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1 Dollar 1953, Malaya and British Borneo

in Krause book Number: 1a
Years of issue: 21.03.1953
Signatures: Chairman of the commissioners: Sir W. C. Taylor
Serie: 1953 Issue
Specimen of: 21.03.1953
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 124 х 64
Printer: Waterlow and Sons Limited, London

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1 Dollar 1953




Head of lion.


1 Dollar 1953

Photo by Dorothy Wilding, 26 February 1952, HM The Queen Elizabeth II

HM The Queen Elizabeth II.

The first official photographic sitting with the new Queen was granted to the society photographer Dorothy Wilding. It took place on 26 February 1952, just twenty days after the accession. A total of fifty-nine photographs were taken by Wilding, showing The Queen dressed in a variety of gowns designed by Norman Hartnell and wearing jewellery including the Diamond Diadem. The photographs taken during this sitting were the basis of The Queen’s image on postage stamps from 1953 until 1971, as well as providing the official portrait of The Queen which was sent to every British embassy throughout the world. (Royal collection trust)


The Queen is wearing the George IV State Diadem. Made by Rundell, Bridge & Rundell (and likely designed by their designer, Philip Liebart) in 1820, the diadem features a set of 4 crosses pattée alternating with 4 bouquets of roses, thistles, and shamrocks. The motifs are set on a band of diamond scrollwork between two bands of pearls. Queen Alexandra had the diadem made smaller in 1902, reducing the top band of pearls from 86 to 81, and the bottom band from 94 to 88. The front cross is set with a 4 carat yellow diamond, and the piece features 1,333 diamonds in all. (Sartorial Splendor)

Necklace present from Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar

The necklace worn by The Queen, of diamond flowers and leaves, was a wedding present from Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar. The necklace was originally crafted in 1930s by Cartier. It was a wedding gift to Queen Elizabeth II, who was still a princess, on her wedding to Prince Philip from the Last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan in 1947. The Nizam of Hyderabad asked the Queen to choose two pieces from Cartier to mark her wedding, and she chose a tiara and a matching necklace based on an English rose.

The necklace was made by Cartier with 38 diamonds, with a diamond-encrusted snap. It has a detachable double-drop pendant, made of 13 emerald-cut diamonds and a pear-shaped drop, forms the pave-set center of the necklace. The design was based on English roses.

Pair of pearl drop earrings, circa 1947

Pair of pearl drop earrings, made circa 1947.

The pearls used to create these earrings were a wedding present to Princess Elizabeth in 1947 from the Sheikh of Bahrain. The diamonds used in the earrings use a variety of modern cuts. (A Royal Wedding 1947)

The portrait on the issues of Malaysia and North Borneo, prepared by "Waterlow and Sons", provides a third variety of the Portrait. Similar to the Bradbury Wilkinson portrait, this engraving has cleaner lines and the tilt of the head is less distinct. (Peter Symes)

Denomination in words is in center. By big numeral on the left side, by smaller numerals in top right and left corners.


1 Dollar 1953

The coats of arms of the states in the Federation (left to right):

Pahang coat of arms

Coat of arms of Pahang.

The weakening of the Johor sultanate and the disputed succession to the sultanate was matched by an increasing independence of the great territorial magnates. In 1853, Tun Muhammad Tahir, renounced his allegiance to the Sultan of Johor and became independent ruler of Pahang. His brother Ahmad assumed the title of Sultan in 1884, seven years after the death of the last Sultan of the old Johor Royal House.

In 1888 he had to accept a British resident and in 1895 Pahang joined the Federated Malay States together with Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Selangor.

Like others, the Pahang State also suffered during the Japanese occupation of Malaya until the year 1945. Then in 1948, it joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.

An emblem for Pahang is in the chief of the arms of the FMS. A new emblem was probably adopted in 1929 together with a new coat of arms for the Federation. It is:

Arms: Per fess Argent and Sable, charged with and emblem Or: A spear and two elephants’tusks in saltire, between the words "Ya Latif" in arab lettering, and in base a listel wirh the name of the country: NEGERI PAHANG in latin and arab. The white and black symbolize the sovereign and the state, personalized by the Sultan and his Prime Minister (Bendahara).

