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5 Dollars 2002, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 185b
Years of issue: 09.2002 - 09.2012
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Dr. Alan Bollard (in the office 09.2002 - 09.2012)
Serie: Fifth Series
Specimen of: 1999
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 135 x 66
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Dollars 2002

Description

Watermark:

HM The Queen Elizabeth II

Her majesty The Queen Elizabeth II.

The New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, represented by unique symbols. New Zealand's monarch-since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II-is today shared equally with fifteen other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each legally distinct. For New Zealand, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of New Zealand, and she, her consort, and other members of the New Zealand Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad.

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5 Dollars 2002

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary (20 July 1919 - 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed as having reached the summit of Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. Hillary was named by Time as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

An excerption from Tenzing's "Tiger of the snows" about climbing at Everest.

"I have thought much about what I will say now: of Hillary and I reached the summit of Everest. Later, when we came down from the mountain, there was much foolish talk about who got here first. Some said it was I, some Hillary. Some that only one of us go there - or neither. Still others,that one of us had to drag the other up. All this was nonsense. And in Katmandu, to put a stop to such talk Hillary and I signed a statement in which we said,“we reached the summit almost together”. We hoped this would be the end of it. But it was not the end. People kept on asking questions and making up stories. They pointed to the “almost”and said, “What does that mean?”. Mountaineers understand that there is no sense to such a question; that when two men are on the same rope they are together; and that is all there is to it. But other people did not understand. In India and Nepal, I am sorry to say, there has been great pressure on me to say that I reached the summit before Hillary. And all over the world I am asked, “Who got there first?”Who got there first?”.

Again, I say: it is a foolish question. The answer means nothing. And yet it is a question that has been asked so often - that has caused so much talk and double and misunderstanding - that I feel, after long thought, that the answer must be give. As will be clear, it is not for my own sake that I give it. Nor is it for Hillary’s. It is for the sake of Everest - the prestige of Everest - and for the generations who will com after us.

“Why” they will say, “should there be a mystery to this thing? Is there something to be ashamed of? To be hidden? Why can we not know the truth?”... Very well: now they will know the truth. Everest is too great, too precious, for anything by the truth". Tiger of the shows

As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He subsequently reached the North Pole, making him the first person to reach both poles and summit Everest. It so happened that the announcement of the successful completion of the expedition coincided with the coronation of Elizabeth II. Triumph British expedition together with the coronation of the young queen did much to raise the spirit of the nation, tired of the recent war and the difficult postwar years. Edmund Hillary, along with other members of the expedition, went to England, where he was granted a knighthood. Following his ascent of Everest, Hillary devoted most of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he founded.

Monument to Sir Hillary near Mount Cook

Mount Cook (Aoraki) is the highest mountain in New Zealand, reaching 3,724 meters (12,218 ft). It lies in the Southern Alps, the mountain range which runs the length of the South Island. Aoraki consists of three summits lying slightly south and east of the main divide, the Low Peak, Middle Peak and High Peak, with the Tasman Glacier to the east and the Hooker Glacier to the west.

Mount belongs to one of the earliest successes in mountaineering of Sir Edmund Hillary. He considered it one of his favorite mountains. In 2003, at its foot was erected the monument to Sir Edmund Hillary, height of 2.3 m.

You can read a legend about Mount Cook here 5 Pounds 1956.

Massey Ferguson

Massey Ferguson tractor, a stalwart of New Zealand farming, was used by Hillary, with minor adjustments, in his trek to the South Pole.

The 1955-58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) was a Commonwealth-sponsored expedition that successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole. It was the first expedition to reach the South Pole overland for 46 years, preceded only by Amundsen's and Scott's respective parties in 1911 and 1912.

In keeping with the tradition of polar expeditions of the 'heroic age' the CTAE was a private venture, though it was supported by the governments of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States, Australia and South Africa, as well as many corporate and individual donations, under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II. It was headed by British explorer Dr Vivian Fuchs, with New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary leading the New Zealand Ross Sea Support team. The New Zealand party included scientists participating in International Geophysical Year (IGY) research while the UK IGY team were separately based at Halley Bay.

