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10 Shillings 1940, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 158a
Years of issue: 06.02.1940 - 1953
Edition: --
Signatures: Chief Cashier: Mr. T.P. Hanna  (in office 1940 - 1953)
Serie: Till 1967 English currency system. Second Issue
Specimen of: 06.02.1940
Material: 100% raw cotton
Size (mm): 140 х 79
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Shillings 1940

Description

Watermark:

King Tāwhiao

King Tāwhiao (Tūkāroto Matutaera Pōtatau Te Wherowhero Tāwhiao, born circa 1825 - died 26 August 1894).

King Pōtatau was succeeded by his son, Tāwhiao, who was proclaimed king on 5 July 1860 at Ngāruawāhia. Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpīpī Te Waharoa anointed him in the whakawahinga ceremony, using the same bible that he had used for Pōtatau’s investiture.

The Waikato war.

The first years of Tāwhiao’s reign were dominated by war. Governor Thomas Gore Browne demanded Tāwhiao submit 'without reserve' to Queen Victoria.1

Gore Browne’s successor, Sir George Grey, was also not prepared to accept dual sovereigns in New Zealand. On a visit to Ngāruawāhia Grey famously declared that ‘I shall not fight against him with the sword, but I shall dig round him till he falls of his own accord.’2 Grey spent little time testing this isolating policy. He quickly authorised his military to cross the Mangatāwhiri Stream (which Tāwhiao had established as an aukati or boundary) and invade the Waikato in July 1863.

The Waikato war ensued, with major battles leading to an ultimate defeat for Waikato. Tāwhiao and his fellow ‘Kingites’ were forced to retreat across the Pūniu River into Te Nehenehenui (the great forest), to their neighbouring Ngāti Maniapoto relatives.

Land confiscation.

Tāwhiao and his followers were declared rebels and some 1.2 million acres (almost 500,000 hectares) of their fertile lands were confiscated. The return of these confiscated lands became a central concern for Tāwhiao and subsequent Waikato leaders. Their catchcry was ‘I riro whenua atu, me hoki whenua mai’3 (as land was taken then land should be given back).

Tāwhiao and Ngāti Maniapoto leaders established an aukati (boundary) along the confiscation line at the Pūniu River, forbidding European intrusion. The territory beyond the aukati subsequently became known as the King Country.

Formal peace.

From his exile, a more pacifist Tāwhiao declared that killing must cease. However, he also argued against land surveys, land sales, courts, gold mining, telegraphs, schools, and the Pākehā justice system. Suspicious of the Pākehā, Tāwhiao stated in 1869 that Māori and Pākehā should remain separate. However, in 1881, after a number of years of negotiations with the government, Tāwhiao and his followers symbolically laid down their weapons before the resident magistrate at Alexandra (Pirongia) and returned to the Waikato.

Trip to England.

Tāwhiao did not renounce his efforts to have Waikato’s confiscated lands returned. In 1884 he travelled to England with several companions to seek redress from Queen Victoria. Tāwhiao’s tattooed face caused heads to turn in London, but he and his Māori embassy were declined an audience with the queen. He was informed by the colonial secretary that confiscations were a domestic matter under the jurisdiction of the New Zealand government.

On his return, Tāwhiao instituted the poukai - annual visits to marae, principally in the Waikato, to comfort the widowed, bereaved and impoverished. The first poukai was at Whatiwhatihoe in 1885, and this tradition has continued into the 2000s, where almost 30 marae hold poukai and are visited by the sovereign.

Political independence.

Tāwhiao continued his quest for mana motuhake (Māori political independence), setting up the Kauhanganui, a parliament, in 1892. It had a council of 12 tribal representatives (the Tekau-mā-rua), as well as ministers. Tupu Taingākawa, the second son of Wiremu Tāmihana (and kingmaker at the time), was the tumuaki (premier). Tāwhiao was offered, and accepted, a government pension. There was much iwi concern about the implication that he had given up his independence, and the pension was paid back, with interest.

