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5 Pounds 1956, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 160c
Years of issue: 1956 - 10.07.1967
Edition: --
Signatures: Chief Cashier: Mr. R. N. Fleming (in office 1956-1968)
Serie: Till 1967 English currency system. Second Issue
Specimen of: 06.02.1940
Material: 100% raw cotton
Size (mm): 172 х 89
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Pounds 1956

Description

Watermark:

King Tāwhiao

King Tāwhiao (Tūkāroto Matutaera Pōtatau Te Wherowhero Tāwhiao, born circa 1825 - died 26 August 1894).

King Pōtatau was succeeded by his son, Tāwhiao, who was proclaimed king on 5 July 1860 at Ngāruawāhia. Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpīpī Te Waharoa anointed him in the whakawahinga ceremony, using the same bible that he had used for Pōtatau’s investiture.

The Waikato war.

The first years of Tāwhiao’s reign were dominated by war. Governor Thomas Gore Browne demanded Tāwhiao submit 'without reserve' to Queen Victoria.1

Gore Browne’s successor, Sir George Grey, was also not prepared to accept dual sovereigns in New Zealand. On a visit to Ngāruawāhia Grey famously declared that ‘I shall not fight against him with the sword, but I shall dig round him till he falls of his own accord.’2 Grey spent little time testing this isolating policy. He quickly authorised his military to cross the Mangatāwhiri Stream (which Tāwhiao had established as an aukati or boundary) and invade the Waikato in July 1863.

The Waikato war ensued, with major battles leading to an ultimate defeat for Waikato. Tāwhiao and his fellow ‘Kingites’ were forced to retreat across the Pūniu River into Te Nehenehenui (the great forest), to their neighbouring Ngāti Maniapoto relatives.

Land confiscation.

Tāwhiao and his followers were declared rebels and some 1.2 million acres (almost 500,000 hectares) of their fertile lands were confiscated. The return of these confiscated lands became a central concern for Tāwhiao and subsequent Waikato leaders. Their catchcry was ‘I riro whenua atu, me hoki whenua mai’3 (as land was taken then land should be given back).

Tāwhiao and Ngāti Maniapoto leaders established an aukati (boundary) along the confiscation line at the Pūniu River, forbidding European intrusion. The territory beyond the aukati subsequently became known as the King Country.

Formal peace.

From his exile, a more pacifist Tāwhiao declared that killing must cease. However, he also argued against land surveys, land sales, courts, gold mining, telegraphs, schools, and the Pākehā justice system. Suspicious of the Pākehā, Tāwhiao stated in 1869 that Māori and Pākehā should remain separate. However, in 1881, after a number of years of negotiations with the government, Tāwhiao and his followers symbolically laid down their weapons before the resident magistrate at Alexandra (Pirongia) and returned to the Waikato.

Trip to England.

Tāwhiao did not renounce his efforts to have Waikato’s confiscated lands returned. In 1884 he travelled to England with several companions to seek redress from Queen Victoria. Tāwhiao’s tattooed face caused heads to turn in London, but he and his Māori embassy were declined an audience with the queen. He was informed by the colonial secretary that confiscations were a domestic matter under the jurisdiction of the New Zealand government.

On his return, Tāwhiao instituted the poukai - annual visits to marae, principally in the Waikato, to comfort the widowed, bereaved and impoverished. The first poukai was at Whatiwhatihoe in 1885, and this tradition has continued into the 2000s, where almost 30 marae hold poukai and are visited by the sovereign.

Political independence.

Tāwhiao continued his quest for mana motuhake (Māori political independence), setting up the Kauhanganui, a parliament, in 1892. It had a council of 12 tribal representatives (the Tekau-mā-rua), as well as ministers. Tupu Taingākawa, the second son of Wiremu Tāmihana (and kingmaker at the time), was the tumuaki (premier). Tāwhiao was offered, and accepted, a government pension. There was much iwi concern about the implication that he had given up his independence, and the pension was paid back, with interest.

King Tāwhiao died on 26 August 1894 at Pārāwera. He was buried on Taupiri mountain, the sacred burial ground of the Waikato, where King Pōtatau was to be reinterred in 1903. Some 3,000 Māori from all parts of the country attended Tāwhiao’s tangihanga. (the Māori King movement )

Avers:

5 Pounds 1956

James Cook

It is possible, that the prototype image of James Cook on the banknote was the work by artist Nathaniel Dance, finished in London on 25 May 1776.