The map of New Zealand is on top.

Cyathea dealbata

On the left side is Cyathea dealbata, also known as the silver tree fern or silver fern, also as ponga /ˈpɒŋə/ or punga /ˈpʌŋə/ (from Māori kaponga or ponga). It is a species of medium-sized tree fern, endemic to New Zealand. It is a symbol commonly associated with the country both overseas and by New Zealanders themselves.

This fern is known to grow to heights of 10 m or more (though it occasionally takes a rare creeping form). The crown is dense, and the fronds tend to be about 4 m long and have a silver-white colouration on the undersides. This distinctive silver colouration has made them useful for laying along tracks for night walking. The scales are a dark brown and are often twisted and glossy.

Arriving relatively late in New Zealand's history during the Pliocene epoch (around 5.0-1.8 million years ago), the silver fern occurs on the main islands of New Zealand and on the Chatham Islands to the east, mostly in the subcanopy areas of drier forests and in open scrub. It is known to grow well in well-drained humus, and once established, it will tolerate drier conditions. It does best when sheltered from winds and should be protected from frost. It does not grow under the dense canopy of mature forests.

Pattern TukutukuPattern kaokaoо

The kaokao pattern was dedicated to the warrior who came under the protection of the war God, Tumatauenga. In the past, some of the Maori tribes were friendly to each other, but many fought amongst themselves frequently. Because they were often in battle, the men developed very strong arms and armpits from using their spears. If a warrior had strong arms and armpits he had a better chance of being successful in battle.

To help them prepare for battle, a warrior would stand on a mat with the kaokao pattern on it while prayers for strength in battle were said over him. This pattern was also known as 'takapau wharenui' which was used on all important marriage mats of older times. (Tukutuku-Algebra-of-Aotearoa)

The tukutuku design behind Hillary is based on a panel at the Tāne-nui-a-Rangi wharenui (meeting house) at the University of Auckland marae. It is the kaokao pattern, which represents human strength. (Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

Tukutuku panelling is a distinctive art form of the Māori people of New Zealand, a traditional latticework used to decorate meeting houses.

Tukutuku patterns vary considerably from iwi to iwi throughout the land. Certain designs are associated with particular iwi, some may have different names in different regions, or the names may be spelled in various ways. Many forms are related to mythologies, the stories about them vary from iwi to iwi. Some of the traditions are recorded here; this information has been drawn heavily from the works of Te Rangi Hiroa, and of John M. Mepham at Tokomaru Bay. Hiroa has suggested that the simpler forms are probably the older designs, later patterns developed pictorial forms, such as ancestral figures or other shapes.

Denominations in numerals are top left and bottom right. In words bottom left.

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5 Dollars 2002

Campbell Island scene.

Campbell Island (Motu Ihupuku) is a remote, uninhabited, subantarctic island of New Zealand and the main island of the Campbell Island group.

Campbell Island was discovered in 1810 by Captain Frederick Hasselborough of the sealing brig Perseverance, which was owned by shipowner Robert Campbell's Sydney-based company "Campbell & Co." (whence the island's name). Captain Hasselborough was drowned on 4 November 1810 in Perseverance Harbour.

The island became a seal hunting base, and the seal population was almost totally eradicated. The first sealing boom was over by the mid-teens of the 19th century. The second was a brief revival in the 1820s. The whaling boom extended here in the 1830s and ’40s. In 1874, the island was visited by a French scientific expedition intending to view the transit of Venus. Much of the island’s topography is named after aspects of, or people connected with, the expedition. In the late 19th century, the island became a pastoral lease. Sheep farming was undertaken from 1896 until the lease, with the sheep and a small herd of cattle, was abandoned in 1931 as a casualty of the Great Depression.

In 1907, a group of scientists spent eight days on the island group surveying. The 1907 Sub-Antarctic Islands Scientific Expedition conducted a magnetic survey and also took botanical, zoological and geological specimens.

