header Notes Collection

20 Dollars 2002, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 187b
Years of issue: 09.2002 - 09.2012
Signatures: Governor: Dr. Alan Bollard (in the office 09.2002 - 09.2012)
Serie: Fifth Series
Specimen of: 1999
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 145 х 70
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Dollars 2002



HM The Queen Elizabeth II

Her majesty The Queen Elizabeth II.

The New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, represented by unique symbols. New Zealand's monarch-since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II-is today shared equally with fifteen other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each legally distinct. For New Zealand, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of New Zealand, and she, her consort, and other members of the New Zealand Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad.


20 Dollars 2002

HM The Queen

HM The Queen Elizabeth II.

This engraving is from an official portrait of Her Majesty, taken at Government House, Wellington, New Zealand, on 26 February 1986 by Ronald Woolf.

The New Zealand portrait was done at Wellington's Government House after the official state opening of Parliament. Simon and his mother, Inga, both accompanied Ronald to the shoot.

"There was a lot of preparation done to the extent that the painting behind her was a Toss Woollaston painting. We ensured that there was a background behind her that would be recognizable. I was taking photos on transparency film, Dad and Mum were taking photos on negative film". Woolf was originally given between 15 and 18 minutes to get the shot.

In this portrait, Her Majesty is wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir's tiara, Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee necklace, Queen Mary's drop earrings, and the Sovereign's Badge of the Queen's Service Order, an order unique to New Zealand. The ribbon is based on a taniko pattern.

Tāniko is a uniquely Māori variation of whatu (twining) and is used to weave the colourful, intricate borders of cloaks. (Peter Symes)


The Grand Duchess Vladimir Tiara.

No tiara is complete without a fascinating backstory, and this one's even got a daring escape. Made by Bolin, it glittered at the Russian royal court on the head of Grand Duchess Vladimir until the revolution, when it was left behind as the family fled. A British agent and friend smuggled it out of Russia to rejoin the exiled Grand Duchess and her collection. After her death, the tiara was bought from her daughter by Queen Mary. It's worn often today by the Queen with pearl or emerald drops, or occasionally with no drops. The pearl drop option has been the most popular with the Queen in recent years, probably owing to her love of white gowns in the evening and accompanying white jewels.

Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee necklace

To mark Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in 1887, a committee of ladies was formed to raise money for a commemorative statue of Victoria’s late husband Prince Albert. The committee’s fundraising was quite successful, and they ended up raising far more than was required for the statue. An agreement was formed with the Queen that the excess should go to the St. Katherine’s Fund for Nurses. At the same time, some members of the committee decided that a portion of the funds should be used to purchase a necklace for the Queen - and this was also approved by Her Majesty.

The trouble was, the committee did not agree on the necklace. Some felt it would be wrong to spend the funds which had been previously devoted to charity on something else. Much discussion and debate ensued, as is described in depth in Hugh Roberts’ book The Queen’s Diamonds. (My favorite tidbit: Queen Victoria, angry that she wouldn’t get her promised necklace, shot down the prospect of a diamond badge commemorating the nursing fund by declaring she would “at once exchange it for another jewel”.

In the end, a compromise was reached and this necklace, made for £5000 (far less than the necklace originally proposed) from gold, diamonds, and pearls by Carrington & Co. was presented to Queen Victoria in 1888. It features a central quatrefoil diamond motif with a large pearl in the middle, topped by a crown and underlined with a drop pearl. The next four links in either direction are graduated trefoil motifs; the central piece and the six largest trefoils can also be worn as broochesy. "From her Majesty's Jewel vault".

The Duchess of Gloucester’s Pendant Earrings

One of the Queen’s frequently worn pairs of earrings are these ornately scrolled frames of diamonds set in gold and silver with detachable pearl drop pendants. They came from Princess Mary, the Duchess of Gloucester, who passed away in 1857 and left them to her niece, Princess Mary Adelaide, the Duchess of Teck. Mary Adelaide in turn left them to her daughter, the future Queen Mary, on her death in 1897.

The earrings originally featured the scrolled frame and pearl pendant hanging from what we call the Duchess of Teck Earrings, with a central pearl surrounded by diamonds in a square formation. The tops were detachable, and were worn on their own by both the Duchess of Teck and by Queen Mary. Queen Mary finalized the separation when she gave the tops alone to her granddaughter Princess Elizabeth as a present. She added a brilliant diamond to the remaining pendants to create the Duchess of Gloucester Pendant Earrings we know today. I refer to them as two separate pairs of earrings since they continue to be used separately.

The Queen inherited the Gloucester earrings from her grandmother in 1953, and has made frequent use of them since. They are a particular favorite match with two other favorite diamond and pearl pieces: the Grand Duchess Vladimir Tiara in its pearl setting and Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee Necklace. "From her Majesty's Jewel vault".

