header Notes Collection

10 Dollars 2008, Australia

in Krause book Number: 58e
Years of issue: 2008
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia: Mr. Glenn R. Stevens, Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. Ken Henry.
Serie: Polymer Serie
Specimen of: 2002
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 137 x 65
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 2008



coat of arms watermark

Australian coat of arms depicted in the series as a watermark. I confess, without a clue, it is hard to find it. It is located at the front left of the portrait, to the right of the nominal value, on a background of flowers.

Arms of Australia is the official symbol of the state. The country was granted by King Edward VII, May 7, 1908, and the current version of the coat of arms - King George V 19 September 1912.

From the heraldic point of view, coat of arms is a six part shield with a silver border, burdened by fourteen black crosses.

герб Австралии

In the upper half, from left to right, are the coats of arms of states: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. At the bottom, left to right, are: South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania.

Above the shield is a 7-face "Commonwealth Star" or the Star of Federation over blue and gold wreaths.

Supporting the shield kangaroos and emus are unofficial emblem of the nation. Probably, they were chosen because they are "indigenous" Australian animals, which are found only on the continent. It is often argued that they can not move back, only forward - and that is progress. In fact, both the animals can move back, but rarely do.

WindmillWindmillPhoto from Travelling Australia

Design, shown in a transparent window, is a windmill. This water pumps are installed in areas, where is no centralized power. Wind turbine converts wind energy into electricity, to lift water from deep wells of the Great Artesian Basin, and to collect it in a special elevated water tanks, located nearby. Extracted the water thus used for household purposes as well as for irrigation.

Since 1876, the brothers Griffiths from Toowoomba produced such wind turbines, under the trade name of "Windmills of the Southern Cross" (Southern Cross windmill). Received widespread use since 1903, they have become a symbol of Australia's rural areas.

This type of wind turbine has been portrayed also at Australian 50 Cents 2002.


10 Dollars 2008

Andrew Bogle Paterson

This portrait of AB "Banjo" Paterson is based on a photograph taken at the time of his return from the Boer War in 1900.

Andrew Barton "Banjo' Paterson (17 February 1864 - 5 February 1941). Poet, ballad writer, journalist and horseman.

[Banjo Paterson] "Banjo" Paterson, known as Barty to his family, was born Andrew Barton Paterson at Narrambla, near Orange on 17 February 1864. His parents, Andrew Bogle and Rose Isabella Paterson were graziers on Illalong station in the Yass district.

Paterson's early education took place at home under a governess and then at the bush school in Binalong, the nearest township. From about the age of ten years he attended the Sydney Grammar School. He lived with his grandmother in Gladesville and spent the school holidays at Illalong station with his family.

After completing school the 16-year-old Paterson was articled to a Sydney firm of solicitors, Spain and Salway. He was admitted as a solicitor in 1886 and formed the legal partnership, Street and Paterson. During these years Paterson began publishing verse in the Bulletin and Sydney Mail under the pseudonyms 'B' and 'The Banjo'.

In 1895, at the age of 31 and still in partnership with Street, Andrew Barton Paterson achieved two milestones in Australian writing. He composed his now famous ballad 'Waltzing Matilda' and his first book, The Man from Snowy River, and other verses, was published by Angus & Robertson, marking the beginning of an epoch in Australian publishing. This hallmark publication sold out its first edition within a week and went through four editions in six months, making Paterson second only to Kipling in popularity among living poets writing in English. His poetry continues to sell well today and is available in many editions, some of which are illustrated.

Paterson travelled to South Africa in 1899 as special war correspondent for The Sydney Morning Herald during the Boer War, and to China in 1901 with the intention of covering the Boxer Rebellion but he arrived after the uprising was over. By 1902 Paterson had left the legal profession. The following year he was appointed Editor of the Evening News (Sydney), a position he held until 1908 when he resigned to take over a property in Wee Jasper.

In 1903 he married Alice Walker in Tenterfield. Their first home was in Queen Street, Woollahra. The Patersons had two children, Grace born in 1904 and Hugh born in 1906.