The elephant's tusks are for the many elephants living in Pahang.

"Ya Latif" is a name of Allah meaning "The Subtle One". It means that He knows the essence of everything and blesses everybody in most subtle ways.

Invoking Him reflects the desire that the Government may rule with moderation and subtlety to the benefit of everybody.

Perak coat of arms

Coat of arms of Perak.

As with the other Malay states in the north, Perak was constantly under threat from regional powers. During the 16th century, the Achinese and the Dutch was the main cause of concern due to Perak's monopoly of tin. In the 18th Century, Perak was then threatened by the Bugis and Siamese.

In 1874, an agreement by which Raja Abdullah was elected as the Sultan of Perak, was signed on Pangkor Island. The British also appointed J.W.W Birch as the first British Resident.

Perak became part of the Federated Malay States in 1896 until the Japanese invasion. With the withdrawal of the Japanese forces in 1945, Perak was put under the British Military Administration. Later it became one of the 13 states of Malaysia.

An emblem for Perak occurs in the chief of the arms of the Federated Malay States. A new emblem was probably adopted in 1929 when the arms of the DMS were changed.

The actual emblem of Perak consists of the jewel or sarpech of the royal headdress of Perak and the legend ‘NEGERI PERAK’ in jawi script in base. Around the jewel is a black crescent charged with a yellow garland of rice-flowers.

The Royal Jewel dates from the reign of Sultan Abdul Jalil (1916-’18) who was the first to wear it on his headdress. All his successors have worn the jewel after him. In its original form it consists of a sun or multi-pointed star between two ornaments, set with diamonds and crested with a bunch of white ostrich-feathers.

Brunei coat of arms

Emblem of Brunei from 1932 to 1950.

The Flag and Payung Ubor-Ubor (in which the latter is featured below the Flag) have been the royal insignia since the creation of the emblem, they symbolize the state. Column is the symbol of a solid and fair government. The wings symbolize protection of justice, tranquility, prosperity and peace.


Coat of arms of colony Malacca.

Malacca was founded around 1400 by the Hindu Srivijayan prince Parameswara. When he became the ruler of Palembang, the Srivijaya Empire was already in decline. In 1409, Parameswara assumed the title Sultan Iskandar Shah due to his marriage to a princess from Pasai. His marriage to the Muslim princess encouraged a number of his subjects to embrace Islam. According to the Sejarah Melayu legend the king saw a mouse deer outwit a dog when he was resting under the Melaka tree. He took what he saw as a good omen and decided to establish a capital for his kingdom there. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms.

Hearing of Malacca's great wealth coming from Asian traders, the Portuguese king Dom Manuel I, sent Admiral Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca and to make a friendly contact with its ruler. Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was initially well-received by Sultan Mahmud Shah trouble however quickly ensued. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped.

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque, vice-roy of Portuguese India, made a number of demands - one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. All the demands were refused by the Sultan but Malacca fell to the Portuguese on August 24. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee to Pahang. His son Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Sultanate of Johor, the successor of Malacca.

Malacca was later conquered by the Dutch in 1641 and came under the jurisdiction of the Dutch East India Company (V.O.C.). On 1 December 1795 the British took over the administration an Malacca was governed by residents until 1818.

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang.. From 1942 until 1945 Malacca was occupied by Japan. In 1957, Malacca joined other Malay states to form Malaya and in 1963, together with Sarawak, Sabah and Singapore formed Malaysia.

A coat of arms was granted to the colony on 14 August 1951. The blasoning of the achievement reads:

Arms: Argent, a Chinese Junk, sails reefed, proper, and a base barry wavy of six pieces Azure and Argent; within a bordure Azure, billety Or; and a canton Argent with a branch of Rhyncostylus retusa, proper.