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment in both Cook's career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.

In three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously achieved. As he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.

Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century and numerous memoria worldwide have been dedicated to him.

Centered - the Arms of New Zealand with the words “Promise to Pay”.

Coat of arms New Zealand

The initial coat of arms was granted by King George V on the 26 August 1911.

Since 1911, the central shield has remained unaltered: a quartered shield containing in the first quarter four stars representing the Southern Cross constellation, as depicted on the national flag, but with the stars in different proportions; in the second quarter, a golden fleece representing the farming industry; in the third, a wheat sheaf representing agriculture; and in the fourth, two hammers representing mining and industry. Over all this is a pale, a broad vertical strip, with three ships representing the importance of sea trade, and the immigrant nature of all New Zealanders.

Before 1956, the shield was identical, but the surrounding features were different. The crest was a demi-lion (the upper half of a rampant lion) holding the British Union Flag, and the scroll at the shield's base featured the then motto of the country, "Onward". Early renditions of the Coat of Arms are often featured with more stylised scrolling rather than fern leaves.

The original supporters were also slightly different. The woman had reddish-brown hair, and both figures faced forward rather than towards the shield. Though there is no direct documentary evidence, it is likely that the original model for the woman was Wellington socialite Alice Spragg. The model for the Māori warrior is unknown. The woman is identified as Zealandia, the national personification of New Zealand.

Koruru

On the right and left are Maori stylized patterns and, presumably, The Koruru Masks. They are usually mounted on the gables of meeting houses Marae and are referred to as "The guardian of the house".

In Māori society, the marae is a place where the culture can be celebrated, where the Māori language can be spoken, where intertribal obligations can be met, where customs can be explored and debated, where family occasions such as birthdays can be held, and where important ceremonies, such as welcoming visitors or farewelling the dead (tangihanga), can be performed. Like the related institutions of old Polynesia, the marae is a wāhi tapu, a 'sacred place' which carries great cultural meaning.

In Māori usage, the marae atea (often shortened to marae) is the open space in front of the wharenui or meeting house (literally "large building"). However, the term marae is generally used to refer to the whole complex, including the buildings and the open space. This area is used for pōwhiri - welcome ceremonies featuring oratory. Some marae do not allow women to perform oratory there. The meeting house is the locale for important meetings, sleepovers, and craft and other cultural activities. The wharekai (dining hall) is used primarily for communal meals, but other activities may be carried out there. Many of the words associated with marae in tropical Polynesia are retained in the Māori context. For example, the word paepae refers to the bench where the speakers sit; this means it retains its sacred and ceremonial associations. Marae occur in various sizes, with some wharenui being a bit bigger than a double garage and some being larger than a town hall.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners. In words are in bottom corners and in center.

Revers:

5 Pounds 1956

Left side - a fantail (Piwakawaka) bird.

Piwakawaka

The New Zealand Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa) is a small insectivorous bird. A common fantail found in the South Island of New Zealand, also in the North Island as subspecies Rhipidura fuliginosa placabilis, the Chatham Islands as Rhipidura fuliginosa penita and formerly (now extinct) the Lord Howe Island as Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina.

Known for its friendly ‘cheet cheet’ call and energetic flying antics, the aptly named fantail is one of the most common and widely distributed native birds on the New Zealand mainland.

It is easily recognized by its long tail which opens to a fan. It has a small head and bill and has two colour forms, pied and melanistic or black. The pied birds are grey-brown with white and black bands.

Apart from hiwaiwaka, tirairaka and tiwakawaka, there are sixteen other dialectal Maori names for the fantail, many of which denote the restlessness of this little bird.

Piwakawaka’s Haka War Dance.

In a showdown battle between the land birds and the sea birds, Piwakawaka postured into a towering position, then danced, glared and performed all manner of gesticulations including jumping from side to side while brandishing a weapon. One can easily see why it is said that the Haka war dance owes something to this dance of the piwakawaka in mythological times.