Badge of a Companion of the Queen's Service Order (woman's)

The badge of a Companion of the Queen's Service Order (QSO) is based on a stylised representation of a Manuka flower.

The badge may be worn on a woman’s bow, as pictured, or a short ribbon from the left lapel.

The obverse of the badge (pictured) consists of five large and small stylised petals in frosted sterling silver, 49mm in diameter, superimposed in the centre of which is a silver-gilt medallion bearing the crowned effigy of The Queen designed by Ian Rank-Broadley within a circle of red enamel surmounted by a Royal crown (St Edward’s Crown) also in silver-gilt. The circle of red enamel bears the inscriptions “FOR SERVICE” and “MO NGA MAHI NUI”.

The full name of the appointee is engraved on the reverse.

The QSO ribbon has central alternating stripes of red ochre (kokowhai), white and black in a descending step pattern from left to right with narrow red ochre edges. The design is based on the Maori poutama (stepped) pattern used in tukutuku wall panels. It is usually interpreted as the “stairway to heaven”, but in this case alludes to “steps of service”.

A lapel badge for everyday wear was introduced in 1999.

Since 2007, the badge has been made by Thomas Fattorini Limited, of Birmingham, United Kingdomю

The pattern on the band based on Poutama pattern.

The pillar shows three interpretations of the stepped poutama pattern, signifying the growth of man, striving ever upwards. In meeting houses, the panels are usually mirror imaged so that the steps climb upwards from both sides to reach the summit at the center.

Traditional Maori designs, colours, and symbolism have been blended into the design of the insignia of the three New Zealand Orders (the Queen's Service Order and associated Medal, the Order of New Zealand, and the New Zealand Order of Merit).

Red ochre (kokowai) has been used in the ribbon of each Order. This colour has a spiritual significance for Maori. Red ochre was given official sanction as a national colour with the institution of the Queen's Service Order in 1975. Other New Zealand national colours are black and white/silver and these may be found in the design of a variety of ribbons for other medals. Red and gold are traditional colours associated with knighthood, and red is often used in heraldry to allude to toil, hard work and achievement.

The Warrants of Appointment (certificates) issued to those persons appointed to New Zealand's Orders are in English and Te Reo Maori.

The various insignia of New Zealand's Orders has been designed by Phillip O’Shea, CNZM, CVO, New Zealand Herald of Arms Extraordinary to The Queen. He also designed the New Zealand Gallantry and Bravery Awards (except for the Victoria Cross for New Zealand) and many other official medals. "Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet".

Parliament Buildings

The note shows two of the three buildings of the New Zealand Parliament, situated in Wellington.

Parliament House.

This Edwardian neo-classical building was designed by architects, John Campbell and Claude Paton, to replace the previous building that was destroyed by fire in 1907. This is the older building between Parliament buildings, clad in Takaka marble, was finished in 1922 and houses the Legislative Chamber. More about Parliament House you can read here "New Zealand Parliament".

The Beehive - Executive Wing.

The ‘Beehive’ is the popular name for the Executive Wing of the parliamentary complex because of the building’s shape. This is where the Prime Minister and Cabinet Ministers have offices, and where the Cabinet meets. Sir Basil Spence, a British architect, designed a concept for the Beehive during a visit to Wellington in 1964. In his concept, rooms and offices radiated from a central core. This concept was developed by the Government Architect of the Ministry of Works. The Beehive was built in stages between 1969 and 1979, when the first parliamentary offices moved in.

It is 72 meters tall. It has 10 floors above ground and four floors below. It is connected to Bowen House, where many members of Parliament and Ministers have offices, by an underground walkway that runs underneath Bowen Street. "New Zealand Parliament".

The map of New Zealand is on top.

Cyathea dealbata

On the left side is Cyathea dealbata, also known as the silver tree fern or silver fern, also as ponga /ˈpɒŋə/ or punga /ˈpʌŋə/ (from Māori kaponga or ponga). It is a species of medium-sized tree fern, endemic to New Zealand. It is a symbol commonly associated with the country both overseas and by New Zealanders themselves.

This fern is known to grow to heights of 10 m. or more (though it occasionally takes a rare creeping form). The crown is dense, and the fronds tend to be about 4 m. long and have a silver-white colouration on the undersides. This distinctive silver colouration has made them useful for laying along tracks for night walking. The scales are a dark brown and are often twisted and glossy.

Arriving relatively late in New Zealand's history during the Pliocene epoch (around 5.0-1.8 million years ago), the silver fern occurs on the main islands of New Zealand and on the Chatham Islands to the east, mostly in the subcanopy areas of drier forests and in open scrub. It is known to grow well in well-drained humus, and once established, it will tolerate drier conditions. It does best when sheltered from winds and should be protected from frost. It does not grow under the dense canopy of mature forests.