During World War I Paterson sailed to Europe hoping for an appointment as war correspondent. Instead, during the course of the war he was attached as an ambulance driver to the Australian Voluntary Hospital in France and was commissioned to the 2nd Remount Unit of the AIF. He was eventually promoted to Major.

In Australia again he returned to journalism, retiring in 1930. He was created CBE in 1939. At the time of his death on 6 February 1941 his reputation as the principal folk poet of Australia was secure. His body of work included seven volumes of poetry and prose in many editions, a collection The Collected Verse of A.B. Paterson (1923), a book for children The Animals Noah Forgot (1933), and an anthology The Old Bush Songs (1905), in addition to his many pieces of journalism and reportage. (Boer War Memorial).


Left, as background of portrait, is as micro text, where, armed with a magnifying glass, you can read the poem "The Man from Snowy River". Under the portrait is depicted, written by hand, the first line of poem: "There was movement at the station, for the word had passed around That the colt from old Regret had got away".

First poem was published in "The Bulletin", at April 26, 1890. It mentions, already familiar to readers of other verses, Clancy and old Harrison. Andrew Paterson as a child was involved in similar pursuits of wild horses, but served as a prototype of the hero, in his own words, not one, but a few brave riders.

It's true what they say, Banjo Pat­er­son did meet the Man from Snowy River, Jack Riley, all those years ago.

Jack Riley was the leg­end­ary horse­man who migrated from Ireland to Australia as a 13-year-old in 1851. Jack lived in isolation in a hut high up in the hills at Tom Groggin. He loved the Snowy Mountain Country, a good yarn and enjoyed a social drink or two. Jack was also a good mate of the late Walter Mitchell of Towong Station, who introduced Jack Riley to Banjo Paterson when the pair was on a camping trip. They trekked the Kosciusko Ranges and the Snowys, shared many campfires and yarns too. Jack Riley was the Man from Snowy River who provided an inspirational journey and material for banjo to write his now famous poem.

Banjo Paterson also wrote a poem about Jack Riley's cow. This is further testimony to a meeting with Jack and the friendship they shared. (Live the legend).

The inspiration for "The Man" was claimed by Banjo himself to be not one person but a number of people. One of which was Owen Cummins. Owen Cummins was born in Dargo and was well known for being a great horseman. He worked around the area before making his way up to Wave Hill, NT. where a monument has been erected to reflect his role in inspiring the poem.

There is a possibility that another exceptional and fearless rider, Charlie McKeahnie, might have been the inspiration for the poem. In 1885, when McKeahnie was only 17 years of age, he performed a dangerous riding feat in the Snowy River region. Historian Neville Locker supports this theory, adding that a prior poem had been written about McKeahnie by bush poet Barcroft Boake and that the story had been recounted by a Mrs Hassle to a crowd that included Paterson. Locker also offers as evidence a letter by McKeahnie's sister that discusses the ride and Paterson's hearing of the ride. McKeahnie was killed in a riding accident near Bredbo in 1895 and is buried in the Old Adaminaby cemetery, on the shores of Lake Eucumbene. .

An Engraving in Australian newspaper in 1870"The Australian Newspaper" 1870

Man with a whip on a horse on the left and a herd of wild horses on the right, serve to illustrate the poem. Served as a prototype for banknote, are engravings in Australian newspapers "The Astralian Newspaper" from 1870, and "The Illustrated Sydney News" from 1875.

An Engraving in Sydney newspaper in 1875"The Illustrated Sydney News" 1875

The snowy River, where there was a young hero of the poem, begins in the snowy mountains, the highest part of the Great Dividing Range, near the eastern part of the border between New South Wales and Victoria.


Man with a whip on a horse on the left - on banknote is the Australian Stock Horse.

The Australian Stock Horse (or Stockhorse), has been especially bred for Australian conditions. It is a hardy breed of horse noted for endurance, agility and a good temperament. Its ancestry dates to the arrival of the first horses in Australia, brought from Europe, Africa and Asia. It is used today in a wide variety of disciplines, and is still valued as a working horse by stockmen throughout Australia.

The roots of the Australian Stock Horse date back to the earliest importation of nine horses to Australia, with the arrival of the First Fleet in Botany Bay in January, 1788. Some of the original horse breeds in these early imports included the Thoroughbred, Cape of Good Hope Horse (largely descended from the Barb and Spanish horse), Arabian, Timor Pony and Welsh Mountain pony.