Rhynchostylis retusa (also called Foxtail Orchid) is an exotic blooming orchid, belonging to the Vanda alliance. The orchid has a bunch consisting of more than 100 pink-spotted white flowers. They have stout, repent, short stem carrying up to 12, curved, fleshy, deeply channeled, keeled, retuse apically leaves and blooms on an axillary pendant to 60 cm (24 in) long, racemose, densely flowered, cylindrical inflorescence that occurs in the winter and early spring.

Crest: On a helmet [to the dexter], lambrequined Argent and Azure, on a wreath of the colors, the Porta the Santiago, Argent.

Porta De Santiago (A Famosa) which translates to 'The Famous' in Portuguese is one of the few oldest surviving remnants of European architecture in the whole of Asia. It was built in 1511 under the command of Alfonso de Albuquerque. The fortress was built to consolidate their gains in Malacca after they defeated the armies of the Malacca Sultanate. At that time, the Portuguese believed that Malacca would someday become a vital port which links Portugal to the spice trade from China. The Porta De Santiago (A Famosa) that we see today was once made up of long ramparts and four major towers. One of the towers was a four-storey keep while the other housed the residence of the captain, officers' quarters and an ammunition storage room. The fort changed hands in 1641 when the Dutch successfully drove the Portuguese out of Malacca. After the Dutch got their hands on the A Famosa, they placed their company logo, the 'VOC' coat of arms about the gates of Porta De Santiago (A Famosa). 'VOC' is the abbreviation of Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie.

Even today,if you look at the Porta de Santiago, you can still see the VOC coat of arms on the shield carried by the soldier on the right side of the logo. The Dutch then handed the fort over to the British in the early 19th century. The English, being wary of maintaining the fort gave orders to the British Governor of Pahang to demolish it. The fort was saved by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1810 as he stopped the demolishing and saved what we see today. There are many other attractions around the Porta De Santiago (A Famosa) such as the Islamic Museum of Malacca, the Architecture Museum of Malacca, the Malacca Sultanate Palace and the St Paul's Church. With so many places to visit, do consider staying over at any hotels in Malacca. There are many hotels to choose from so do not worry about the accommodation here.

Motto: "EX UNITATE VIRES" or "stronger by union".

Sarawak coat of arms

The coat of arms of Sarawak.

Sarawak was founded in 1842 by a British officer, James Brooke on a territory ceded to him by the Sultan of Brunei as a reward for military aid. His son, Sir Charles Johnson Brooke (1868-1917), adopted the arms below. His son Sir Charles Vyner Brooke (1917-1946) introduced a new version of the arms with the crest replaced by a five-pointed crown, the points symbolizing the five divisions of the kingdom. Shortly before WW II the engrained was abandoned and replaced by just a cross parted per pale.

Because of the disastrous results of Japanese Occupation Sir Charles abdicated in 1946. On the 17th of May 1945 Sarawak became a British Crown Colony and a coat of arms was granted on the 10th of March 1947. These arms were based on the previous arms, but the crown was moved from a crest to the center of the shield. These arms were continued after Sarawak joined Malaysia in 1963 and were in use until 1973.

Yellow color indicates the primacy of law, an order and unity. Black color represents the natural resources, that are the foundation of development progress, according to the state's residents. Red symbolizes courage, braveness, determination and sacrifice of people, their desire to develop the country in which they reside.

Kelantan coat of arms

The coat of arms of Kelantan.

In the 13th and 14th centuries Kelantan belonged to the Malacca Sultanate. After its fall in the 15th century, Kelantan came under the influence of neighbouring Patani. The Siamese eventually established their sovereignty over Kelantan following a treaty in 1832. Later, Siam dispatched a British adviser with the title of Siamese High Commissioner to Kelantan. W.A. Graham was appointed the first Siamese High Commissioner in 1902.

Then in 1909, the British and Siamese ratified the Bangkok Agreement, handing over Kelantan to the British and J.S. Mascon was dispatched as the first British adviser. The Japanese invasion in 1941 saw Kelantan being handed back to Siam during the Japanese Occupation. In September 1945, Kelantan was placed under the British Military Administration and later became a part of the Malay Unionand its successors.