Tiwakawaka is also the name of a grandson of the demi-god and folk hero Maui (Maui-potiki). He was one of the first Maori settlers to arrive in the Bay of Plenty more than 1000 years ago, well before the main migrations. This was the time of the explorer Kupe and his grandson Nukutawhiti. Tiwakawaka was captain of Te Aratauwhaiti canoe and is said to have been one of Kupe’s people who stayed on when Kupe returned to eastern Polynesia. (Piwakawaka, the fantail)

Other legend of how pivakavaka got his fan tail you will find on the description page here 1 Dollar 1968, and about how Piwakawaka gets even with Maui 1 dollar 1981.

Behind the bird - Clematis paniculata (In Māori: Puawhananga - flower of the skies).

Clematis paniculata

Clematis paniculata is endemic to the North, South and Stewart Islands and is now naturalized on Chatham Islands. It is common in lowland and low mountain slopes on the edge of forest fragments (up to 1000 m a.s.l.).

Clematis paniculata was traditionally a harbinger of spring to Maori, for whom it was also connected with the harvest of eels, a spring event. The Maori made garlands from the flowers.

Andrew Crowe in his book (Which native forest plant) described a beautiful Maori legend for these “stars of the forest”. To some tribes whauwhaupaku (the five finger tree) and puawananga were the offspring of Puanga (Rigel, the bright star of Orion) and Rehua (Antares, the bright star of Scorpion). Their rising as morning stars signals the approach of summer, the period between these two events (June to November) coinciding with the flowering, first of whauwhaupaku (Pseudopanax arboreus and then puawananga (Clematis paniculata).

Centered - Lake Pukaki and Mount Cook / Aoraki.

Lake Pukaki

Lake Pukaki is the largest of three roughly parallel alpine lakes running north-south along the northern edge of the Mackenzie Basin on New Zealand's South Island. The others are Lakes Tekapo and Ohau. All three lakes were created when the terminal moraines of receding glaciers blocked their respective valleys, forming moraine-dammed lakes. The lake is fed at its northern end by the braided Tasman River, which has its source in the Tasman and Hooker Glaciers, close to Aoraki/Mount Cook.

Pukaki’s birth was the result of a peace-making marriage between Ngati Whakaue and Ngati Pikiao of Rotoiti around 1700. Pukaki grew up during a time of armed conflict both within Te Arawa and against wider Bay of Plenty-Waikato tribes. He lived on Mokoia Island in Lake Rotorua and then at Parawai, which is now surrounded by the Ngongotaha township.

In Pukaki’s later years a major tribal war under his leadership resulted in Ngati Whakaue defeating their Tuhourangi relations, forcing them back to Tarawera and taking over the lands of Pukeroa-Oruawhata, where sits today’s city of Rotorua. Most of Ngati Whakaue then left Parawai to take up permanent occupation in the village of Ohinemutu, which remains to this day as a distinctive part of Rotorua. Around this time Pukaki passed away and he was buried in the Mamaku foothills, where the descendants of his elder son, Ngahina, still watch over him today.

Aoraki / Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand, reaching 3,724 meters (12,218 ft). It lies in the Southern Alps, the mountain range which runs the length of the South Island.

The Maori's boat in center. Probably, this legend is about it.

Originally known to the Maori as Aoraki, the mountain is, according to Maori legend, the tallest of three brothers who were on a voyage around Mother Earth, Papatuanuke. After striking a reef in the ocean their canoe became stranded. The brothers climbed onto the top of the canoe where a cold wind from the south froze them, turning all into stone. The Maori believe that the canoe became the South Island of New Zealand, and that Aoraki, the tallest of the brothers became the highest peak on the island. The crew and the other brothers became the other mountains of the Southern Alps.

The Ngāi Tahu, the main iwi (tribe) of New Zealand's southern region, consider Aoraki as the most sacred of the ancestors that they had descended from. Aoraki brings the iwi with its sense of community and purpose, and remains the physical form of Aoraki and the link between the worlds of the supernatural and nature.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words at the bottom center.

Comments:

1 Shilling 1967 1 Shilling 1967 Also the image of Koruru depicted at New Zealand 1 Shilling 1967 coin. One such coin I found at home.

Engraver of portrait of Captain Cook: Nathaniel Dance.

The second series was issued on 6th February 1940. The design and colours for the 10/- and £50 notes were changed. A portrait of Captain James Cook replaced that of King Tawhiao. A green coloured £10 note was also introduced at this time. These notes stayed in circulation until the change to decimal currency in 1967.