King Tāwhiao died on 26 August 1894 at Pārāwera. He was buried on Taupiri mountain, the sacred burial ground of the Waikato, where King Pōtatau was to be reinterred in 1903. Some 3,000 Māori from all parts of the country attended Tāwhiao’s tangihanga. (the Māori King movement )

Avers:

10 Shillings 1940

James Cook

It is possible, that the prototype image of James Cook on the banknote was the work by artist Nathaniel Dance, finished in London on 25 May 1776.

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment in both Cook's career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.

In three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously achieved. As he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.

Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century and numerous memoria worldwide have been dedicated to him.

Centered - the Arms of New Zealand with the words “Promise to Pay”.

Coat of arms New Zealand

The initial coat of arms was granted by King George V on the 26 August 1911.

Since 1911, the central shield has remained unaltered: a quartered shield containing in the first quarter four stars representing the Southern Cross constellation, as depicted on the national flag, but with the stars in different proportions; in the second quarter, a golden fleece representing the farming industry; in the third, a wheat sheaf representing agriculture; and in the fourth, two hammers representing mining and industry. Over all this is a pale, a broad vertical strip, with three ships representing the importance of sea trade, and the immigrant nature of all New Zealanders.

Before 1956, the shield was identical, but the surrounding features were different. The crest was a demi-lion (the upper half of a rampant lion) holding the British Union Flag, and the scroll at the shield's base featured the then motto of the country, "Onward". Early renditions of the Coat of Arms are often featured with more stylised scrolling rather than fern leaves.

The original supporters were also slightly different. The woman had reddish-brown hair, and both figures faced forward rather than towards the shield. Though there is no direct documentary evidence, it is likely that the original model for the woman was Wellington socialite Alice Spragg. The model for the Māori warrior is unknown. The woman is identified as Zealandia, the national personification of New Zealand.

Takarangi

On the right and left sides are Maori patterns and, presumably, spirals Takarangi.

TakarangiOpen spiral work on the prow of a Maori war canoe in Taranaki Museum

Spirals Takarangi are usually displayed on the nose of Tauihu - combat Maori canoe. These spirals are commonly seen in homes carved patterns of Te Arawa nationality, verily, the first settlers in New Zealand.

Maori curving at roof of MaraeThey meet there alternately with Manaia, on the bottom of maihi (barge boards of the meeting house Marae (gables)). (The Journal of the Polynesian society).

The Manaia is a mythological creature in Māori culture, and is a common motif in Māori carving and jewellery.

It is usually depicted as having the head of a bird and the body of a man, though it is sometimes depicted as a bird, a serpent, or a human figure in profile. Other interpretations include a seahorse and a lizard. The word manaia is cognate with the founding Samoan term fa'amanaia, and relevant to the Niuean fakamanaia, both meaning to make a decoration or embellishment.

The Manaia is traditionally believed to be the messenger between the earthly world of mortals and the domain of the spirits, and its symbol is used as a guardian against evil. In this form, it is usually represented in a figure-of-eight shape, the upper half culminating in a bird-like beak. This form was also widely used in designs of door and window lintels and other architectural features, as well as in ceremonial hafts of weapons. A study of Māori carving suggests that every naturalistic figure there is an equivalent Manaia form which can be seen as a distorted profile-face version of the equivalent full-face figure. It may be that the Manaia represents some spiritual or inner facet of the full face figure.

The Māori carvings and other iconography are on the sides and bottom.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. In words centered.

Revers:

10 Shillings 1940

Series released in the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty in Waitangi.

The panel executed by Mr. A. Drury, A.R.A., for the statue of the late Queen Victoria. To be erected in Wellington, N.Z.. Taken from the supplement to the Auckland Weekly News, 08 December 1904

Centered is a scene, depicting the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, in 1840.

The engraving on banknote was made from a panel executed by Mr. A. Drury, A.R.A., for the statue of the late Queen Victoria in Wellington.

The Treaty of Waitangi is an agreement made in 1840 between representatives of the British Crown and more than 500 Māori chiefs. It resulted in the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand by Lieutenant Governor William Hobson in May 1840. Most chiefs signed a Māori-language version of the treaty. The English- and Māori-language versions held different meanings, and Māori and Europeans therefore had different expectations of the treaty’s terms. Ever since, resolution of these differences has presented New Zealand with challenges.

