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10 Rand 2005, South Africa

in Krause book Number: 128
Years of issue: 2005 - 2009
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Tito Mboweni (08.08.1999 - 08.11.2009).
Serie: 2005 Fourth Issue "English & Other Official Languages"
Specimen of: 2005
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 128 x 70
Printer: South African Bank Note Company (Pty) Ltd, Pretoria

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Rand 2005

Description

Watermark:

watermark

White rhino and denomination 10.

Avers:

10 Rand 2005

Closeup of white rhino head, another at a distance with a rhinoceros baby.

Ceratotherium simumThe white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is the largest and most numerous species of rhinoceros that exists. It has a wide mouth used for grazing and is the most social of all rhino species.

A popular theory of the origins of the name "white rhinoceros" is a mistranslation from Dutch to English. The English word "white" is said to have been derived by mistranslation of the Dutch word "wijd", which means "wide" in English. The word "wide" refers to the width of the rhinoceros' mouth. So early English-speaking settlers in South Africa misinterpreted the "wijd" for "white" and the rhino with the wide mouth ended up being called the white rhino and the other one, with the narrow pointed mouth, was called the black rhinoceros. Ironically, Dutch (and Afrikaans) later used a calque of the English word, and now also call it a white rhino. This suggests the origin of the word was before codification by Dutch writers. A review of Dutch and Afrikaans literature about the rhinoceros has failed to produce any evidence that the word wijd was ever used to describe the rhino outside of oral use. Other popular theories suggest the name comes from its wide appearance throughout Africa, its color due to wallowing in calcareous soil or bird droppings or because of the lighter colour of its horn.

An alternative name for the white rhinoceros, more accurate but rarely used, is the square-lipped rhinoceros. The white rhinoceros' generic name, Ceratotherium, given by the zoologist John Edward Gray in 1868, is derived from the Greek terms keras (κερας) "horn" and therion (θηριον) "beast". Simum, is derived from the Greek term simus (σιμος), meaning "flat nosed".

At bottom are geometric figures.

Top left is coat of arms of South Africa.

coat

"Or, representations of two San human figures of red ochre, statant respectant, the hands of the innermost arms clasped, with upper arm, inner wrist, waist and knee bands Argent, and a narrow border of red ochre; the shield ensigned of a spear and knobkierie in saltire, Sable. There above a demi-secretary bird displayed Or, charged on the breast with a stylized representation of a protea flower with outer petals Vert, inner petals Or and seeded of nine triangles conjoined in three rows, the upper triangle Gules, the second row Vert, Or inverted and Vert, and the third row Vert, Or inverted, Sable, Or inverted and Vert. Above the head of the secretary bird an arc of seven rays facetted Or and Orange, the two outer rays conjoined to the elevated wings.

Upon a riband Vert, the motto in letters Argent. Issuant from the ends of the riband two pairs of elephant tusks curving inwards, the tips conjoined to the wings of the secretary bird, Or, there within and flanking the shields, two ears of wheat Brunatré".

The first element is the motto, in a green semicircle. Completing the semicircle are two symmetrically placed pairs of elephant tusks pointing upwards. Within the oval shape formed by the tusks are two symmetrical ears of wheat, that in turn frame a centrally placed gold shield.

The shape of the shield makes reference to the drum, and contains two human figures from Khoisan rock art. The figures are depicted facing one another in greeting and in unity.

Above the shield are a spear and a knobkierie, crossed in a single unit. These elements are arranged harmoniously to give focus to the shield and complete the lower oval shape of foundation.

The motto

The motto is written in the Khoisan language of the Xam people, literally meaning "diverse people unite". It addresses each individual effort to harness the unity between thought and action. On a collective scale it calls for the nation to unite in a common sense of belonging and national pride - unity in diversity.

The ears of wheat

An emblem of fertility, it also symbolizes the idea of germination, growth and the feasible development of any potential. It relates to the nourishment of the people and signifies: the agricultural aspects of the Earth.

Elephant tusks

Elephants symbolize wisdom, strength, moderation and eternity.

The shield

It has a dual function as a vehicle for the display of identity and of spiritual defence. It contains the primary symbol of our nation.

The human figures

The figures are depicted in an attitude of greeting, symbolizing unity. This also represents the beginning of the individual’s transformation into the greater sense of :belonging to the nation and by extension, collective humanity.

The spear and knobkierie

Dual symbols of defence and authority, they in turn represent the powerful legs of the secretary bird. The spear and knobkierie are lying down, symbolizing peace.

Immediately above the oval shape of foundation, is the visual center of the coat of arms, a protea. The petals of the protea are rendered in a triangular pattern reminiscent of the crafts of Africa.

The secretary bird is placed above the protea and the flower forms the chest of the bird. The secretary bird stands with its wings uplifted in a regal and uprising gesture. The distinctive head feathers of the secretary bird crown a strong and vigilant head. The rising sun above the horizon is placed between the wings of the secretary bird and completes the oval shape of ascendance.

