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1000 Schilling 1961, Austria

in Krause book Number: 141
Years of issue: 02.01.1961 (1962).
Edition: --
Signatures: Generalrat: Karl Dietrich, Präsident: Dr. Reinhard Kamitz, Generaldirektor: Dr. Franz Stöger - Marenpach
Serie: 1956 - 1965 Issue
Specimen of: 02.01.1961
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 160 х 84
Printer: Oesterreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck, Wien

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Schilling 1961

Description

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1000 Schilling 1961

Viktor KaplanViktor Kaplan (November 27, 1876 - August 23, 1934) was an Austrian engineer and the inventor of the Kaplan turbine.

He graduated from high school in Vienna in 1895, after which he attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering and specialised in diesel engines. After working in Vienna with a specialisation in motors, he moved to the German Technical University in Brno to conduct research at the institute of civil engineering. He spent the next three decades of his life in Brno, and nearly all his inventions and research are connected with his professorship there. In 1913 he was appointed head of the institute for water turbines.

In 1912 he published his most notable work: the Kaplan turbine, a revolutionary water turbine that was especially fitted to produce electricity from large streams with only a moderate incline. From 1912 to 1913 he received four patents on these kinds of turbines.

In 1918 the first Kaplan turbine with 26 kW power and a diameter of 60 cm was built by the Storek construction company for a textile manufacturer in Lower Austria. This turbine was used until 1955 and today is exhibited at the Technisches Museum Wien. After the success of the first Kaplan turbines they started being used worldwide and remain one of the most widely used kinds of water turbines.

TurbineRight of the portrait is the Kaplan turbine.

The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable blades. It was developed in 1913 by Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan, who combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted wicket gates to achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level.

The Kaplan turbine was an evolution of the Francis turbine. Its invention allowed efficient power production in low-head applications that was not possible with Francis turbines. The head ranges from 10-70 meters and the output from 5 to 200 MW. Runner diameters are between 2 and 11 meters. Turbines rotate at a constant rate, which varies from facility to facility. That rate ranges from as low as 69.2 rpm. (Bonneville North Powerhouse, Washington U.S.) to 429 rpm. The Kaplan turbine installation believed to generate the most power from its nominal head of 34.65 m. is as of 2013 the Tocoma Power Plant (Venezuela) Kaplan turbine generating 235 MW. with each of ten 4.8 m. diameter runners.

Viktor Kaplan living in Brno, Czech Republic, obtained his first patent for an adjustable blade propeller turbine in 1912. But the development of a commercially successful machine would take another decade. Kaplan struggled with cavitation problems, and in 1922 abandoned his research for health reasons.

In 1919 Kaplan installed a demonstration unit at Poděbrady, Czechoslovakia. In 1922 Voith introduced an 1100 HP (about 800 kW) Kaplan turbine for use mainly on rivers. In 1924 an 8 MW unit went on line at Lilla Edet, Sweden. This marked the commercial success and widespread acceptance of Kaplan turbines.

The Kaplan turbine is an outward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. Power is recovered from both the hydrostatic head and from the kinetic energy of the flowing water. The design combines features of radial and axial turbines.

The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin.

The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy.

The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the draft tube remains full of water. A higher turbine location, however, increases the suction that is imparted on the turbine blades by the draft tube. The resulting pressure drop may lead to cavitation.

Variable geometry of the wicket gate and turbine blades allow efficient operation for a range of flow conditions. Kaplan turbine efficiencies are typically over 90%, but may be lower in very low head applications.

Current areas of research include CFD driven efficiency improvements and new designs that raise survival rates of fish passing through.

Because the propeller blades are rotated on high-pressure hydraulic oil bearings, a critical element of Kaplan design is to maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the waterway. Discharge of oil into rivers is not desirable because of the waste of resources and resulting ecological damage.

Kaplan turbines are now widely used throughout the world in high-flow, low-head power production.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words centered.

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1000 Schilling 1961

Ybbs-Persenbeug Run-of-River Power Plant.

Ybbs-Persenbeug Preliminary projects. Ybbs-Persenbeug is the oldest of the Austrian Danube power plants. The first projects for Danube power plants in the vicinity of Aschach, Ottensheim and Wallsee go right back to 1910 and were developed by Swiss engineer Ludwig Fischer-Reinau. Engineer Oskar Höhn, a fellow Swiss, designed a power plant project for Ybbs-Persenbeug from 1922.

The "Syndikat für das Donaukraftwerk Ybbs-Persenbeug" (Syndicate for the Danube power plant of Ybbs-Persenbeug), whose members comprised Höhn, the "Wiener Bankverein", the "Österreichische Creditanstalt für Handel und Gewerbe" in Vienna and the "Schweizerische Gesellschaft für elektrische Industrie" in Basel, submitted the project for approval in 1928. In 1932 the Syndicate was granted the concession by the International Danube Commission for the construction, which was to incorporate a double chamber navigation lock on the left bank of the river, four sluiceways, ten Kaplan turbines and a road bridge to connect the banks of the Danube. However, the Syndicate disbanded that same year and the project was never implemented.