More about the Treaty of Waitangi you can read at (Te Ara. The Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

On the left side is Kiwi - flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites (which also consist of ostriches, emus, rheas, and cassowaries), and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world. DNA sequence comparisons have yielded the surprising conclusion that kiwi are much more closely related to the extinct Malagasy elephant birds than to the moa they shared New Zealand with. There are five recognized species, two of which are currently vulnerable, one of which is endangered, and one of which is critically endangered. All species have been negatively affected by historic deforestation but currently the remaining large areas of their forest habitat are well protected in reserves and national parks. At present, the greatest threat to their survival is predation by invasive mammalian predators.

There are five known species of kiwi, as well as a number of subspecies.

1)Great spotted kiwi or Roroa, Apteryx haastii

2)Small little spotted kiwi, Apteryx owenii

3)Okarito kiwi

4)Southern brown kiwi, Tokoeka, or Common kiwi, Apteryx australis

5)The North Island brown kiwi, Apteryx mantelli or Apteryx australis

North island Kiwi

On the note depicted the North Island brown kiwi (old name Apteryx Bulleri).

Keulemans Kiwi, 1873An engraving was based on J. G. Keulemans’s illustration, which had appeared in Walter Buller’s "A history of the birds of New Zealand" (1873).

Kiwi Issues

Keulemans work became the standard portrayals of New Zealand Kiwis. They were incorporated into logos of conservation groups (in its early days Forest&Bird used Keulemans image), appeared on commercial packaging and were freely borrowed, often unacknowledged, by the authors of other bird books.

It is only in the last twenty or thirty years, as colour photography and printing techniques have improved, that Keulemans illustrations have ceased to be so ubiquitous. High-quality New Zealand ornithological images can now be produced by photographers. inrecent decades, too, a number of artists have depicted our native birds, their images, like those of Keulemans, reaching an audience beyond the scientific and ornithological communities. Artists such as Raymond Ching have retained Keulemans literal style, while others, such as Don Binney, Shane Cotton and Bill Hammond, have achieved major artistic and commercial success with their more figurative depictions. Binney and Hammond have communicated powerful environmental messages through their art, sometimes making it directly available for use by conservation groups. Hammond in particular has expressed his concern about contemporary attitudes to conservation by referring to Buller’s activities in some of his best-known work. One measure of the stature of an artist is how their work shapes the way a country sees itself. The illustrations of John Gerrard Keulemans have played an important part in New Zealand's history of Kiwi.

The kiwi is a national symbol of New Zealand, and the association is so strong that the term Kiwi is used internationally as the colloquial demonym for New Zealanders. (Buller's birds of New Zealand. New Edition.)

Pirongia

In the background, behind the kiwi, presumably, Mount Pirongia.

There is no confirmed evidence against what kind of mountains made ​​his sketches of kiwi Mr.Keuleman or, may be, this mountain was just a fiction.

My assumption is made on the following facts:

1) in the description text of the North Island kiwi, in Walter Buller's book, pays lots of attention to "a grand kiwi hunting near Mount Pirongia," when they caught about 300 kiwis.

2) Mount Pirongia lies in the region of Waikato, on the northern island. This region is famous for the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, pictured, by the way, on the same bill. Who knows, maybe Keuleman portrayed this particular mountain.

3) The moko (facial tattoo) on the skyward face is based on that of King Tāwhiao, the second Māori king, emphasizing his links with the mountain. Living in exile to the south in the 19th century, he expressed his longing to return to Waikato in this waiata.

Of course, paragraphs 2 and 3 have no logical connection with places of kiwi mass residence and Keuleman's illustration. All assumptions made ​​by me in an attempt to establish the truth.

And now, about Kiwi, as symbol of New Zealand.

Māori always regarded the kiwi as a special bird. They knew it as ‘te manu huna a Tāne’, the hidden bird of Tāne, god of the forest.

Kiwi feather cloaks (kahu kiwi), originally made by sewing kiwi skins together, were taonga (treasures) usually reserved for chiefs. Kiwi feathers, now woven into flax cloaks, are still valued. Māori also ate kiwi, preserving them in the birds’ fat, and steaming them in a hāngī (earth oven).