The achievement of Kelantan dates from the first years of British supremacy. In its oldest form it appeared on the jewel of the Royal Family Order, founded by Sultan Mohammed IV in 1916. This shows:

A spear and two keris in saltire, surrounded by a garland crested with a crescent-and-star and supported by two muntjacs (kijangs, Muntiacus reevesi, Cervidae). A quasi National Emblem consisting of the spears, kerises and crescent-and-star from the achievement appeared on the flag adopted in 1923. It is said to symbolize the sanctity of the sultan.

The actual achievement dates from 1919 when it appeared on the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Kelantan, founded by Sultan Muhammad IV in 1919. It is:

Emblem: Two krises and two cannon arranged saltire-wise Gules, charged with a crescent and five-pointed star and two spears per pale Or

Crown: The Royal Crown of Kelantan

Supporters: Two muntjacks (Muntiacus reevesi, Cervidae) Or.

Motto: BERSERAH KEPADA TUHAN KERAJAAN KELANTAN (Kelantan is entrusted to God) in jawi script on an escroll Or.

The elements of the achievement symbolize:

The Krises and Spears symbolize the strength of the Kelantanese Malays.

The Cannon symbolize the constant readiness of Kelantan to defend itself.

The Crescent-and star symbolizes Islam.

The Crown is the symbol of the sovereignty of the Sultan of Kelantan. It consists of cap and a diadem set with two crescent-and-stars, with three hoops with pearls and topped by another crescent-and-star.

The Muntjacks are to the memory of the long Kelantanese history. They were adored by Cik Siti Wan Kembang, Queen of Kelantan and printed on her coinage.

Kedah coat of arms

The coat of arms of Kedah.

Kedah emerged as a major kingdom on the Malay Peninsula in the 5th century. In the 18th century, external pressures from Bugis, Siam and Burma increasingly weakened Kedah. The situation was exacerbated by a power struggle that sparked off a civil war in 1724. Raja Haji, a Bugis leader, took advantage of the internal chaos and invaded Kedah in 1770. To counter the continuous threat from Siam, Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Syah appealed to the British for protection but In 1821, the Siamese conquered Kedah and ruled it for the next 20 years. Several attempts were made by the disposed Kedah Sultan to restore the kingdom. Eventually Siam acquiesced, but not before separating Perlis from Kedah to form a separate vassal principality. Kedah itself remained a Siamese vassal state until 1909.

On 9 July 1909, the Bangkok Agreement, which was ratified by the British and Siamese, effectively delivered Kedah to the British. Upon the appointment of Sir George Maxwell as Kedah’s British adviser, Kedah officially became a British colony. This lasted until the Japanese Invasion in 1941. British rule was resumed on 1 September 1946 and Kedah was placed under the British Military Administration.

According to the Malayan Union Scheme of 10 October 1945 Penang, Malacca and nine other Malay states including Kedah, were united under the Malayan Union. On 1 February 1948 the Malay Federation was founded and on 31 August 1957 independence was declared.

The coat of arms was adopted together with the flag on 10 January 1912. It consisted of a yellow shield over a green crescent, surrounded by a yellow garland. In about 1930 a yellow bend sinister was added with the title NEGERI KEDAH (Kedah State) in black arab lettering.

Singapore coat of arms

The coat of arms of Singapore.

The first coat of arms for the City of Singapore was granted by letters patent of 9th April 1948. The reference to the municipality of Singapore as the “City of Singapore” was apparently an error made on the side of the College of Arms as Singapore only received City status in 1951. The second arms of Singapore were adopte only five months later. They show the blason of the quarter for Singapore in the arms of the Straits Settlements of 1911.

By Royal warrant of 13 September 1948 the arms of 1911 were confirmed and augmented with a crest. This last shows a tower issuant from the base proper; on the battlements thereof a lion passant guardant orlion rampant issuant Or, langued and armed Gules keeping a banner upright Argent, a pall reversed Gules, an Imperial crown Or.

