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10 Dollars 2002, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 186b
Years of issue: 09.2002 - 09.2012
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Dr. Alan Bollard (in the office 09.2002 - 09.2012)
Serie: Fifth Series
Specimen of: 1999
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 140 х 68
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 2002

Description

Watermark:

HM The Queen Elizabeth II

Her majesty The Queen Elizabeth II.

The New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, represented by unique symbols. New Zealand's monarch-since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II-is today shared equally with fifteen other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each legally distinct. For New Zealand, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of New Zealand, and she, her consort, and other members of the New Zealand Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad.

Avers:

10 Dollars 2002

Katherine Wilson Sheppard

Katherine Wilson Sheppard, also known as Kate (10 March 1847 - 13 July 1934).

The Photo on the left side is from National Library of New Zealand.

The leader and main figurehead of the suffragist movement in New Zealand - the first country in the world to grant universal adult suffrage to men and women equally. Kate was a source of inspiration to suffragists and campaigners for equality between the sexes, both in New Zealand and throughout the world.

Before embarking on the Kate Sheppard story it is pertinent to reflect that just over half of the Western world has only had the right to participate in the political processes of society for just over a century, beginning with New Zealand, most countries less. That, when most of the great philosophical treatises, from Plato until the last one or two hundred years, refer to the rights of ‘man’ they mean specifically just that, men, not women or children. The biological theory of equilibrium asserts that change in a species occurs at the fringes, a place where theses are tested and upset. That it took a woman from a distant colonial outpost to make the first domino fall, rectifying what a century of struggle has proved to be an absurd and arbitrary exclusion, is a story of the edge.

Sheppard proved to be an ideal catalyst, a woman without sectarian narrowness and characterized by judgement, tolerance and charm. A natural leader, she argued for suffrage at public meetings and in her own persuasive writings. On limited means she organized pamphlets, letters to the press, talks, petitions and personal contacts with politicians. Writing in The Prohibitionist, she kept women up to date not only in the New Zealand suffrage movement, but also those in other countries.

The arguments of the Enlightenment philosophers envisaged individual political rights for ‘men’, but their reasoning could easily be extended to women. For suffragists like Sheppard the task was one of conviction and inspiration. The cogency of her ideas and the winning elegance of her style is demonstrated in this extract from the 1888 pamphlet “Ten Reasons Why the Women of N.Z. Should Vote”:

“Because it has not yet been proved that the intelligence of women is only equal to that of children, nor that their intelligence is on a par with that of lunatics or criminals”.

More about Kate Sheppard you can read here (nzedge.com)

White camellia flower

Bottom left - White camellia flowers (Camellia japonica alba plena). They were given to Members of Parliament who had supported the bill to give women the vote. The flower has become the symbol of New Zealand women’s fight for the vote.

Скульптура камелияSculptor: Christine Hellyar, Photo: Parliamentary Service Collection

Sculptural flowers are on the walls of the chamber of debates in Parliament House. (New Zealand Parliament)

Cyathea dealbata

On the left side is Cyathea dealbata, also known as the silver tree fern or silver fern, also as ponga /ˈpɒŋə/ or punga /ˈpʌŋə/ (from Māori kaponga or ponga). It is a species of medium-sized tree fern, endemic to New Zealand. It is a symbol commonly associated with the country both overseas and by New Zealanders themselves.

This fern is known to grow to heights of 10 m or more (though it occasionally takes a rare creeping form). The crown is dense, and the fronds tend to be about 4 m long and have a silver-white colouration on the undersides. This distinctive silver colouration has made them useful for laying along tracks for night walking. The scales are a dark brown and are often twisted and glossy.

Arriving relatively late in New Zealand's history during the Pliocene epoch (around 5.0-1.8 million years ago), the silver fern occurs on the main islands of New Zealand and on the Chatham Islands to the east, mostly in the subcanopy areas of drier forests and in open scrub. It is known to grow well in well-drained humus, and once established, it will tolerate drier conditions. It does best when sheltered from winds and should be protected from frost. It does not grow under the dense canopy of mature forests.