Māori women at Whakarewarewa, near Rotorua, in kiwi feather cloaks

On the photo - Māori women at Whakarewarewa, near Rotorua, about 1900, are wearing cloaks made of kiwi feathers. The group includes the distinguished guides Sophia Hinerangi and Maggie Papakura.

Among the few Europeans who ate kiwi was the 19th-century explorer Charlie Douglas. He thought the eggs made great fritters when fried in oil from the kākāpō bird, but was less sure about the meat. After spraining an ankle he came across two kiwi, and being famished, he ate them. He said the best description of the taste was "a piece of pork boiled in an old coffin".

From the first, Europeans regarded kiwi as unusual birds.

Early engravings of kiwi in Europefirst illustrations in Europe

The first skin was taken to England in 1812 and inspired the first illustration of the bird, looking more like a penguin. As early as 1835, the missionary William Yate described the kiwi as ‘the most remarkable and curious bird in New Zealand.’ 1 In 1851, the first living bird was sent to England as a specimen for the London zoo.

As the kiwi began to disappear from the bush, its image began to appear as an emblem. In the second half of the 19th century, it was used as a trademark - for veterinary medicines, seeds, drugs, varnishes, insurance, on the Auckland University College crest, and on Bank of New Zealand notes.

When the first New Zealand pictorial stamps were issued in 1898, the kiwi was on the sixpenny stamp. About 1899, one observer said, ‘From the fact that bank notes, postage stamps and advertisement chromos generally have a portrait of this unholy looking bird on them, it is evident that the kiwi is the accepted national bird of New Zealand.

In the 20th century the kiwi began to represent the nation. In August 1904 the New Zealand Free Lance printed a cartoon, which showed a kiwi growing in size after New Zealand’s rugby 29-0 victory over an Anglo-Welsh team. This is possibly the first use of the kiwi as a cartoon symbol for the nation. The next year the Westminster Gazette printed a cartoon of a kiwi and a kangaroo going off to a colonial conference. In 1905 Trevor Lloyd also drew his first sporting cartoon using a kiwi when he showed the bird unable to swallow Wales following the defeat of the All Black rugby team.

Trevor Lloyd's cartoon after New Zealand’s rugby victory over an Anglo-Welsh team

Trevor Lloyd's cartoon after New Zealand’s rugby victory over an Anglo-Welsh team in Auckland, in 1908Lloyd more often symbolised the All Backs with a moa during that tour, but by 1908 the kiwi had clearly become the dominant bird symbol in cartoons, especially sporting ones.

Besides the Moa, other symbols for New Zealand at this time included fern leaves, a small boy and a young lion club.

Until the First World War, the kiwi represented the country and not the people - they were En Zed(der)s, Maorilanders or Fernleaves. During the First World War, New Zealand soldiers were often described as Diggers or Pig Islanders. But by 1917 they were also being called Kiwis. It was probably not because they were thought to be, like the birds, short, stocky scrappers - this was a more common image of Australians, while New Zealanders liked to emphasise their stature and good manners. It was simply that the kiwi was distinct and unique to the country.

Badge kiwiBadge of South Canterbury Battalion from 1886

The kiwi had appeared on military badges since the South Canterbury Battalion used it in 1886, and it was taken up by several regiments in the First World War. Cartoonists also used the bird often during the war to symbolize New Zealand.

Sling camp kiwiSling camp kiwi

At the end of the war New Zealand soldiers carved a giant kiwi on the chalk hills above Sling Camp on Salisbury Plain in England.

An Australian boot polish called Kiwi was widely used in the imperial forces. It was named by its founder, William Ramsay, in honour of his wife’s birthplace.

After the First World War, the kiwi continued to flourish as an emblem at home. When the Reserve Bank released the first New Zealand currency in 1934, the two-shilling coin, and the 10-shilling and one-pound notes all featured the bird. In the 1930s, when the Department of Health promoted eating fruit, a poster was addressed to a "healthy Kiwi".