At the same time a badge was adopted for the crown colony. This consisted of the blason of the banner in the crest: Argent, a pall reversed Gules, an Imperial Crown Or.

coat of arms Malaya federation

The coat of arms of Malaya Federation.

On January 31, 1948 the emblem was changed again after 1929. Malaya again became a federation under the name "Federation of Malaya". The new federation were composed of the former Federation of Malaya, and other states - Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis en Trennganu States and Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca. Coat of arms was adopted at March 19, 1952. The shield of the coat of arms was taken from the old emblem, adopted in 1929.

Shield: On top of the red background - five national Daggers - krisses - the symbol of the Sultanate of Malacca. Symbolize five legendary warriors Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu. Lower - Red, black, white and yellow rectangles are the colors of the former federated Malay principalities: black and white - Pahang, red and yellow - Selangor, black, white and yellow - Perak, red, black and yellow - Negeri Sembelan.

Top: Crescent and the gold star with 11 Ends. Number 11 is a symbol of the Great Work (Magnum Opus) - alchemy process of obtaining the Philosopher's Stone (otherwise referred to as the elixir of philosophers), as well as the achievement of enlightened consciousness, fusion of spirit and matter. Such star can be considered as a compound of microcosm and macrocosm - human and divine.

The Crescent means Islamic religion.

Holders: Two tigers, symbol of courage and strength. Each of them is based by one paw on yellow ribbon with the motto "Unity is strength" (motto repeated twice: in English and Jawi alphabet, and in Arabic script).

Johore coat of arms

The coat of arms of Johore.

In the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca's defeat to the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak was the other successor state of Malacca and was established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I. During Johor's peak the whole of Pahang and the present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.

A series of succession struggles were interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers, which maintained Johor's political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch.[citation needed] In 1641, Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.

In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the state was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.

Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor by Queen Victoria of England. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864-1895) implemented a state constitution, developed a British-style administration and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor". The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, which created Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently.[citation needed] Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.

During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. Allied Forces, Australian, Malayan and Indian forces held out for four days in what was known as the Battle of Gemas, the General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.

Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition). In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.

Johor's coat of arms (Jata Johor) derives its layout heavily from Western heraldry, consisting of a central shield topped by a helm, sided by two supporters, and includes a compartment and motto at the bottom. Details of the arms' elements are as followed:


The helm represents Johor's royalty, and is symbolised by a blue and yellow coronet adorned with motives of a five-pointed star and a crescent.


The arms escutcheon consists of a white shield of an "English" outline with a central five-pointed star and crescent, and four smaller five-pointed stars at each corner of the shield; both the stars and the crescent are coloured in yellow. The larger star and crescent symbolise the Islamic faith, while the four stars represent the four original territories of modern Johor: Johor Bahru, Muar, Batu Pahat and Endau.


The arms features two supporters depicted by rampant tigers, as a sign of recognition to the ferocious animals that once roamed the state of Johor.

Compartment and motto

The area below the shield include of a group of yellow, mirrored flora (compartment) hanging a blue scroll (motto). The compartment represents gambir and black pepper, crops cultivated by Johor's traditional agricultural industry. The scroll, with text written in Jawi, reads Kepada Allah Berserah (Submit to Allah).

Perlis coat of arms

The coat of arms of Perlis.

Perlis was originally part of the older kingdom of Kedah, which was conquered by Siam in 1821. After the restoration of the Sultan of Kedah to his throne in 1842, the Siamese kept Perlis as a vassal state.

In 1905, Perlis obtained, from Siam, the services of an European advisor to help in the administrative and financial affairs of the state.

The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 transferred control of Perlis from Siam to Britain, and a British advisor was appointed to administer the state. A formal treaty between Britain and Perlis was only signed in 1930.

In World War II, the Japanese occupation forces handed Perlis back to Siam. After the war, Perlis again came under British protection until Perlis gained independence from Britain with the formation of the Federation of Malaya in 1957.