Horses in Australia were bred for their stamina and strength, with weaker animals culled and only the strongest allowed to breed on. In the 1830s, additional Thoroughbreds were imported into Australia to improve the local strains, and the mid-XX century saw infusions from the American Quarter Horse.

The Australian Stock Horse and the Waler horse come from similar roots, though today they are separate breeds. The "station horse" that was an ancestor of both breeds was used by the Australian Army in the First World War and was renowned for its toughness and endurance.

However, the modern Australian Stock Horse differs from the Waler horse in that it is not as big. The horses shipped abroad to fight in war and kept at home to be bred on as Walers were the larger animals, as they were required to carry a rider with the considerable extra weight of weapons and a full pack. Some of the heaviest animals were also required pull water carts and carriages. However, the characteristics of toughness and endurance remain with the Australian Stock Horse of today.

Formal recognition of Australian Stock Horses as a distinct breed began in June 1971 when over 100 campdrafters and horse breeders met in Tamworth, New South Wales, to form the Australian Stock Horse Society. Many of these people bred stock horses using bloodlines tracing back to native stock, along with some Arabians, Thoroughbreds, and a few ponies of outstanding merit. Most of the early ASH registrations were of horses bred with bloodlines that excelled at both campdrafting and cattle work in the rugged Great Dividing Range.

Initially, horses were inspected for registraton by three classifiers who assessed them for conformation, breeding and athletic ability. The best were accepted for inclusion in the Stud Book, some were approved for the registry appendix, and those not meeting the criteria for registration were rejected.

Fourteen specific foundation sires are responsible for most of the bloodlines accepted into the Society Australia-wide and most well-bred Australian Stock Horses trace to one of these foundation sires. These included horses bred from colonial stock: Saladin, Cecil and his son Radium, Medlow and Bobbie Bruce. The others were Thoroughbreds: Rivoli, Commandant, Panzer, Midstream, Young Valais, Gibbergunyah, Bushfire, Silvius and Deo Juvante also exerted considerable influence. Since then Rivoli Ray, Blue Moon Mystic, Eliotts Creek Cadet, Warrenbri Romeo and some American Quarter Horses have also had a large influence on the breed.

The use of Quarter Horse bloodlines is somewhat controversial, with some breeders preferring to stay with older lines. Those who wish to bring in outside blood are required to pay very high fees to the Society, thus providing an incentive for breeders to only bring in worthwhile horses.

horseOn the right side is a mob of Brumbies.

A Brumby is a free-roaming feral horse in Australia. Although found in many areas around the country, the best-known Brumbies are found in the Australian Alps region in south-eastern Australia. Today, most of them are found in the Northern Territory, with the second largest population in Queensland. A group of Brumbies is known as a "mob" or "band".

Brumbies are the descendants of escaped or lost horses, dating back in some cases to those belonging to the early European settlers, including the "Capers" from South Africa, Timor Ponies from Indonesia, British pony and draught horse breeds, and a significant number of Thoroughbreds and Arabians.

Today they live in many places, including some National Parks. Occasionally they are mustered and domesticated for use as camp drafters, working stock horses on farms or stations, but also as trail horses, show horses, Pony Club mounts and pleasure horses. They are the subject of some controversy - regarded as a pest and threat to native ecosystems by environmentalists and the government, but also valued by others as part of Australia's heritage, with supporters working to prevent inhumane treatment or extermination, and re homing Brumbies who have been captured.

Below the portrait, is an inscription A.B "Banjo" Paterson - Andrew Barton Paterson, initials and last name splits nickname Paterson, under which ohe began to issue his poems. Banjo ("Banjo") is also the name of his favorite horse, belonged to his Family. In Australia this banknote received a name Banjo too.

On the right isde, under denomination, is his signature.

Cover of Waltzing MatildaNational Library of Australia

The cover of "Waltzing Matilda" with flowers on background.

"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's most widely known bush ballad. A folk song, the song has been referred to as "the unofficial national anthem of Australia".