Planning and construction works, 1938 until 1945

Following Austria’s occupation, in 1938 Hermann Göring received the order to construct a power plant at Ybbs-Persenbeug. Rhein-Main-Donau AG were commissioned by the National Socialist regime to carry out the plant construction, whereupon they acquired Oskar Höhn’s design in the same year and modified it: In contrast to Höhn's design, six sluiceways and eight hydroelectric generating sets were now envisaged.

For the execution of the power plant construction, Rhein-Main-Donau AG founded the "St. Pölten Building Department of the Danube Power Plant of Ybbs-Persenbeug" and commissioned Franz Makovec with the detailed planning of the power plant. Work subsequently began on the development of the construction site, only to be interrupted again as early as 1939.

In that same year, Arno Fischer was appointed head of Rhein-Main-Donau AG and altered the concept into a power plant that lay below the water surface, a so-called "underwater power plant". Fischer pushed his plans through despite much resistance - Hermann Grengg and Harald Lauffer had rallied for a pier power plant instead - and, in 1941, work once again began on the power plant in line with his design: A freight train connection was installed at Ybbs railway station and a steel bridge was built across the Ybbs. The Ybbs terrain was replenished and a rail connection was also created on the left bank. Furthermore, a cableway was installed for the transportation of aggregates from the right to the left bank, an aggregate processing plant was also installed.

Although, at the order of the inspector general for water and energy, the construction of Ybbs-Persenbeug was given an increased level of priority in 1941, it was ultimately no surprise that the work started in 1942 could not be completed before the end of the war. Thus, at the end of 1943, the works on the right bank of the Danube were abandoned, followed by those on the left bank of the Danube at the start of 1944.

At this point in time the lock building pit was in place on the left bank, with foundations for two lock wall blocks, a freight train connection, a camp for the workforce and a concrete factory with a cement offloading facility; the right bank had walls of steel sheet piling for the power plant building pit, along with prepared foundations. The headwater and tailwater inlets were also largely excavated. The aggregate processing plant, a crude gravel depot, the material inspection area and the freight train from Ybbs to the construction site were equally ready.

Forced labourers were employed during the period of the National Socialist regime: Thus, at the end of 1941, 88 of the 398 workers were Russian prisoners of war. In 1942 there were 1,430 workers on the construction site, 684 of which were foreigners, whereby the proportion of prisoners of war has not been disclosed. The end of 1943 also saw the employment of British prisoners of war. Of the just under 1,000 recorded labourers, 490 came from Italy.

After 1938, a camp to accommodate 350 men was erected on the slope to the north of the lock. This camp would later be expanded to accommodate an additional 200 men. Further camp names were Frühlingsberg, Lahnhof, Kalkgrub, Willersbach and Persenbeug. During the time of National Socialism, foreign labourers were accommodated separately from the Austrian and German workers.

Plans after 1945.

After the end of the war, the sites were seized as "German property" and then handed over to the construction companies of Uprawlenije Sowjetskim Imuschtschestwom w Awstriji (USIA). In October 1945, the Republic of Austria commissioned Anton Grzywienski with a redesign of the Danube power plants. His design envisaged an inlet power plant with eight hydroelectric generating sets and five weir openings. A two-lane road bridge was planned. The water rights negotiations from 8 until 12 July 1947 remained unresolved, since amendments were demanded from various parties.

In the post-war period, Rudolf Partl developed a further project comprising a pier power plant with locks on the right bank of the river. Following the nationalisation of the energy industry and the 1947 founding of the Österreichische Donaukraftwerke AG, the company’s management board in turn planned a project of its own, which was submitted to the water authority in 1948. The division into two power houses, separated by a weir system, can be traced back to Hans Graßberger, who was a member of the board of Österreichische Donaukraftwerke AG at the time. Negotiations with the water authority nevertheless had to be abandoned on account of unsettled ownership structure issues. It was only after the signing of a contract between the Republic of Austria and the Soviet Union on 17 July 1953, in which the plants in Ybbs-Persenbeug were approved for completion, that a final plan could be tackled. This was presented to the water authority in December 1953, and the water rights negotiations finally took place in summer 1954.

On account of the sites already in existence, the maintenance of which devoured considerable means between 1945 and 1953, it was no longer possible for the power plant to be freely planned. In particular the site of the lock system remained unaltered on account of the existing construction pit. The only thing that could be chosen freely was the location of the weir axis, which would have to be placed as far upriver as possible. Of the now six hydroelectric generating sets, three were housed in the so-called north power plant and three in the so-called south power plant. It was intended that the entire length of the lock wall project beyond the normal water level. This led to discussions on account of its proximity to Persenbeug Palace. However, by means of a reduction in the wall height, it was possible to realise a design that blended in with the area surrounding the palace. Furthermore, in contrast to the otherwise customary arrangement in the tailwater area, the lock bridges were led across the headwater side.