During World War II, a coast watching station was operative at Tucker Cove at the north shore of Perseverance Harbour as part of the Cape Expedition program. After the war, the facilities were used as a meteorological station until 1958, when a new one was established at Beeman Cove, just a few hundred metres further east.

The Lone TreeThe Lone Tree

The Lone Tree of Campbell Island.

The only tree on Campbell Island is a Sitka spruce. All other plants on the island are adapted wind tolerant low-lying shrubs and bushes. Found in Camp Cove, the tree has been used by staff living in the meteorological station until 1958 as the only source of a christmas tree. It is said that every year they would chop the top off and lug it back to the station to celebrate the festive season.

Despite these regular set-backs, the tree has grown significantly since the 1960’s when it was first measured. A number of well-known naturalists have taken turns to record the spruce’s height including Sorensen in 1945, Godley in 1969, and Meurk from 1975 onwards. The most recent measurement in 2011 by Alex Fergus, a scientist on the 50 South Trust Campbell Island Bicentennial Expedition, came in at 9.25 metres. Despite the challenging Campbell Island climate, the tree has grown 1.55 metres since it was last measured in 1995.

The tree has been given a number of informal awards and titles - it was dubbed the loneliest tree in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records - the closest of its kind being some 400 kilometres away in the Auckland Islands. It is also considered to be the most southern tree in New Zealand.

Some have called it Ranfurly’s Tree as it is said that the eccentric Lord Ranfurly, who was the governor general of New Zealand from 1897 until 1904 planted the spruce in 1907. While on an expedition to New Zealand’s outlying islands to collect bird specimens for the British Museum, Ranfurly had the thought to use the island for forestry. On his return visit he brought with him the Sitka spruce seedling and planted it in the cove, where it has since flourished.

An alternative theory about the trees origins is also floating around the internet, although I question its credibility. This website suggests that a sample taken in 1963 tells us that the tree was germinated in 1922 and so they believe it unlikely that Ranfurly himself planted the tree. If this is the case, where did this tree come from? Was it a relic left behind by those crazy enough to try to settle Campbell Island or did it by some miracle manage make it to the island on its own by hitching a ride on the boot of an explorer?

Either way, it’s a tale of survival. Of a tree that beat the odds to grow up all alone in the wild winds of Campbell Island.

Hoiho

Yellow eyed penguin or hoiho (Megadyptes antipodes), is one of the world’s rarest penguins. It has a distinctive yellow iris and yellow band of feathers across the back of the head. The species breeds around the South Island of New Zealand, as well as Stewart, Auckland, and Campbell Islands. Colonies on the Otago Peninsula are a popular tourist venue, where visitors may closely observe penguins from hides, trenches, or tunnels.

The yellow-eyed penguin is equally dependant on marine and land habitat, which includes forest and scrubland and, sometimes, grazed pasture. This provides nesting ground as well as loafing space.

Their marine habitat is equally important because it provides food and allows for dispersal and movement between land habitats.

Penguins in sweaters

Skeinz, a yarn store in New Zealand, called on knitters throughout the world to knit sweaters for the penguins affected by a massive oil spill that occurred earlier this month. The tiny sweaters, while eliciting aww's and squee's, serve a very important function: they prevent the oil-soaked birds from poisoning themselves by preening, as well as keeping them warm before it's their turn to be cleaned up by cleanup workers. And, you know, who doesn't want to save the lives of penguins by dressing them in the most adorable way possible?

First described by Joseph Hooker while on the epic Antarctic voyage of the Terror and Erebus under Captain James Ross, these strange plants were not so startling for their size, but for their size relative to where they grew. Named 'Megaherbs' by Captain Ross, these unusual plants may not seem large when compared to their tropical counterparts, but when you stop to consider that they are growing on the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, they do seem oddly large for the harsh climate they thrive in.

During the 1800's, to increase the chances of survival for possible shipwreck survivors, many uninhabited islands were stocked with goats, sheep, rabbits and other grazing animals, as a potential source of food for the hapless victims of Antarctic storms. And where ships land, rats inevitably follow. This led to the destruction of many wild habitats, with little if any hope of recovery. Yet, seemingly against all odds, they were brought back from the very brink of extinction only a few years ago.