The title is Australian slang for travelling on foot with one's belongings (waltzing, derived from the German auf der Walz) in a "Matilda" (bag) slung over one's back. The song narrates the story of an itinerant worker, or "swagman", making a drink of tea at a bush camp and capturing a sheep to eat. When the sheep's owner arrives with three police officers to arrest the worker for the theft, the worker commits suicide by drowning himself in the nearby watering hole, after which his ghost haunts the site.

The connection between the creation of the song Waltzing Matilda and events that occurred on Dagworth station during the shearing strike of 1894 is well attested. Andrew Barton Paterson himself, in his 1930’s Radio talk, “Golden Water”, makes that link:

The shearers staged a strike by way of expressing themselves, and MacPherson’s woolshed at Dagworth was burnt down and a man was picked up dead. This engendered no malice and I have seen the MacPhersons handing out champagne through a pub window to these very shearers. And here a personal reminiscence may be worth recording. While resting for lunch, or while changing horses on our four-in-hand journeys, Miss MacPherson, afterwards wife of the financial magnate, J.McCall MacCowan, used to play a little Scottish tune on a zither and I put words to the tune and called it “Waltzing Matilda”. Not a very great literary achievement perhaps, but it has been sung in many parts of the world. (Song of the Pen - A.B.Paterson’s Complete Works 1983, p.500)

The ‘man picked up dead’ was Samuel Hoffmeister, a German immigrant unionist and a shearer. This was one of the newspaper reports following the Dagworth incident:

BRISBANE Tues. A Barcaldine telegram states that shearing work in that district is proceeding satisfactorily. Hoffmeister, the unionist supposed to have been shot in the affray in Dagworth, was well known here… He is about 30 years of age. [He] sheared at Leichhart Downs and other stations. In 1891 Hoffmeister, it is stated, took a very prominent part in fomenting strife and advocating violence, but succeeded in keeping out of the clutches of the law. He invariably carried firearms. (Sydney Morning Herald Sept 5 1894)

The coronial inquest on 27th September 1894 found Hoffmeister’s death to be suicide.

Bob Macpherson (the brother of Christina) and Paterson are said to have taken rides together at Dagworth. Here they would probably have passed the Combo Waterhole, where Macpherson is purported to have told this story to Paterson. Although not remaining in close contact, Paterson and Christina Macpherson both maintained this version of events until their deaths. Amongst Macpherson's belongings, found after her death in 1936, was an unopened letter to a music researcher that read "... one day I played (from ear) a tune, which I had heard played by a band at the Races in Warrnambool ... he [Paterson] then said he thought he could write some words to it. He then and there wrote the first verse. We tried it and thought it went well, so he then wrote the other verses." Similarly, in the early 1930s on ABC radio Paterson said "The shearers staged a strike and Macpherson's woolshed at Dagworth was burnt down and a man was picked up dead ... Miss Macpherson used to play a little Scottish tune on a zither and I put words to it and called it "Waltzing Matilda"."

The song itself was first performed on 6 April 1895 by Sir Herbert Ramsay at the North Gregory Hotel in Winton, Queensland. The occasion was a banquet for the Premier of Queensland. (Waltzing Matilda).

Australia's national song, Waltzing Matilda, was deployed by the makers of Billy Tea as a jingle, a neat piece of brand marketing. The lyrics were subtly altered to suit.

Scotsman, James Inglis, started his India tea company in Australia in 1881 with the now iconic trademark, "Billy Tea",decorating the packet with the line drawing of a swagman sitting beside his fire, boiling the billy.

When Inglis discovered that ‘Banjo’ Paterson has sold his poem ‘Waltzing Matilda’, along with other rather mundane materials, to publishers, Angus and Robertson, he seized the opportunity and bought the rights in 1902.

Inglis intended to give away a piece of sheet music as a promotional ‘freebie’ with every packet of tea sold. As many homes had a piano, and sing-alongs were the popular form of home entertainment of the day, his idea was not as crazy as it might now sound. It was an excellent marketing ploy.

Marie Cowan, the wife of one of the Inglis company directors, an amateur pianist and excellent singer, was employed to set the poem to music. It is hardly fair to suggest that she composed the music, as it bears noticeable similarities to the tune Craigielee, which Sarah MacPherson first used with the original words.