The combination of the upper and lower oval shapes intersect to form an unbroken infinite course, and the great harmony between the basic elements result in a dynamic, elegant and thoroughly distinctive design. Yet it clearly retains the stability, gravity and immediacy that a coat of arms demands.

The King protea

ProteaProtea

The protea is an emblem of the beauty of our land and the flowering of our potential as a nation in pursuit of the African Renaissance. The protea symbolizes the holistic: integration of forces that grow from the Earth and are nurtured from above. The most popular colors of Africa have been assigned to the protea - green, gold, red and black.

The secretary bird

The secretary bird is characterized in flight, the natural consequence of growth and speed. It is the equivalent of the lion on Earth. A powerful bird whose legs - depicted as the :spear and knobkierie - serve it well in its hunt for snakes, symbolizing protection of the nation against its enemies. It is a messenger of the heavens and conducts its grace upon :the Earth. In this sense it is a symbol of divine majesty. Its uplifted wings are an emblem of the ascendance of our nation, while simultaneously offering us its protection. It is :depicted in gold, which clearly symbolizes its association with the sun and the highest power.

The rising sun

An emblem of brightness, splendour and the supreme principle of the nature of energy. It symbolizes the promise of rebirth, the active faculties of reflection, knowledge, good judgement and willpower. It is the symbol of the source of life, of light and the ultimate wholeness of humanity.

Lower left is a coincides image, as security measure.

Below, centered, is one diamond for the visually impaired.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners, in words in top right corner.

Revers:

10 Rand 2005

Agriculture.

On background are the mountains and the sun.

Above are three contour image of sunflowers.

In South Africa, a very well-developed and modern high-efficiency agriculture. Climate and geographic features of South Africa is not very conducive to agriculture, only 12% of the area suitable for cultivation, but despite this the country is a major exporter of food products, especially wine, corn, tobacco, peanuts and other products.

In rural South Africa farm employs about 10% of employees, its products account for about 3% of GDP and 8% of the country's exports.

In agricultural cooperatives South Africa cultivated sunflower, avocado, sugarcane, peanuts, beans, corn, mango, wheat, plums, sorghum, soybeans, tobacco, cotton, citrus, barley, pineapple, oranges, grapes, apples and other crops.

Head of ram. Lower are sheep on the pasture.

South African merinoSouth African merino sheep.

Shearing from sheep is 9-12 kg, from queens - 6-8 kg. The fineness of the fibers of 21.7 microns.

The Merino is by far the most important sheep breed in South Africa. According to official estimates there are presently about 30,5 million sheep in the Republic and National States of which 24,2 mil. or 79,4% are wooled sheep. Although no exact figures are available, it can be accepted that the vast majority of the latter are Merinos and Merino derivates.

The Merino is of great importance to South Africa's prosperity, earning more than US $200 million annually in foreign exchange from wool exports, granting employment opportunities to thousands of inhabitants and clothing and feeding millions. South Africa is not richly endowed with agricultural resources but, by the utilization of genetic resources such as the Merino, a livestock industry comparable to the best in the world has been established.

The main livestock industry is South Africa is sheep wool industry. This direction plays a prominent role in the country's exports. By shearing wool South Africa belongs to one of the leading places in the capitalist world. Amount of livestock in South Africa - 13.5 million heads.

WindmillIn lower left corner is a windmill.

This water pumps are installed in areas, where is no centralized power. Wind turbine converts wind energy into electricity, to lift water from deep wells of the Great Artesian Basin, and to collect it in a special elevated water tanks, located nearby. Extracted the water thus used for household purposes as well as for irrigation.

Since 1876, the brothers Griffiths from Toowoomba, Australia produced such wind turbines, under the trade name of "Windmills of the Southern Cross" (Southern Cross windmill). Received widespread use since 1903, they have become a symbol of Australia's rural areas.

Four denominations are in numerals, one in words.

Comments:

In the 1990s, the notes were redesigned with images of the Big Five wildlife species. 10, 20 and 50 rand notes were introduced in 1992, retaining the colour scheme of the previous issue. Coins were introduced for 2 rand and 5 rand, replacing the notes of the previous series, mainly because of the severe wear and tear experienced with low denomination notes in circulation. In 1994 notes were introduced for 100 and 200 rand.

The 2005 series has the same principal design, but with additional security features such as color shifting ink on the 50 rand and higher and the EURion constellation. The obverses of all denominations are printed in English, while two other languages are printed on the reverses, thus making use of all eleven official languages of South Africa.

In Africa, the big five game animals are the African lion, African elephant, Cape buffalo, African leopard, and White/Black rhinoceros.

The term big five game (sometimes capitalized or quoted as "Big Five") was coined by big-game hunters and refers to the five most difficult animals in Africa to hunt on foot. Subsequently the term was adopted by safari tour operators for marketing purposes. The term is used in most tourist and wildlife guides that discuss African wildlife safaris. The members of the Big Five were chosen for the difficulty in hunting them and the degree of danger involved, rather than their size.