By 1993 a conservation program, initiated by the New Zealand government in 1987, had successfully eradicated these feral populations on the Subantarctic Islands. The bird population, having been decimated by rats eating their eggs and young, recovered at an expected rate. However, it was the re-emergence of the Pleurophyllum speciosum, by PlantExplorers.com staff illustrator, William LovegroveMegaherbs that was most remarkable.

Whether these regenerated plants arose from the stunted survivors of excessive grazing, or sprang anew from seed lying dormant for centuries in the cold acidic soil, is still a matter for some research. The results, however, cannot be disputed, as the islands have recovered with vast fields of Megaherbs, growing and blooming in profusion during the short, cold Sub Antarctic summer.

The soil is rich, although very acidic, as the volcanic ash, cool temperatures, and low ambient light have produced thick drifts of moss and lichens over much of the islands. Over aeons the Megaherbs have adapted to these unusual conditions to such a degree that they will not grow well elsewhere. Like so many island populations, the plants of the Subantarctic Islands have developed their unique attributes in isolation, and are now so dependant on the conditions they evolved to suit, that there is little chance of growing these species elsewhere in the world. (PlantExplorers.com)

Bulbinella rossii

On the right side is Subantarctic lily (Bulbinella rossii). produces spectacular yellow flower heads in early summer and grows to a height of about one meter. The specific epithet honours British Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross, who visited Campbell Island in December 1840.

Pleurophyllum speciosum Campbell islandsPhoto: A.Kostrzewa

On the left side is Pleurophyllum speciosum, also known as the Campbell Island Daisy, is a megaherb native to the Auckland and Campbell Islands of New Zealand. It is a giant member of the daisy family, and has unique colourful white and violet flowers.

CochayuyoPhoto: Dirk Schories

Lower, centered, is Durvillaea antarctica or Cochayuyo.

Durvillaea antarctica is said to be the strongest kelp in the world, able to withstand the rough seas that are characteristic of the Southern Ocean. A massive, discoid holdfast supports a thick, flexible, cylindrical stipe (up to 15 meters long) which gives rise to several narrow strap-like blades. The number, length, and width of these blades is variable and is influenced by growing conditions with more divisions occurring in more exposed sites. Durvillaea antarctica is unlike many kelp species in that it does not have floats to keep its blades on the surface of the water. Rather, the internal tissues of Durvillaea antarctica are honeycomb-like and filled with air, making them naturally buoyant. This seaweed is found adhered to rocks in surge-exposed areas from the lower intertidal to a depth of 15m, preferring cold, nutrient-rich waters. Durvillaea antarctica is well adapted to the extreme environments it inhabits. The holdfast is extremely large and difficult to remove. Often, if storms or other large forces cause entire fronds of kelp to wash ashore, it is found that the holdfast is still attached to a sizable chunk of rock. The stipe and blades are extremely flexible, able to stretch and flex with rough seas, returning again to their original position without snapping. This property is a result of the high concentration of alginate in the kelp tissue, which led Durvillaea antarctica to be used historically by indigenous peoples as bouncing balls, and today as a commerical alginate source.

Denominations in numerals are top left and right. In words top, in center.

Comments:

1) Each polymer note has two transparent windows. One of the transparent windows is oval and has the denomination of the note embossed in it. The other window is in the shape of a curved fern leaf.

2) There is a fern immediately above the clear fern-shaped window. When you hold the note to the light, the fern should match perfectly with another fern on the other side.

3) You should be able to see a shadow image of the H. M. Queen Elizabeth II when you hold the note to the light.

4) Each note has an individual serial number printed horizontally and vertically.

5) Polymer notes have raised printing, which can be felt when you run your fingers over it.

6) Tiny micro-printed letters “RBNZ” should be visible with a magnifying glass.

7) Most commercial papers used in forgeries glow under an ultraviolet light, however the polymer notes use special inks which appear dull except for specific features that glow brightly. For example, the front of each genuine note includes a fluorescent patch showing the denomination.