Pattern TukutukuOrnament Poutama

The tukutuku design behind the Queen is variously known as Poutama. It is based on panels on the wharenui Te Hau ki Tūranga. (Te Hau ki Tūranga). (Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

It symbolizes the growth of man, striving ever upwards.

In meeting houses, the panels are usually mirror imaged (a reflection) so that the steps climb upwards from both sides to reach the top at the centre. The poutama (step-like pattern) has both religious and educational meanings. The steps symbolise levels of attainment and advancement. At one time, the poutama was the only pattern used in tukutuku.

This pattern represents the staircase that the god Tane climbed to heaven to get the three baskets of knowledge for the Maori people. Tane is the god who pushed father sky and mother earth apart, so that sunlight could come between them, and thus plants and animals could grow. After he had created food, Tane created man. Tane felt that man needed knowledge too so he set out to find this knowledge. Tane climbed the highest staircase to heaven and it was there that he found the three baskets (kete) of knowledge that he brought back for man.

The Three Baskets of Knowledge are:

1. Te Kete Uruuru Tau Aronui - containing wisdom, building, arts and agriculture.

2. Te Kete Uruuru Matua Tuauri - containing ancient rites and ceremonies

3. Te Kete Uruuru Rangi Tuatea - containing the knowledge of incantations, war, magic, and the tradition which includes the history of the Maori people. (Cristchurch City Libraries)

Tukutuku panelling is a distinctive art form of the Māori people of New Zealand, a traditional latticework used to decorate meeting houses.

Tukutuku patterns vary considerably from iwi to iwi throughout the land. Certain designs are associated with particular iwi, some may have different names in different regions, or the names may be spelled in various ways. Many forms are related to mythologies, the stories about them vary from iwi to iwi. Some of the traditions are recorded here; this information has been drawn heavily from the works of Te Rangi Hiroa, and of John M. Mepham at Tokomaru Bay. Hiroa has suggested that the simpler forms are probably the older designs, later patterns developed pictorial forms, such as ancestral figures or other shapes.

Denominations in numerals are top left and bottom right. In words bottom left.


20 Dollars 2002

Falco novaeseelandiae

New Zealand falcon or karearea (Falco novaeseelandiae).

It is a striking and majestic bird.

Capable of flying at speeds over 100 km/h and catching prey larger than itself, the New Zealand falcon/kārearea (Falco novaeseelandiae) is one of New Zealand's most spectacular birds.

The falcon has a wide distribution, being found on both the North and South Islands and several offshore islands, including Stewart Island and the subantarctic Auckland Islands.

Recently, plantation pine forests have been found to be important breeding habitats for falcons. The highest known density of the species is found in Kaingaroa pine forest in the central North Island. (Department of Conservation)

Maori legend is also telling about Maui, who took the form of the sparrow-hawk when escaped from Mahuika's fire. You can read about it here (The Maui Myths)

Pachystegia insignis

On the left side is Marlborough rock daisy (Pachystegia insignis). It is a small spreading shrub, with thick leathery leaves and large, spectacular flower heads. It grows in inaccessible places, and can flourish in areas from sea level to 1,200 meters.

Chionochloa rubra

Lower, centered. is Flowering red tussock (Chionchloa rubra). It is one of the 23 species of tussock grass in New Zealand. They are primarily found in the alpine zone above the tree line. Red tussock has a distinct red tinge to its leaves. The plant blooms periodically and occurs mainly in the highlands. It can live up to 200 years.


Mount Tapuaenuku is the highest peak in the South Island’s Inland Kaikoura range at 2,885 meters high. The view on the note is from the east side of the Inland Kaikouras, looking up from the Awatere Valley floor.

The first European to sight the mountain was James Cook, who called it Mount Odin, but later nicknamed it "The Watcher" since his ship seemed to be visible from it at so many points along the coast. The first Europeans to attempt to climb the mountain were Edward John Eyre, Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster, and William John Warburton Hamilton, in 1849. They came within a short distance of the summit but were forced to turn back.

Denominations in numerals are top left and right. In words top centered.


1) Each polymer note has two transparent windows. One of the transparent windows is oval and has the denomination of the note embossed in it. The other window is in the shape of a curved fern leaf.

2) There is a fern immediately above the clear fern-shaped window. When you hold the note to the light, the fern should match perfectly with another fern on the other side.

3) You should be able to see a shadow image of the H. M. Queen Elizabeth II when you hold the note to the light.

4) Each note has an individual serial number printed horizontally and vertically.

5) Polymer notes have raised printing, which can be felt when you run your fingers over it.

6) Tiny micro-printed letters “RBNZ” should be visible with a magnifying glass.

7) Most commercial papers used in forgeries glow under an ultraviolet light, however the polymer notes use special inks which appear dull except for specific features that glow brightly. For example, the front of each genuine note includes a fluorescent patch showing the denomination.