It was the perfect marketing strategy for an Australian public just beginning to feel a sense of national pride and identity. The swaggie was on the packet, and an advertisement for Billy Tea (with the famous illustration), was on the back cover of every double leaf of sheet music. Soon everyone was singing what was, in effect, an advertising jingle.

Paterson’s first verse contains the line: ‘And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling.”

Cowan rendered this: “And he sang as he watched and waited till his ‘Billy’ boiled,’ which effectively allows the construction that Billy tea is being boiled, which is not possible with the original line.

With a little skilful brand marketing, the Billy Tea Company, in declaring itself ‘Australia’s National Drink’, helped to raise Waltzing Matilda to the status of Australia’s national song. So deep was the country’s love for this song, that it was one of the offerings for 1977 plebiscite for an official national anthem. (James Parsons).

Flannel flower

Floral motif was first printed on the cover of music book with the text of the ballad. Flowers used for decoration, are probably circulated and respected in Australia, the Watten (Acacia pycnantha) and Flannel flower (Actinotus helianthi). Aktinotus grows in large quantities in the sandstone around Sydney, is identified with the city since colonial times.


Well, the golden wattle is the national symbol of Australia, is also presents on a large coat of arms of the state. Both of these plants are also depicted on the stamps.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner.


10 Dollars 2008

Dame Mary Gilmore

This portrait of Dame Mary Gilmore is based on a photograph of the poet taken when she was in her early twenties.

Dame Mary Gilmore DBE (16 August 1865 - 3 December 1962) was a prominent Australian socialist poet and journalist.

Her father obtained a job as a station manager at a property at Cowabbie, 100 km north of Wagga. A year later, he left that job to become a carpenter, building homesteads on properties in Wagga, Coolamon, Junee, Temora and West Wyalong for the next 10 years. This itinerant existence allowed Mary only a spasmodic formal education; however, she did receive some on their frequent returns to Wagga, either staying with the Beatties or in rented houses.

Her father purchased land and built his own house at Brucedale on the Junee Road, where they had a permanent home. She was then to attend, albeit briefly, Colin Pentland's private Academy at North Wagga Wagga and, when the school closed, transferred to Wagga Wagga Public School for two and a half years. At 14, in preparation to become a teacher, she worked as an assistant at her uncle's school at Yerong Creek.

After completing her teaching exams in 1882, she accepted a position as a teacher at Wagga Wagga Public School, where she worked until December 1885. After a short teaching spell at Illabo she took up a teaching position at Silverton near the mining town of Broken Hill. There Gilmore developed her socialist views and began writing poetry.

Her relationship with Henry Lawson probably began in 1890: in 1923 she recalled that 'It was a strange meeting that between young Lawson and me. I had come down permanently to the city from Silverton'. Her account of an unofficial engagement and Lawson's wish to marry her at the time of his brief trip to Western Australia (May-September 1890) could be accurate regarding dates, but there is no other corroborative evidence. There was clearly, however, a close relationship between them in 1890-95, but it was broken by his frequent absences from Sydney. Mary's later comments on his career were always somewhat proprietorial but the extent of her influence on his literary talents and her contribution to his literary education remain unsubstantiated.

In May 1891 Mary was transferred to Stanmore Superior Public School. She had become involved in the increasing radicalism of the day, supporting the maritime and shearers' strikes as actively as possible for a schoolteacher subject to the strict rules of the Department of Public Instruction. It was her lifelong claim that she had, under her brother John's name, been co-opted to the first executive of the Australian Workers' Union. She assisted William Lane and the New Australia movement, and was largely responsible for overcoming the financial difficulties that threatened to prevent the departure for Paraguay of the Royal Tar on 16 July 1893. On 31 October 1895 she resigned from teaching and sailed from Sydney in November in the Ruapehu, arriving at the Cosme settlement in Paraguay in January 1896. She married fellow colonist, a Victorian shearer, William Alexander Gilmore (1866-1945), at Cosme on 25 May 1897 and their only child William Dysart Cameron Gilmore (1898-1945) was born on 21 August 1898 at Villarica, near Cosme. In August 1899 the Gilmores resigned from Cosme and Will left the settlement to work at various jobs. In November 1900 the family went to Rio Gallegos in southern Patagonia where Will worked on a ranch and Mary gave English lessons. On 1 April 1902 they reached England, stayed briefly with Lawson and his family in London, and arrived in Australia in the Karlsruhe in July.

