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100 Dollars 2008, Australia

in Krause book Number: 61a
Years of issue: 2008
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia: Mr. Glenn R. Stevens, Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. Ken Henry.
Serie: Polymer Serie
Specimen of: 2008
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 158 x 65
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Dollars 2008

Description

Watermark:

Australian coat of arms.

coat of arms Australia

The coat of arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The initial coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts.

In the top half of the shield, from left to right, the states represented are: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. In the bottom half, from left to right: South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. Six of the points on the star represent the original six states, while the seventh point represents the combined territories and any future states of Australia. In its entirety the shield represents the federation of Australia.

The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield are the unofficial animal emblems of the nation. They owe this recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent), and likely chosen because they are the most well-known native Australian animals large enough to be positioned together in scale holding up the shield. It is often claimed these animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only forward - i.e. progress. In reality both animals can move backwards, but infrequently do. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate.At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of the nation. Neither the wreath of wattle nor the scroll are technically part of the official design described on the Royal Warrant that grants the armorial design.

lyrebird

Vignette, depicting lyrebird and denomination in numeral 100.

lyrebird

A lyrebird is either of two species of ground-dwelling Australian birds, that form the genus, Menura, and the family Menuridae. They are most notable for their superb ability to mimic natural and artificial sounds from their environment. As well as their extraordinary mimicking ability, lyrebirds are notable because of the striking beauty of the male bird's huge tail when it is fanned out in display; and also because of their courtship display. Lyrebirds have unique plumes of neutral colored tailfeathers and are among Australia's best-known native birds.

Avers:

100 Dollars 2008

Nellie MelbaThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo by the Australian photographer, Henry Walter Barnett. This photograph appeared in a 1909 biography by Agnes G. Murphy.

During the Edwardian period in England and France’s Belle Époque (beautiful era), there was renewed appreciation of mature women such as Nellie Melba, and the actresses Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923) and Lillie Langtry (1853-1929). The hourglass silhouette was emphasized by corsets and bodices, as seen in the photograph of Melba by the Australian photographer, Henry Walter Barnett. The period also saw the

development of haute couture or high fashion, and Melba sought designs for her dresses from Charles Frederick Worth, considered to be the "father of haute couture".

Dame Nellie Melba GBE (19 May 1861 - 23 February 1931), born Helen "Nellie" Porter Mitchell, was an Australian operatic soprano.

Nelli MelbaMelba on stage in 1911

She became one of the most famous singers of the late Victorian Era and the early 20th century. She was the first Australian to achieve international recognition as a classical musician.

Melba studied singing in Melbourne and made a modest success in performances there. After a brief and unsuccessful marriage, she moved to Europe in search of a singing career. Failing to find engagements in London in 1886, she studied in Paris and soon made a great success there and in Brussels. Returning to London she quickly established herself as the leading lyric soprano at Covent Garden from 1888. She soon achieved further success in Paris and elsewhere in Europe, and later at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, debuting there in 1893. Her repertoire was small; in her whole career she sang no more than 25 roles and was closely identified with only ten. She was known for her performances in French and Italian opera, but sang little German opera.

During the First World War, Melba raised large sums for war charities. She returned to Australia frequently during the 20th century, singing in opera and concerts, and had a house, built for her near Melbourne. She was active in the teaching of singing at the Melbourne Conservatorium. Melba continued to sing until the last months of her life and made a legendary number of "farewell" appearances.

Нелли МельбаMelba's monument in Melbourne

Her death, in Australia, was news across the English-speaking world, and her funeral was a major national event.

The interior of Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, is shown at the left, being the site of a special performance by her in 1903. Melba is in the foreground.

Concert programm with Melba's monogram

The Australian Concert Tour programme of 1902 complete with a monogram designed by her is also shown.

Denomination in numeral and in words top right.

Revers:

100 Dollars 2008

General Sir John Monash (27 June 1865- 8 October 1931) was a civil engineer who became the Australian military commander in the First World War. He commanded the 13th Infantry Brigade before the war and then, shortly after the outbreak of the war, became commander of the 4th Brigade in Egypt, with whom he took part in the Gallipoli campaign. In July 1916, he took charge of the new Australian 3rd Division in northwestern France and in May 1918 he was made commander of the Australian Corps, at the time the largest corps on the Western Front. On 8 August 1918 the successful Allied attack at the Battle of Amiens, which led to the expedited end to the war, was planned by Monash and spearheaded by British forces including the Australian and Canadian Corps under Monash and Arthur Currie. Monash is considered to be one of the best Allied generals of the First World War.

The badge of the Rising Sun

On the left side and centered in background - The badge of the Rising Sun. The third pattern Rising Sun badge carried a scroll inscribed with the words "Australian Commonwealth Military Forces" and was worn throughout both World Wars. There were, however, a number of variations of the badge; a special version was struck for the coronation of King Edward VII in 1902 and there were badges of the Commonwealth Horse and the Australian Instructional Corps, each with its respective title on the scrolls. This pattern badge formed the template for all subsequent General Service badges.(Australian army).

John Simpson Kirkpatrick and the donkeyJohn Simpson Kirkpatrick and the donkey Wikipedia

On the brown background a soldier John Simpson Kirkpatrick and the donkey.

John "Jack" Simpson Kirkpatrick (6 July 1892 - 19 May 1915), who served under the name John Simpson, was a stretcher bearer with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) during the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I. After landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, he obtained a donkey and began carrying wounded British Empire soldiers from the front line to the beach, for evacuation. He continued this work for three and a half weeks, often under fire, until he was killed, during the Third attack on Anzac Cove. Simpson and his Donkey are a part of the "Anzac legend".

An image based on the monument in Melbourne.

Artillery

Soldiers, the cavalry and cannon are shown to the right, participating in a battle, which led to the breaking of the Hindenberg Line, one of Monash's more spectacular victories.

Denomination in numeral top right.

Comments:

Designer: Bruce Stewart.

Times magazineFoto from Times magazine 18 April 1927

Melba was the first Australian, whose picture appeared on the cover of the magazine of the London Times.

The Peach Melba

The Peach Melba is a dessert of peaches and raspberry sauce with vanilla ice cream. The dish was invented in 1892 or 1893 by the French chef Auguste Escoffier at the Savoy Hotel, London, to honour the Australian soprano, Nellie Melba.

In 1892, Nellie Melba was performing in Wagner's opera Lohengrin at Covent Garden. The Duke of Orléans gave a dinner party to celebrate her triumph. For the occasion, Escoffier created a new dessert, and to display it, he used an ice sculpture of a swan, which is featured in the opera. The swan carried peaches which rested on a bed of vanilla ice cream and which were topped with spun sugar. In 1900 Escoffier created a new version of the dessert. For the occasion of the opening of the Carlton Hotel, where he was head chef, Escoffier omitted the ice swan and topped the peaches with raspberry purée. Other versions of this dessert use pears, apricots, or strawberries instead of peaches and/or use raspberry sauce or melted red currant jelly instead of raspberry purée.