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10 Kroner 1943, Norway

in Krause book Number: 8c
Years of issue: 1943
Signatures: Hovedkasserer: G. Meldahl Nielsen (1935 - 1944)
Serie: Second Series
Specimen of: 1901
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 128 х 73
Printer: Norges Bank, Oslo (till 2008)

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10 Kroner 1943




10 Kroner 1943

Wilhelm Frimann Koren ChristieOn the left side is the portrait of Wilhelm Christie. The engraving on banknote is, probably, made from this portrait (date and author are unknown).

Wilhelm Frimann Koren Christie (7 December 1778 - 10. October 1849) was a Norwegian constitutional father, known for being the constitutional assembly's writer.

Born in Kristiansund, Møre and Romsdal, Wilhelm F. K. Christie spent several childhood years in Bergen. He was the son of postmaster Johan Koren Christie (1745-1823) and Anne Thue Brodtkorb (1753-1834). His family can be traced back to Andrew Davidson Christie (ca. 1620-1694), born in Montrose, Scotland, who became a citizen of Bergen in 1654. At 10 years old, he was sent to Bergen to attend Latin School. At 16 years old, he was a student in Copenhagen. In 1799 he became candidat juridicum.

Wilhelm F. K. Christie was executive officer (kansellisekretær) and head of a government office in Copenhagen. In 1809, at 30 years old, he became a judge (sorenskriver) in Hordaland. From 1815 to 1825 he was County Governor of Hordaland.

In 1814, he was a representative for Bergen at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. He was chosen as the secretary during the whole period. Hence he did not play a very important role in the debates. Then he participated in sending a message to Great Britain from Christian Frederik in order to win support for Norway's independence. However, this message never was answered. In October he became the president of the parliament and made an important contribution to the process of discussion the union with Sweden. He stayed a representative in the parliament until 1825.

From 1828 until his death he was a customs inspector in Bergen. He was also a member of Bergen city council from 1837 to 1841, and participated in the founding of Bergen Savings Banks, where he was chairman for several years.

His statue now stands in front of the Bergen Museum, which he founded in 1825 and worked for more than 20 years. A statue of him by Norwegian sculptor Kristian Blystad was erected during 1989 in front of the Parliament of Norway (Stortinget) on the occasion of the Constitution's 175-year anniversary.

Peter Jansen Wessel TordenskioldOn the right side is the portrait of Peter Jansen Wessel Tordenskiold. The engraving on banknote is made from this portrait by Balthasar Denner, 1719.

Peter Jansen Wessel Tordenskiold (October 28, 1690 - November 12, 1720), commonly referred to as Tordenskjold (lit. Thunder Shield), was a Norwegian nobleman and an eminent naval flag officer in the service of the Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy. He rose to the rank of Vice-Admiral for his services in the Great Northern War. Born in Trondheim, Peter Wessel travelled to Copenhagen in 1704, and was employed in the navy. He won a name for himself through audacity and courage, and was ennobled as Peter Tordenskiold by King Frederick IV in 1716. His greatest exploit came later that year, as he destroyed the supply fleet of Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Dynekilen. In 1720, he was killed in a duel. In Denmark and Norway he is among the most famous national naval heroes. He experienced an unusually rapid rise in rank and died when he was only 30 years old.

Centered are stylized flowers (on background).

Denomination in numerals are in all corners. In words centered.


10 Kroner 1943

Centered is an Olav Rose.

Olav Rose is the term for two types of shapes. One is a figure of eight loop shapes used in folk art, the other is a six blade, heraldic rose. Both variants are variously linked to the tradition of St. Olaf.

Olav Rosen as Valknut taking also called Santolarosa, Olav Rosa and Olav Knute, and is a figure used in Norwegian folk art. The figure can take two forms, one has three independent intertwined ribbons, the other is drawn with one continuous stroke. The name Olav Rose stems from an Icelandic "trolldomsbok" from the 1600s, but the subject is far older than this. In the Icelandic Sorcery book linked subject to a knot St. Olaf bar as protection against temptation. The figure is also known from other countries and cultures.

The subject is considered as a magic knot and a sign of protection. It can also symbolize what unites and keeps secrets. In Norwegian folk occur Olav Rosen especially in Hallingdal and Western Norway.