On the other hand, a further architectural monument was removed - namely Palace Donaudorf, which was situated on the south bank to the west of the plant. The 17th century palace had already been acquired in 1938 for use as a building for the construction site management. Since, in the construction design, the site fell in the headwater area of the inlet power plant, the buildings were removed after 1955 - with the exception of two outbuildings used as a material inspection site and for accommodation purposes. A room decor with frescoes by Johann Nepomuk Bergl was transferred to the library of Palace Laudon in the 14th district of Vienna.

In April 1954, Österreichische Donaukraftwerke AG announced an architecture competition for the design of the entire power plant with power house, lock, operations buildings and reservoir. Winner of the first prize was architect Karl Hauschka, who was also commissioned with the execution of his project. The second prize went to Clemens Holzmeister, whilst the third prize was awarded to the architect team of Lang-Stiegholzer.

Execution of the construction works.

The construction works for the implementation of this plan began on 1 October 1954. Two Danube floods in July 1955 and in March 1956 resulted in the flooding of all construction pits. Nevertheless, it was possible to start operations in the south lock in December 1965 as planned. April 1957 saw the approval of the north lock. In August 1957, it was possible to create a partial reservoir at 224.13 m above sea level. 1957 saw the commissioning of the hydroelectric generating sets of the south power plant, followed by the commissioning of the hydroelectric generating sets of the north power plant in the years 1958 through to 1959, whereby unit I was the first to start on 28 September 1957, and unit V started as the last of the generating sets on 9 June 1959. In the meantime, the reservoir reached its capacity, at 226.2 m above sea level, in November 1958."Ybbs-Persenbeug Run-of-River Power Plant"

On the right side, on the cliff, is Persenbeug castle.

The first historical mention of the castle Persenbeug dates back to the year 970 AD. Sieghart, Count to Semt and Ebersberg from Bavaria, took possession of "Persinpiugun" and the fortified castle.

Over the centuries, the castle often changed hands. Until year 1593 it was temporarily and continually in possession of territorial princes. Later, the House of Hoyos acquired the estate. During this time, the castle was extended and transformed to its current form. On December 3rd, 1800, emperor Franz I from Austria acquired the castle with all its belonging manorial estates, which thus passes into an independent, private ownership. Approximately during the same time period also the lordship Gutenbrunn changed possession into the private fund of Franz I.

Over various hereditary successions, the lordships Persenbeug and Gutenbrunn changed possession to emperor Franz Josef I from Austria, followed by his daughter Marie-Valerie in year 1916. Still, some of her descendents form the informal co-owners community existing today."Persenbeug castle"

On the right side - Austrian coat of arms.

coat

The current coat of arms of Austria, albeit without the broken chains, has been in use by the Republic of Austria since 1919. Between 1934 and the German annexation in 1938 Austria used a different coat of arms, which consisted of a double-headed eagle. The establishment of the Second Republic in 1945 saw the return of the original (First Republic) arms, with broken chains added to symbolise Austria's liberation.

The blazon of the Federal Arms of the Republic of Austria reads:

Gules a fess Argent, escutcheon on the breast of an eagle displayed Sable, langued Gules, beaked Or, crowned with a mural crown of three visible merlons Or, armed Or, dexter talon holding sickle, sinister talon holding hammer, both talons shackled with chain broken Argent.

The symbols and emblems used in the Austrian arms are as follows:

The Eagle: Austria's sovereignty (introduced 1919)

The escutcheon Emblem of Austria (late Middle Ages, reintroduced 1915)

The mural crown: The middle class (introduced 1919)

The sickle: Agriculture (introduced 1919)

The Hammer: Industry (introduced 1919)

The broken chains: Liberation from National Socialist dictatorship (added 1945).

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words lower, centered.

Comments:

Issued in circulation: 05.02.1962

Security thread.

Designer: Roman Hellmann.

Born in 1921 in Schwarzach-St. Veit (Salzburg).

Graphic designer. Studied at the Academy of Applied Arts in Vienna. At the beginning of his work commissioned graphic examples for "Elin, Felten & Guilleaume", the Austrian Chamber of Commerce and the Cultural Department of the City of Vienna. From 1952 until his retirement, in 1978, banknote designer at the Austrian National Bank. Hellmann conducted in the National Bank the transition from employment freelance artist out to fix a salaried graphic designers. Designed all Austrian banknotes from 20 shillings 1956 to 50 schilling of 1970th. In addition, design of numerous test scores and advertising on behalf of "De La Rue Giori".

There are two variants of 1000-shilling note from 1961 (Viktor Kaplan) exist. The first Kaplan 1000th (which should replace 1000 Schilling note with Anton Bruckner) was due to the motif and the size (150x75 mm) to be confused very easily with the Johann-Strauss Note (100 Schilling from 1960).

Due to this confusion the new sized banknotes (160x84 mm) were issued instead of "small Viktor-Kaplan-1000-shilling bills", which have been circulating only about 11 weeks after the issuance.

Back in 1961 it was not so simple to lay this bill out, that's why almost all "small Kaplan-thousands" were replaced by the larger output by National Bank. Only about 160 pieces left on the hands. That is why it cost now, between collectors, around several thousand Euros.