Back in her familiar Sydney environment Mary was attracted to the busy literary and political scene but, acknowledging her family responsibilities, went with her husband to Strathdownie, near Casterton in western Victoria, where Will's parents had a property. Life there was far from congenial but she had a long-sustained correspondence with Alfred George Stephens of the Bulletin and was delighted to have her life and work featured in the 'Red Page' on 3 October 1903. In 1907 they moved into Casterton where Billy attended school. Mary's long connexion with the Australian Worker began in 1908 when, in response to her request for a special page for women, the editor Hector Lamond invited her to write it herself. She was to edit the 'Women's Page' until 11 February 1931. Mary also began campaigning for the Labor Party, helping to have its candidate for the Federal seat of Wannon elected in 1906 and 1910. Her first collection of poems, Marri'd, and other Verses, simple colloquial lyrics, written mainly at Cosme and Casterton, commenting on the joys, hopes, and disappointments of life's daily round, was published in 1910 by George Robertson & Co. Pty Ltd of Melbourne, on the advice of Bernard O'Dowd who professed to be 'simply enraptured with their lyric magic'.

The Gilmores left Casterton in 1912, Mary and her son going to Sydney where she had the security of her Worker position and Billy the opportunity of a secondary education, while Will joined his brother on the land in the Cloncurry district of Queensland. They were rarely reunited in the years that followed, but, loose and impersonal as the husband-wife relationship must have appeared to outside observers, it was always characterized by affection, respect, and abiding mutual interest.

Mary was soon involved in literary activities. A staunch supporter of journals such as the Bulletin, the Lone Hand and the Book-fellow, she invested her own (borrowed) money in the latter to prevent its closure through bankruptcy. The accounts in 1913-16 of Mary Gilmore trading as the Book-fellow and her correspondence with Stephens indicate the scope of her participation. Her second volume of poetry, The Passionate Heart (1918), reflected her horrified reaction to World War I. Poems such as 'The measure' stress the futility and waste of war, while 'Gallipoli', a deeply felt, imaginative account of that famous battlefield with its scars covered by the recurring miracle of spring, offers consolation to those grieving for the loss of loved ones. She gave the royalties from The Passionate Heart to the soldiers blinded in the war. In 1922 her first book of prose, a collection of essays entitled Hound of the Road, was published. In the early 1920s her health, never robust, became a problem. High blood pressure and heart trouble led to a stay in hospital in Sydney in 1920; she was sent to Goulburn by her doctor to escape the pressure of city life at different times between 1921 and 1924. In 1925 a third volume of verse, The Tilted Cart, appeared; the poems were accompanied by copious notes indicating her keen interest in recording the minutiae of the pioneer past.

Mary Gilmore's final years with the Worker were not placid: she resigned at the end of January 1931. Her book of verse, The Wild Swan, had been published in 1930, its radical themes, together with its anguish over the ravaging of the land by white civilization and the destruction of Aboriginal lore, making it her most impressive work to that point. It was followed in 1931 by the book of largely religious verse, The Rue Tree, which she claimed was a tribute to the Sisters of the Convent of Mercy at Goulburn, and in 1932 by Under the Wilgas. Her twin books of prose reminiscences, Old Days, Old Ways: a Book of Recollections and More Recollections were published in 1934 and 1935. In them she recaptures the spirit and atmosphere of pioneering. These anecdotal accounts which present 'Australia as she was when she was most Australian' are lively and attractive examples of her skill as a prose writer and, although unreliable and romanticized, have become invaluable sources of the legend of the pioneer days. (Australian dictionary of Biography).

On banknote you can see a signature of Dame Mary Gilmore.

Mary GilmoreMary Gilmore, portrait by Sir Dobell. Art Gallery NSW.