The arms of Perlis probably date from about 1930. It is:

Arms: Vert, the name "Perlis" in jawi script surrounded by a garland, Or.

Garland: Rice stalks Vert.

coat of arms crowned colony North Borneo

The coat of arms of Crown Colony of north Borneo, until it became Sabah, in 1963.

The sovereignty of the British North Borneo Company was abolished on 15 July 1946 and British North Borneo became a British Crown Colony. As a result the achievement as well as the badges of Labuan and the British North Borneo Colony became obsolete.

A coat of arms for the colony was adopted on 13 September 1948 and is an amalgamation of the badges of Labuan and North Borneo.

Arms: Azure in base on waves of the sea in front of a representation of mount Kinabalu (4094 m.) a sailing yacht in full sail to the sinister on the mizzen the letter “T” Sable all proper, a chief Or thereon a lion passant guardant Gules.

Crest: Upon a wreath Azure and Or, two arms embowed that on the dexter side being an arm of a native of North Bornbeo Proper, that on the sinister side being an arm vested Azure cuffed Argent, the hands grasping a staff proper thereon hoisted a flag flowing to the sinistre Or charged with a lion passant guardant Gules.

The “T” commemorates the liberation from Japanese occupation by the 9th Australian Division, which had participated in the siege of Tobruk (1941). The emblem of the 9th Australian Division was a platypus (ornitorynchus anatinus) over a boomerang.

Selangor coat of arms

The coat of arms of Selangor.

Selangor’s history goes back to the 16th century, when rich tin deposits were found in the region. The area's natural wealth, along with its relative freedom from the presence of the Dutch, attracted miners, immigrants and colonizers. One specially important group of settlers were the Bugis, a Malay people from Macassar (now Ujung Padang) in Celebes/Sulawesi. Bugi emigration from this great port city followed the steady encroachment of the Dutch over territory previously dominated by Portuguese traders, with whom the Bugis had allied themselves. Renowned for their capabilities as sea traders and warriors, the Bugis soon rose to prominence in Selangor. By 1700 they dominated the state both politically and economically and had established the present Sultanate of Selangor.

In the 15th century, Selangor was ruled by the Sultanate of Malacca. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the area became disputed between the Portuguese, Johor, Aceh and Siam. When the Dutch ousted the Portuguese from Malacca in 1641, they brought in Bugi mercenaries from Sulawesi, who eventually established the present sultanate in 1740.

The Royal House of Selangor descends from the Yang di-Pertuans of Riau, Indonesia. They are Bugis, originating from Luwo in the Halmaheira Sea. Raja Lumu, second son of Raja Chelak, the 2nd Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau, conquered Selangor and established his legitimacy by being installed by the Sultan of Perak in 1766. Frequently at odds with the Dutch and native Malay rulers, his son Ibrahim, was expelled from Selangor in 1786. Ibrahim eventually reached an accommodation with the Dutch and was allowed to return, two years later.

In many districts, Bugi settlers displaced the Minangkabau settlers from Sumatra, who had established themselves in Selangor in the middle of the 17th century.

In the 19th century, the economy boomed due to the exploitation of huge tin reserves and the growing importance of rubber. As a result the British forced the Sultan of Selangor, ‘Abdu’l Samad, to accept a British Resident in 1874. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered. In 1896, largely through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham, Selangor united with Negri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States, with its capital in Kuala Lumpur. In 1942 Selangor was occupied by the Japanese and the ruling Sultan Hisham was forced to abdicate. In 1945 he returned and ruled until his death in 1960. During his rule the Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In 1970, Selangor relinquished the city of Kuala Lumpur to the federal government. Putrajaya also became a federal territory in the mid-1990s.

Under the 1959 constitution, Selangor is a constitutional monarchy.

An emblem of Selangor dates from the reign of Sultan Abdul Samad (1857-’98), and so probably from after the appointment of a British Resident (1874). It is in the chief of the arms of the Federated Malay States.

