plant becomes weak and sparse with branches falling about and blowing off in strong winds. Plants are available from some nurseries, but seed is plentiful and easy to raise.

Seedlings should be finally planted out from small pots and will flower about a year later. They thrive in any soil, are useful for a quick cover in a difficult situation and excellent as single specimens. Allow about 1 m spacing in group plantings. Occasional applications of weak fertilizer dressings are helpful in spring and summer.

They are generally pest and disease free but are occasionally attacked by aphids and caterpillars. Swainsona is poisonous to stock. An annual form of Swainsona - S. canescens - grows up to 60 cm. in height and has violet-coloured flowers in long dense sprays. (An Australian Government Initiative)

Special thanks for the information on plants to the State Library of South Australia.

The 10-pounds note was initially designed by the Note Printing Branch of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (which was Australia's note-issuing authority in 1954), with assistance from the artist Napier Waller and the sculptor Leslie Bowles.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners and bz small number across all center, in words are centered and twice along lower part of banknote.

Revers:

10 Pounds 1960

Centered are the signs of Industry, Science and the Arts, as key areas of social development.

And now a little more about the girl, on the right side of banknote.

The design representing Science and Industry portrays a young model, an immigrant to Australia, named Karina Nartiss (nee Zars, 09.02.1925 - 1985), who was a native of Latvia.

Karina NartissKarina was born in Daugavpils, February 9, 1925. Since childhood, the girl studied ballet.

After World War II she was in West Germany, land Baden-Wuerttemberg, where she married in 1946. At May 24, 1951 she, along with her daughter, receives the documents for permanent residence in Australia, and at December 8, 1960 she became a citizen of Australia.

The Commonwealth Bank had hired her as a model and at 22 March 1952, photographed her in classical ballet robes, and had her sign over rights to the photographs to the Commonwealth Bank. Curiously she was not informed of the purpose of the photographs, until just prior to the release of the notes in 1954. For her part she was paid £10/10, now AUD $21.00. The identity of the person on the reverse of the £10 note was afterwards a mystery, until a couple of years after Karina Nartiss's death in 1985, when her identity was thence made known.

Lower are the copies of Karina Nartiss documents, courtesy of the National Library of Australia. (Museum Victoria)

Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss

Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss Karina Nartiss

Stenocarpus sinuatusIn right and left top corners are Stenocarpus sinuatus.

Stenocarpus sinuatus, known as the Firewheel Tree is an Australian rainforest tree in the Protea family. The range of natural distribution is in various rainforest types from the Nambucca River (30°S) in New South Wales to the Atherton Tableland (17°S) in tropical Queensland. However, Stenocarpus sinuatus is widely planted as an ornamental tree in other parts of Australia and in different parts of the world.

Other common names include White Beefwood, Queensland Firewheel Tree, Tulip Flower, White Oak and White Silky Oak.

A medium to large tree, up to 40 meters tall and 75 cm. in trunk diameter. The bark is grayish brown, not smooth and irregular. The base of the cylindrical trunk is flanged.

Leaves alternate and variable in shape, simple or pinnatifid, the leaf margins wavy. 12 to 20 cm. long. Leaf venation is clearly seen above and below the leaf. Leaves are characteristic and easily identified as part of the Protea family.

The ornamental flowers are bright red in umbels, in a circular formation, hence the name Firewheel Tree. Flowers form mostly between February to March. The fruit is a follicle, in a boat shape, 5 to 10 cm. long. Inside are many thin seeds 12 mm. long. Fruit matures from January to July.

Special thanks for the information on plants to the State Library of South Australia.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners.

Comments:

Governor of Reserve Bank of Australia Mr.H. C. Coombs was in the office from

January 1949 till 1968.

Secretary to the Treasury Mr.Roland Wilson from April 1951 till October 1966.