Her last years were made memorable by ever-increasing signs of public esteem. Her birthdays were celebrated publicly by Sydney literati and ordinary folk alike; streets, roads, schools, old people's homes were named after her; literary awards and scholarships were given in her name; visitors from Australia's literary and political world, and overseas admirers, made regular pilgrimages to her; her pronouncements were highlighted by the media; she made television and radio appearances; she led May Day processions as the May Queen. She died on 3 December 1962 (Eureka Day) and, after a state funeral at St Stephen's Presbyterian Church, Macquarie Street, was cremated, her ashes being buried in her husband's grave in the Cloncurry cemetery, Queensland; she was survived by a grandson. Her estate was valued for probate at £12,023.

Mary Gilmore's significance is both literary and historical. As poet and prose writer she has drawn considerable praise from such connoisseurs of literature as McCrae, FitzGerald, Judith Wright, Douglas Stewart and Tom Inglis Moore. She wrote too much (often on ephemeral trivia) and too hastily, but her best verse-brief lyrics such as "Nationality", "Eve-Song", "The Tenancy", "Never Admit the Pain", "Gallipoli", 'The Flight of the Swans'- are among the permanent gems of Australian poetry. As patriot, feminist, social crusader and folklorist she has now passed into Australian legend.

Besides the Dobell portrait of Dame Mary Gilmore, the Art Gallery of New South Wales holds one by Joshua Smith and a bronze head by Rayner Hoff; portraits by Eric Saunders and Mary McNiven are held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra.

poem micro text

Background of a portrait is micro print, where you can read one of the works of Mary Gilmore. Patriotic poem "No Foe Shall Gather Our Harvest" was written at the beginning of the Second World War, when Australia fought in the anti-Hitler coalition.

Dame Mary Gilmore

It was first published June 29, 1940 in "The Australian Women's Weekly".

On the left, vertically, wrote by poetess hand are two lines, which ends each of the four stanzas of "No foe shall gather our harvest, Or sit on our stockyard rail". The designer have copied it from a letter Dame Mary Gilmore wrote to George Mackaness, at March 2, 1942. The original letter is owned by archives of the National Library of Australia and it is a part of George Mackaness collection.

An engraving in Australian newspaper in 1881"The Illustrated Australian News" 1881

It is a part of engraving "The Woll Season", printed in "The Illustrated Australian News" in 1881. It shows the Bullock team, loaded by wool.

A bullocky is an Australian English term for the driver of a bullock team. The American term is bull whacker. Bullock drivers were also known as teamsters or carriers.

Bullock teams were in use in Sydney, New South Wales in 1795 when they were used for hauling building materials. The early explorers, Hume and Hovell in 1824 and Charles Sturt, later in 1828-9, also used bullock teams during their explorations.

Prior to the gold rushes in Australia, in the mid 19th century, bullock drays carried essential food and station supplies to isolated country areas. On return trips they transported wheat, wool, sugar cane and timber by drays drawn by teams of draught animals (either bullocks or horses) to shipping ports before the advent of rail. They traveled constantly across the landscape, servicing the pastoral stations and settlements far from regional transport hubs and urban centres. Some of the larger stations maintained their own teams for local use when harvesting and transporting wool. Both bullock and horse wagons carried heavy loads of wool and wheat which was the main produce transported over long distances, plus chaff and hay. A bullock wagon could only travel approximately three miles an hour (depending on the load and terrain) therefore it was slower than a horse team.

Bullock drivers were typically skilled tough men who often faced extreme difficulties during their job. Bullockies were also colourful characters, often noted for their strong language. Some did not swear though, relying solely on gesture, talking and whip movements as persuasion for the team’s job at hand. A typical bullocky wore a cabbage tree hat, a twill shirt of that period, moleskin trousers, blucher boots and carried a long bullock whip which in many instances he had made.

During the early years the bullock tracks were very rough with narrow, steep "pinches", plus dangerous river and creek crossings. Many roads still follow the tracks made by bullock teams as they negotiated their way up or down hills via a winding course to make haulage easier.

Bullocks were less excitable and more dependable when faced with difficulties than horses. Furthermore, bullocks were cheaper to purchase, equip and feed. Horses also required complex, expensive leather harness that frequently needed repair. Bullock gear was simple and the yokes were sometimes made by the bullocky from different kinds of timber.