The actual emblem, probably dating from about 1930, shows a spear Gules charged with a crescent-and-star Or between two krisses in their sheats Gules intertwined with the motto DIPELIHARA ALLAH in jawi script Or and Gules, and in base an ancient warrior belt. Below is a golden banner with the name of the state: SELANGOR in black lettering.

In this emblem red (Gules) symbolizes blood and yellow (Or) symbolizes flesh. The red spear in the center between a short kris on the right and a long kris on the left, are parts of the State regalia. The crescent and star represent Islam, the State religion. The motto Dipelihara Allah in jawi script means “Under the protection of Allah”. Below the motto is the broad belt or sash worn by warriors in the past.

Trengganu coat of arms

The coat of arms of Trengganu.

Trengganu (nowadays spelled ‘Terengganu’) emerged as an independent sultanate in 1724. The first Sultan was Tun Zainal Abidin, the younger brother of a former sultan of Johor, and Johor strongly influenced Trengganu politics through the 18th century. However, in the book Tuhfat al-Nafis written by Raja Ali Haji, in the year 1708, Tun Zainal Abidin was installed as the Sultan of Trengganu by Daeng Menampuk also known as Raja Tua under the rule of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah. In the 19th century, Trengganu became a vassal state of Siam, and sent tribute every year to the King of Siam called bunga mas. Under Siamese rule, Trengganu prospered, and was largely left alone by the authorities in Bangkok. The terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 saw power over Trengganu transferred from Siam to Great Britain. A British advisor was appointed to the sultan in 1919, and Trengganu became one of the Unfederated Malay States. The move was highly unpopular locally, and in 1928 the British used military force to suppress a popular uprising. During World War II, Japan occupied Trengganu and transferred sovereignty over the state back to Siam on 18 October 1943, along with Kelantan, Kedah, and Perlis. After the defeat of Japan, British control over these Malay states was reestablished. Trengganu became a member of the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and a state of independent Malaya in 1957.

A state emblem was approved for official use by the State Ministers Committee in 1932. This closely follows the design of the royal emblem. It consists of a white oval shield charged with the sword, kris, scarf, books and crown surrounded by a dotted oval line flattened at the top. In chief is a crescent-and star and around the dotted line is the legend “Jawatan Kerajaan Terengganu” (Terengganu Government Post) in Jawi script.

The actual version of the Emblem of State follows the changes of the Royal Emblem made after WW II by Sultan Ismael. Two maces are added. The legendwas reduced then to the name of the country: "TRENGGANU" in jawi script.

In the emblems:

The sword, the long kris, the pair of ceremonial maces and the scarf (wali or selampai) are part of the regalia of Trengganu.

The two books represent the Book of Law and the Quran.

The crown symbolizes the sovereignty of the Sultan.

The Crescent-and-star symbolizes the Islamic State.

On paper money issued in 1941, one year before the Japanes occupation of British Malaya, the emblem of Trengganu is somewhat different from the Royal emblem of Sultan Zain al Ibidin but also from the emblem of State of 1932.

It shows the crown, the sword, the kris, the scarf and the books surrounded by an oval dotted line, which could be the Royal emblem, but it is surrounded by the legend of the emblem of State: Jawatan Kerajaan Trengganu. Also, the crescent-and-star is omitted.

It is not clear what the status of this emblem was.


The coat of arms of Penang.

Originally part of the Malay sultanate of Kedah, Penang was ceded to the British East India Company in 1786 by the Sultan of Kedah, in exchange for military protection from Siamese and Burmese armies who were threatening Kedah. On 11 August 1786, Captain Francis Light, known as the founder of Penang, hoisted the Union Jack thereby taking formal possession of Penang and renamed it Prince of Wales Island (name used until after 1867) in honour of the heir to the British throne. Penang was the first British possession in the Malay States and Southeast Asia.

In 1826, Penang, along with Malacca and Singapore, became part of the Straits Settlements under the British administration in India, later coming under direct British rule in 1867 as a Crown Colony.

Penang was captured by Japanese forces invading from the north through Thailand on 19 December 1941 but they had to surrender to British forces on 6 September 1945. Before civilian rule returned to Penang, the state was administered by two successive British military governors from 1945-1946.