During the Second World War, foreign people were once again describing the New Zealand soldiers they met as Kiwis. The nickname of the flightless bird was apparently accepted by all except young airmen aspiring to fly. There was a famous Kiwi Concert Party to entertain the troops, and the armed forces rugby team that toured Britain successfully just after the war was known as the Kiwis.

In the First World War New Zealand soldiers were known as Kiwis, but this was sometimes humorously pronounced ‘kye-wyes’ (imitating the New Zealand vowels). Some American marines in New Zealand during the Second World War talked about the ‘K-one-W-ones’.

Between the 1940s and the 1980s, the kiwi was confirmed as the symbol of a nation and its people.

Bacon KiwiKiwi on Bacon Kiwi factory

Kiwi "blokes" and "sheilas" ate Kiwi brand bacon (promoted by a huge fibreglass kiwi).

Golden KiwiLottery Golden Kiwi

They gambled on the Golden Kiwi lottery, followed the Kiwi rugby league team, watched television until the animated "Goodnight Kiwi" told them to go to bed.

Also they were ruled in the 1960s by a prime minister dubbed "Kiwi Keith" Holyoake, spoke a version of English, some called kiwi, and exulted when a racehorse called Kiwi won the Melbourne Cup in 1983.

Royal air force kiwiRoyal air force kiwi

A number of First World War regiments adopted the kiwi as their badge, but it was not until the 1960s that the Royal New Zealand Air Force made the kiwi their official emblem. Many have commented on the irony of a bird which is unable to fly becoming the symbol of a flying force.

Unlike the rest of the world, the one thing they did not call "kiwi" was kiwifruit, the new name, introduced in 1959, for what New Zealanders called Chinese gooseberries (Actinidia deliciosa).

Radical economic reforms in the late 1980s took the kiwi into new contexts. When the currency was floated in 1985, it was labelled the ‘kiwi’. Government businesses were privatized, and the taxpayer retained a Kiwi Share. In 2002 a new government-owned bank was named "Kiwibank". Although the Golden Kiwi lottery ended in 1989, it was quickly replaced by a new gambling game, Instant Kiwi. No less than 57 books of children’s fiction about kiwi have been published, all but one since the 1960s.

By the 2000s, the bird was struggling for survival in the wild.

Country KiwiCountry Kiwi in Eketahuna

But with the countless slogans and signs in the city, New Zealand was indeed a land of kiwi. (Te Ara. The Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

Denominations in numerals are in three corners, in words lower, centered.

Comments:

20 Cents Kiwi1 Florin 1934This image (20 Cents) of Kiwi presents in many print publications, on stamps and coins, whioh New Zealand issuing for a long time already. It has been taken from the illustration by Dutch artist J.G. Keuleman, made for the book by Walter Buller "History of the Birds of New Zealand".

A pair of such coins with Kiwi I found in my collection.

Engraver of portrait of Captain Cook: Nathaniel Dance.

The second series was issued on 6th February 1940. A portrait of Captain James Cook replaced that of King Tawhiao. These notes stayed in circulation until the change to decimal currency in 1967.

Notice:

In Māori society, the marae is a place where the culture can be celebrated, where the Māori language can be spoken, where intertribal obligations can be met, where customs can be explored and debated, where family occasions such as birthdays can be held, and where important ceremonies, such as welcoming visitors or farewelling the dead (tangihanga), can be performed. Like the related institutions of old Polynesia, the marae is a wāhi tapu, a 'sacred place' which carries great cultural meaning.

In Māori usage, the marae atea (often shortened to marae) is the open space in front of the wharenui or meeting house (literally "large building"). However, the term marae is generally used to refer to the whole complex, including the buildings and the open space. This area is used for pōwhiri - welcome ceremonies featuring oratory. Some marae do not allow women to perform oratory there. The meeting house is the locale for important meetings, sleepovers, and craft and other cultural activities. The wharekai (dining hall) is used primarily for communal meals, but other activities may be carried out there. Many of the words associated with marae in tropical Polynesia are retained in the Māori context. For example, the word paepae refers to the bench where the speakers sit; this means it retains its sacred and ceremonial associations. Marae occur in various sizes, with some wharenui being a bit bigger than a double garage and some being larger than a town hall.