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20 Dollars 1968, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 167b
Years of issue: 1968 - 1975
Edition: --
Signatures: Chief Cashier: Mr. D. L. Wilks
Serie: Decimal system. The Third Issue
Specimen of: 10.07.1967
Material: 100% raw cotton
Size (mm): 160 x 80
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Dollars 1968

Description

Watermark:

James Cook

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment in both Cook's career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.

In three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously achieved. As he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.

Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century and numerous memoria worldwide have been dedicated to him.

James Cook

It is possible, that the prototype image of James Cook on the banknote was the work by artist Nathaniel Dance, finished in London on 25 May 1776.

Avers:

20 Dollars 1968

HM The Queen Elizabeth II HM The Queen Elizabeth II.

This portrait of Her Majesty is adapted from a photograph, taken prior to a Royal Tour of India and Pakistan by Anthony Buckley in October 1960, and it is one of the more widely used images of The Queen.(Peter Symes)

I found this image here "National Portrait Gallery". The portrait on banknote is, probably, taken from this photo session.

Her Majesty is shown wearing Queen Alexandra's Kokoshnik Tiara, the King George VI Festoon Necklace, and Queen Mary's Floret Earrings.

Tiara

The Kokoshnik Tiara, which is sometimes known as the Russian Fringe Tiara, was designed in the style of a Russian peasant girl's headdress. The design of the Kokoshnik tiara was based on a similar tiara, owned by Queen Alexandra's sister, The Empress of Russia. Created by "Garrard", the tiara has sixty-one platinum bars set with 488 diamonds. The tiara was presented to Queen Alexandra, while still a princess, on the occasion of her silver wedding anniversary. It was a gift from three hundred and sixty-five peeresses of the realm. The Festoon Necklace was created from one hundred and five diamonds, at the request of King George VI, from diamonds he inherited on becoming King.

The George VI Festoon Necklace

In 1950, King George VI had a diamond necklace created for his daughter Princess Elizabeth using 105 loose collets that were among the Crown heirlooms he inherited. (These, according to Hugh Roberts, had been used by Queen Mary to change the lengths of her multiple diamond collet necklaces, hence their loose status in the collection.) The end result is this take on a triple strand necklace: three strands of graduated collets suspended between two diamond triangles, with a single collet strand at the back. This is also called simply the Queen’s Festoon Necklace, though I’ll use George VI’s name to be a little more specific.

Even though her collection of diamond necklaces has vastly increased since 1950, this is still a favorite with the Queen and she wears it on a fairly regular basis."From her Majesty's Jewel vault".

Queen Mary's Floret Earrings

These diamond and platinum earrings are another example of the multiple changes Queen Mary made to her jewels. The large central stones are the Mackinnon diamonds, a pair of solitaire earrings that were a wedding gift from Sir William Mackinnon to Mary for her wedding in 1893.

The stones were then set as the center of another pair, Queen Mary's Cluster Earrings. Later on, they were replaced and a new setting was created by Garrard, Queen Mary's Floret Earrings. In their new setting, each one is surrounded by seven slightly smaller diamonds. The earrings were inherited by the Queen on Queen Mary's death in 1953. She wears them for occasions like the State Opening of Parliament, the Garter Day ceremony, and other formal events. "From her Majesty's Jewel vault"

Various geometric patterns used to supply the necessary security and enhance the design. Value of note on top left and bottom right corners with the serial number opposite. Central portion carries the words: “This note is legal tender for....”.

Revers:

20 Dollars 1968

The New Zealand Pigeon

The New Zealand Pigeon or Kererū (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) is a bird endemic to New Zealand. Māori call it Kererū in most of the country but kūkupa and kūkū in some parts of the North Island, particularly in Northland.

Of the large and well-defined group of fruit-eating Pigeons found dispersed over the sea-girt lands of the southern hemisphere, the single species inhabiting New Zealand is undoubtedly one of the finest both for size and brilliancy of plumage.