During the period 1901 to 1945 used as a motif on Norwegian banknotes Foundation Norwegian Heritage uses since 1996 motif in the variant with three interwoven green part, as a quality label for adventures on the basis of Norwegian heritage. This figure is virtually identical to the characteristic of the former Bönderna Bank now ceased own bank.

Several motifs of roses and crosses in Norwegian folk tradition and culture has been associated with St. Olaf. The name Olav Rose has been associated with the stylized botanical rose flower with six petals. The image is used in folk art, possibly all in the Middle Ages, and is related to Olav tradition. The interest to rose as a national symbol appeared in Norway in the 1800s.

The stylized rose, as used in different contexts in Trondheim, goes back to the Cathedral Chapter seal from the 1500s. An eight-leaf rose used in Trondheim's official city flag. This is referred to as a Trondheim Rose, rather than a Olav Rose. A rose is also used in the office to challenge the Nordenfjeldske Dampskibsselskab. The heraldic stylized rose motif was from 1987 used as the emblem for the Arts and Sciences (AVH) in Trondheim. It was previously used in the tab for the Norwegian teacher training college in 1932.

The name Olav Rose is not used in heraldic descriptions of coats of arms, the so-called blazon. In heraldry used only the term rose.

On the right side is Norwegian coat of arms (old style).

coat Norway

The coat of arms of Norway. A golden lion on a red shield was adopted in or before the early part of the 13th century. In the late part of the same century, a silver axe was added. In continuous use since then, the coat of arms is one of the oldest state coats of arms in the world.

The official blazon is: Gules, a lion rampant or, crowned or and bearing an axe with blade argent.

Among the state coats of arms that are still in use today, the Coat of Arms of Norway is among the oldest in Europe and even world-wide. It is known since the early 13th century, when it served as the coat of arms of the kings of the Sverre dynasty. It is told that Sverre, who was King between 1184 and 1202, had a lion in his coat of arms. This coat of arms appears in 1225, when it was used by Earl Skule Bårdsson, who had relations to the royal family. A coat of arms with a lion was also used by Haakon the Young Haakonson, who was King between 1240 and 1257. This was in 1250. Haakon the Young's father, King Haakon the Old Haakonson, had a lion in his seal. This lion, however, does not appear in a coat of arms, but in the shape of a small lion which lies between the King's feet. This might be the same lion that Earl Skule and Haakon the Young used in their seals. On the other hand, lions were a frequently used symbol of kings and royal power.

Snorre Sturlason claims that a golden lion on a red background was used already in 1103 by King Magnus III, the son of King Olav III. In 1894, historian Gustav Storm concluded that this is ahistorical. Storm explained that the claimed lion in King Magnus's coat of arms is unknown both in the older Saga literature and in other contemporary sources. It is possible that Snorre, who wrote under the instruction of the King, attributed King Sverre's coat of arms to earlier Kings of Norway.

Approximately in 1280, either King Magnus VI (dead in 1280) or the guardianship of his son Eric Magnuson let the lion be equipped with a crown of gold and in the foremost paws an axe of silver. The axe was a symbol of Saint Olaf, i.e. King Olaf II, and by inserting it into the coat of arms it was symbolized that the King was the rightful heir and descendant of the "Eternal King of Norway" (Latin: Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae).

Olav den helligeOn the left side is Olaf II of Norway.

Olaf II Haraldsson (995 - 29 July 1030), later known as St. Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Norway's Eternal King) and canonised in Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site.

Olaf's local canonisation was in 1164 confirmed by Pope Alexander III, making him a universally recognized saint of the Catholic Church. The exact position of Saint Olaf's grave in Nidaros has been unknown since 1568, due to the Lutheran iconoclasm in 1536-37. Saint Olaf is symbolized by the axe in Norway's coat of arms, and the Olsok (29 July) is still his day of celebration. The Order of St. Olav is named after him.

Modern historians generally support that Olaf was inclined to use extensive violence and brutality. This was, however, not unusual among Olaf's contemporaries. Earlier scientific presentations of Olaf are accused of undercommunicating these aspects of Olaf. A symbol of national independence and pride, not least during Romantic Nationalism, Olaf had to be presented in a way that better suited contemporary authorities.

Denomination in numerals are in all corners. In words centered.