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10 Shillings 1942, Australia

in Krause book Number: 25b
Years of issue: 1939 - 1952
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor, Reserve bank of Australia: Mr. Hugh Traill Armitage, Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. S. G. McFarlane
Serie: 1939 Issue
Specimen of: 1939
Material: Unknown material
Size (mm): 137.16 x 76.20
Printer: John Ash, Australian Note Printer, Melbourne, Australia

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Shillings 1942

Description

Watermark:

Джеймс Кук

Captain James Cook, The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, The Royal Navy (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

watermark

Behind each signature is an inscription - HALF.

Avers:

10 Shillings 1942

HM The King George VI.

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George, 14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

Photographic collage of King George VI, 1936

This new Ash series was issued mainly to replace George V by George VI on the front of the notes. This photographic 'collage' of King George VI was used as a reference image for the 1939 notes.

It was created by superimposing the (head) portrait of George VI on the torso taken from a photograph of Edward VIII, whose abdication in 1936 led to the need for a new note design featuring George VI.

The watermark profile of Edward, the Prince of Wales was also replaced with that of Captain Cook. (Museum of Australian currency notes)

In the middle, lower, is Australian coat of arms.

coat of arms Australia

The coat of arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The initial coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts.

In the top half of the shield, from left to right, the states represented are: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. In the bottom half, from left to right: South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. Six of the points on the star represent the original six states, while the seventh point represents the combined territories and any future states of Australia. In its entirety the shield represents the federation of Australia.

The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield are the unofficial animal emblems of the nation. They owe this recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent), and likely chosen because they are the most well-known native Australian animals large enough to be positioned together in scale holding up the shield. It is often claimed these animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only forward - i.e. progress. In reality both animals can move backwards, but infrequently do. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate.At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of the nation. Neither the wreath of wattle nor the scroll are technically part of the official design described on the Royal Warrant that grants the armorial design.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners and top, centered. In words is also centered.

Revers:

10 Shillings 1942

A distinctive feature of currency notes designed in the 1930's was the use of artwork by Frank Manley based on bas-relief panels originally designed by artist Paul Raphael Montford. These panels represented various sectors of the Australian economic life:

Manufacturing – Ten shilling note

Pastoral – One pound note

Commerce – Five pound note

Agriculture – Ten pound note

Mining – Fifty pound note

Dairying – One hundred pound note

This note shows Manufacturing.

By the early 1930s, manufacturing and distribution services had each grown to be about 20 per cent of the economy, broadly on a par with the rural sector.

After Federation, Australia increasingly encouraged manufacturing through import-substitution, under the protection of high and rising tariffs.

While manufacturing grew, this did little to reduce the country's heavy reliance on a few rural exports.

The Depression of the 1930s had its origins overseas although the structural weaknesses of the Australian economy made some contribution. Manufacturing growth in Australia was severely checked in the early years of the decade despite large and widespread increases in ordinary tariff rates in 1930 (the Scullin Tariff).

Though the sector's share of total employment had fallen from 22 per cent in 1920-21 to 18 per cent in 1930-31, manufacturing led the recovery in total employment, accounting for 25 per cent by the start of World War II. Domestic demand continued to grow. Skill levels of the labour force were increasing and overseas enterprises were bringing in new capital. Just as important were the new and sophisticated techniques being introduced, which included the processing of cement and rubber. In 1939 major industries included iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, machinery and engineering, electronic and electrical equipment, motor vehicle assembly and parts, food processing, textiles and clothing, wood products, and printing and publishing.

Some of the pre-1930 trends were continued in the following decade. Industrial metals, machines and conveyances continued to increase their share of manufacturing employment (32%) and value added (32.5%), whilst clothing, food, drink and tobacco continued to decline. By 1938-39 the manufacturing sector's contribution to GDP had reached 19 per cent, a level almost equal to the rural sector's 20 per cent.

At the banknote are shown:

1) Blacksmith. Blacksmithing (working with metal) from the outset took a leading role in the economy. Apparently, a blacksmith on the note is shown, as an allegory of industry, which began to gain momentum before the Great Depression of the early 30s.

2) To the left of the blacksmith, presumably, an engineer in the mantle. In those years, the automotive industry started booming. There is an assumption that this figure is related to the engineering in the beginning of XX century, as a basis for the subsequent productions.

3) To the left is a potter.

Another is no small sector of the Australian economy in those years.

As an example, the company "Bendigo Pottery".

Bendigo Pottery is Australia's oldest working pottery. Started by a Scottish settler in the 1850s, the pottery has experienced changing fortunes over 150 years.

George Duncan Guthrie (1828-1910) abandoned his potter's wheel in Scotland to join the Australian gold rush of the 1850s. 'Here is the stuff to make pots with!' he cried as he stumbled upon a clay deposit perfectly suited to the production of ceramics. Guthrie transformed this lucky find into a business that grew to rival the great Staffordshire potteries of 19th century England.

Before plastics came to dominate the market, ceramics were used for a much wider range of products. The population explosion created by the Australian gold rush resulted in an increased demand for all kinds of locally manufactured goods. As the market diversified so too did the pottery - from commercial packaging to utility kitchenwares. Domestic items were, however, always a sideline to the main business of serving the building trade.

Bendigo Pottery

By 1903 Bendigo Pottery had expanded well beyond its humble beginnings and was filling a large number of orders across Australia. The success of the enterprise had much to do with Guthrie's fastidious management style and his enthusiasm for all aspects of the business.

Langley ware was the most popular range produced by the pottery. Launched in 1915, and continued well into the 1930s, these brown-coloured items were widely used in homes and cafes throughout Australia. Examples of Langley ware were exhibited at the 1925 British Empire Exhibition in Wembley, London. They received a bronze medal and certificate of merit. (National museum Australia)

4) To the right of blacksmith, presumably, is the worker at the loom. Manufacture of clothing and textiles were among the top five leading industries.

5) Right of him is a book printer. Printing and publishing industry was the fifth largest grown business in Australia in the mid-1920s. In this economic sector was occupied around 34008 people, who worked at more, than 1,500 factories across the country.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners and on the left side.

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