In its native country it is less esteemed for its beauty than for its value as an article of food; and to both Maoris and colonists, in every part of New Zealand, pigeon-shooting, at certain seasons of the year, affords agreeable recreation, wbile to many it is a source of profitable employment. Owing to the loud beating of its wings in its laboured flight it is readily found, even in the thickest part of the bush, and being naturally a stupid bird it is very easily shot ; so that in a favourable locality it is not an unusual thing for a sportsman single-handed to bag fifty or more in the course of a morning.

In some districts the slaughter has been so great during a productive season that the Pigeons have never afterwards recovered their numbers ; but in most of our woods, notwithstanding this persistent persecution, they reappear in each successive year in undiminished plenty. The "season" is indicated by the ripening of certain berries on which this species subsists; and the abundance of the birds is regulated to a great extent by that of the food-supply, which is more or less variable. A sporting gentleman pointed out to me a taraire grove at Ramarama, near Auckland, where in 1869 he found the Pigeons so numerous that he shot eighty-five in the course of two mornings; but in the following year, owing to the partial failure of the taraire berry, there was hardly one to be seen there.

In the spring and early summer it is generally very lean and unfit for the table; but as autumn advances and its favourite berries ripen, it rapidly improves in condition, till it becomes extremely fat. It is esteemed most by epicures when feeding on the mast of the miro, which imparts a peculiar richness to the flesh. In January the berries of the kohutuhutu, poroporo, kaiwiria, puriri, mangiao, and tupakihi constitute its ordinary bill of fare. From February to April their place is supplied by those of the tawa, matai, kahikatea, mapau, titoki, and maire. It is worth remarking that in localities where it happens to be feeding exclusively on the pulpy fruit of the kahikatea, it is not only in very poor condition, but acquires a disagreeable flavour from the turpentine contained in the seeds. Towards the close of this period also, the ti-palm, which comes into full bearing only at intervals of three or four years, occasionally supplies this bird with an abundant feast. These tropical-looking palms often form extensive groves in the open country or in swampy situations ; and when the Pigeons resort to them they are speared and snared in great numbers by the Maoris, an expert hand sometimes taking as many as sixty in a single day. In May and June it feeds chiefly on the miro and pate, when it reaches its prime and is much sought after. From July to September it lives almost entirely on taraire in the north, and on hinau, koeka, ramarama, and other smaller berries in the south. During the months of October, November, and December it is compelled to subsist in a great measure upon the green leaves of the kowhai (Sophora tetraptera) and of several creeping plants. It also feeds on the tender shoots of the puwha, a kind of sow-thistle ; and the flesh then partakes of the bitterness of that plant.

When the bird is feeding wholly on the dark berries of the wawao the colour of its flesh is said to become affected by that of the food.

In Maori legend, the Kereru’s iridescent plumage comes from the clothes Maui wore when he changed into a bird so that he could visit the underworld to look for his parents.

Beilschmiedia tawa with fruitsPhoto: Warren Brewer

The pigeon is on the branch of Beilschmiedia tawa.

Endemic of New Zealand. Common throughout the North Island. In the South Island common from Cape Farewell east through the Marlborough Sounds. Extending south of their only in the east where it almost reaches Kaikoura (the southern limit is just north of the main town).

Evergreen tree up to 35 m tall. Trunk straight, 1.2-2 m diam., with buttressed base. Bark smooth, dark brown. Branches erect to spreading, slender to moderately robust. Young branchlets, leaves and inflorescences finely pubescent, hairs simple, pale golden. (New Zealand Plant conservation network)

On the background is Miro tree.

Miro with fruitsPhoto: Glenn Stewart

Miro (Prumnopitys ferruginea), is a large tree with fleshy yellow berries that turn bright red. It grows up to 25 m high, with a trunk up to 1.3 m diameter.

Miro (Podocarpus ferrugineus), kahikatea (P. dacrydivides), matai (P. spicatus) and rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) are trees on which snares were set for birds. Pigeons were also taken when feeding on the berries of Cordyline australis and taraire.

Denominations in numerals bottom left and top right. In words top left.

Comments:

The Dollar introduced since 10.07.1967 instead of the New Zealand pound, 1 pound = $ 2.