A bullock team hitched to two small jinkers with a dolly in the foreground.

Bullockies often chose Devon cattle because they were plentiful, hardy, tractable and readily matched up the team, which was often a source of pride to the owners. Teams had to be educated to perform their respective tasks, too. The first part of a bullock’s education began when the bullocky tied two young bullocks together with two heavy leather collars and a connecting chain. Thus connected they were turned out to graze and rest until they accepted the close presence of their partner. Untrained bullocks were then put in the centre of the team, where they were more easily controlled with the assistance and guidance of the "leaders” who were well trained to verbal commands. Pairs of bullocks were matched for size and yoked together using a wooden yoke secured to each bullock by a metal bow which was fixed in place by key on top of the yoke. Each pair was connected by a special chain, which ran from a central ring on each yoke to the next pair, thus coupling the team in tandem fashion. The "wheelers" or "polers" were the older, heavier, trained bullocks which were closest to the dray or jinker and helped to slow the load when necessary. Thus then was the team attached to the dray or jinker.

A bullocky walked on the nearside (left) of the bullocks for added control of the team and also because seating was not usually provided on the wagons and jinkers. The bullocky called each bullock by name to adjust its pace and effort. If the whip was needed it was flicked out in front of the bullock driver; then by the use of all his strength he swung it over his head, often twirling it several times before he cracked it or let fall upon the back of a bullock he might wish to reach. Sometimes the bullocky had an “offsider” (a type of an apprentice) who walked on the offside (right) of the team and also assisted the bullocky yoke up and care for the team. Many Australians who have never had contact with bullocky or a team still use the word “offsider’ as a synonym for an assistant, helper or learner.

A bullock whip had a stick handle that was cut from a spotted gum or another native tree and was approximately six or seven feet long. The long handled whip permitted the bullocky to control his bullocks while keeping a safe working distance from the danger of being run down by a large dray or jinker. The thong, often made of plaited greenhide, was 8 to 10 feet long and attached to the handle by a leather loop. These thongs, graduated in thickness from the handle down to the size of a lead pencil at the fall, which was about 2 ½ feet long. The bullockies often didn't use a cracker, but if they did it was knotted into the end of the fall.

A four wheeled jinker with a bullock yoke and bows resting on the pole.

Bullock teams also dragged the heavy logs from some very steep, rough country to be loaded onto a jinker for hauling to a saw mill. Teams of up to thirty bullocks hauled large flat-top wagons or jinkers fitted with a single pole instead of shafts. Timber jinkers were of a four wheel type were capable of carrying large logs up to seven feet in diameter. The less common two wheeled jinkers bore and carried the front of log, leaving the end to trail along behind. Two jinkers could also be connected, with the back jinker linked by a log which would be chained to the front jinker. Jinkers were used in the transport of "Red Gold" Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata), and other logs to sawmills or to a river for further transport. .

Dame Mary Gilmore

If you look closely, on the left, on yellow-orange background, you can see a woman in rural dress. She and country houses on the right and left, on a blue background, also reflect the themes of the poetess' works: about rural Australia, about ordinary working people, about their sorrows and joys, and, of course, about love.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner.


Designer: Max Robinson.

Those discrete to this note include:

(a) On the $10 banknote, microprinted lines from AB ‘Banjo’ Paterson's poem The Man From Snowy River are located near his portrait. On the other side, excerpts from the poem No Foe Shall Gather Our Harvest are microprinted near the image of Dame Mary Gilmore.

(b) On all genuine banknotes the window should be very clear and look like it's an integral part of the banknote, not an addition. Inside the clear window on the $10 banknote there is a printed image of a stylised windmill and an embossed wave pattern.

(c) When the banknote is held up to the light, an image of the Australian Coat of Arms can be seen faintly, under other printing.

(d) When the banknote is held up to the light, a seven-pointed star within a circle is formed by four points on one side of the banknote combining perfectly with three points on the other side.

(e) Multi-coloured and multi-directional patterns of fine lines appear on each side of the banknote.

(f) Under ultraviolet light, the serial numbers on the back of the $10 banknote glow.

(g) Intaglio is raised dark printing with a distinct feel. It's used for the portraits on banknotes and some other design elements.