In 1946, the Straits Settlements were dissolved, with Sir Shenton Thomas being the last governor, and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, before becoming in 1948 a state of the Federation of Malaya, which gained independence in 1957. In 1963 it became one of the 13 states of Malaysia.

The crest of Penang is an areca nut palm on a hill. It appeared in the second quarter of the arms of the Straits Settlements adopted in 1911.

A coat of arms for Penang was adopted on 11 September 1949. Its original blasoning reads:

Shield: Barry wavy of eight Azure and Argent upon a chief crenellée Or a plume of three ostrich feathers surmounted by a riband of the First on the riband the words Ich Dien in letters of the Third

Crest: On a wreath of the Colours upon a mount a Pinang or Areca-nut palm leaved and fructed Proper.

Areca catechu is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. The palm is believed to have originated in the Philippines, but is widespread in cultivation and is considered naturalized in southern China (Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Taiwan, India, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, many of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, and also in the West Indies.

A motto was adopted by the Settlement Council of Penang in 1950 and reads “BERSATU DAN SETIA” (United and Loyal).

The badge of the Prince of Wales is to the memory of the former name of the Island. The waves symbolize the Straits of Malacca which separates Penang from the mainland and the province of Wellesley.

Negri Sembilan coat of arms

The coat of arms of Negri Senbilan.

In 1773 the Sultan of Johor granted the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan (He Who is Highest Lord of the Nine States) to the Minangkabau prince Melewar. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession.

In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, and placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, and the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States (FMS) was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS.

The number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Kelang to Selangor, and Segamat to Johor.

Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1941 and 1945, and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.

The first emblem of Negeri Sembilan consisted of nine sheafs of paddy Or, arranged 3, 2 and 1 on a green field. It is on the coat of arms of the Federated Malay States and occupies the most important place on the shield.

Probably in 1929, when a new coat of arms for the Federation was adopted, a new coat of arms was also adopted for Negeri Sembilan. It is:

Arms: Tierced per bend Gules, Sable and Or, nine stalks of paddy Or, rising from a listel with the neme of the country in arab lettering, in base a nine pointed star Or; and a bordure Sable fimbriated Argent.

Crest: A flaming trident changgai putri and a kris and its sheath in saltire proper.

The red symbolizes to the British presence, the black the government and the yellow the sovereign

The stalks of paddy, as are the sheafs of paddy in the earlier arms, symbolize the original nine parts of Negeri Sembilan. They refer to the first Minangkabau ruler of Negeri Sembilan. When he arrived at the upper course of the river Muar he was presented a sheaf of paddy and settled there.

The kris and its sheath symbolize justice and the changgai putri staff between them is the symbol of the sovereignty of the Yang Dipertuan Besar.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and left corners.


Images of coats of arms and their description in English is courtesy of Hubert de Vries.

The Malaya and British Borneo dollar (known as the ringgit in Malay, Jawi: رڠڬيت) was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo, Brunei and Riau archipelago from 1953 to 1967. The currency was issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo. Prior to 1952, the board was known as the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya.

The Malaya and British Borneo dollar was used in Malaya after independence in 1957, and in Malaysia after its formation in 1963, as well as in Singapore after its independence in 1965. After 1967, the two countries and Brunei ended the common currency arrangement and began issuing their own currencies. However, the Malaya and British Borneo dollar continued to be legal tender until 16 January 1969. The currency was also being used in the Riau Archipelago in Indonesia prior to 1963.

All notes bear the date 21 March 1953, and signed by W.C. Taylor, the Chairman of the Board of Commissioner of Currency. The 1, 5 and 10 dollar notes were printed by Waterlow and Sons, the 50 and 100 dollar notes were printed by Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co. Ltd. and the 1,000 and 10,000 dollar notes were printed by Thomas de la Rue & Co. Ltd.. As a safeguard against forgery, a broken security thread and the watermark of a lion's head were incorporated in the paper before printing.