Tukutuku PatternPattern Purapura Whetū

The tukutuku design behind Sheppard is variously known as Mangaroa (the Milky Way) and Purapura Whetū, with the stars representing navigation or the people of New Zealand. It is based on panels on the wharenui Te Hau ki Tūranga, which was built in the early 1840s by Raharuhi Rukupō of Rongowhakaata and restored under the supervision of Apirana Ngata in 1935. It is now on display at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington. (Te Papa Tongarewa) в Веллингтоне. (Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

Purapura whetu (star seeds, or sometimes, star dust) is the Arawa name for a simple cross-stitch pattern that used to be known as pukanohi (herring's eyes) on the East Coast, and kowhiti (to cross) in the Whanganui region. Another form, possibly older, with every space filled with a cross stitch is an Arawa version called Te Mangoroa (the long shark, being the Milky Way). Hiroa said the Whanganui elders believed this was one of the few original designs, but the patterned was abandoned because it was monotonous and the name lost. The term kowhiti was applied to the allover design when alternate light and dark coloured stitches, created an open effect. This form was also known in some regions as roimata tears. One traditional meaning of this pattern is that to survive as an iwi, a hāpu, a whānau, you must have numbers, just as the stars of the Milk Way, otherwise you may be wiped out. (Cristchurch City Libraries)

Tukutuku panelling is a distinctive art form of the Māori people of New Zealand, a traditional latticework used to decorate meeting houses.

Tukutuku patterns vary considerably from iwi to iwi throughout the land. Certain designs are associated with particular iwi, some may have different names in different regions, or the names may be spelled in various ways. Many forms are related to mythologies, the stories about them vary from iwi to iwi. Some of the traditions are recorded here; this information has been drawn heavily from the works of Te Rangi Hiroa, and of John M. Mepham at Tokomaru Bay. Hiroa has suggested that the simpler forms are probably the older designs, later patterns developed pictorial forms, such as ancestral figures or other shapes.

Denominations in numerals are top left and bottom right. In words bottom left.

Revers:

10 Dollars 2002

Blue duck

Blue duck or whio (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos) is an endangered species. The Māori name, sometimes used in English, is whio, which is an onomatopoetic rendition of the males call.

The blue duck is variously called the mountain duck, torrent duck or whistling duck and is not only unique to New Zealand but also unique among other waterfowl. It appears unrelated to any duck elsewhere in the world and many of its habits are peculiar to the species.

Whereas most ducks eat plant material, the blue duck feeds on the larvae and flying stages of aquatic insects such as caddis fly, stonefly and mayfly. In almost all ducks the male deserts the female and takes no part in raising the brood and may mate with a different duck each year but the male blue duck helps guard the ducklings and probably keeps the same mate. Most ducks have an iridescent patch, the speculum, in the center of each wing; the blue does not. Like many of New Zealand’s endemic birds, they are not good flyers. All these features suggest that the blue duck is a very ancient inhabitant of New Zealand.

The blue duck has probably always been an inhabitant of bush streams and formerly occurred over most of the country although not in large numbers. It has now retreated from the lowlands to the swifter flowing streams of the more mountainous and wilder areas of the country.

It is a relatively small duck, about seventy per cent of the weight of a mallard duck. Apart from the dark chestnut spots on the breast, the duck is entirely blue-grey. The bill is a soft pale flesh colour and tipped with a soft membranous flap. The eyes are bright yellow. The characteristic whistle is produced only by the male and this is best rendered by the Maori name Whio. Maori names for birds are characteristically onomatopoeic. The female gives a vibrating or clattering note.

The bird is strongly territorial with a pair remaining together throughout life and defending their same patch of stream against other ducks. Nesting occurs between August and November, usually under dense vegetation close to the stream bank. Incubation of the 4-7 eggs lasts for about a month. The young ducklings are basically black and white but the black down has a dark green sheen, making them very difficult to see against the glistening water surface. Ducklings have disproportionately big feet, enabling them to cope with the wild water of mountain streams. (http://www.nzbirds.com)

This species is an endemic resident breeder in New Zealand, nesting in hollow logs, small caves and other sheltered spots. It is a rare duck, holding territories on fast flowing mountain rivers. It is a powerful swimmer even in strong currents, but is reluctant to fly. It is difficult to find, but not particularly wary when located.

Parahebe catarractae

In bottom left corner is a Parahebe catarractae. It is a close relative of the Hebe, the largest plant group unique to New Zealand. It can grow up to 60cm high and is notable for its trailing stems and attractive purple flowers. The genus Hebe is named in honor of Hebe, goddess of youth, in Greek mythology.

KiokioФото: Pipeline Road

Centered is a Blechnum fern or mountain kiokio. It is a very common fern throughout New Zealand. It grows best in damp and shady places. In young plants, like the specimen on the note, the fronds are tinged pink.

Denominations in numerals are top left and right. In words top, in center.

Comments:

Since 1999, for the production of banknotes used special thin plastic.

1) Each polymer note has two transparent windows. One of the transparent windows is oval and has the denomination of the note embossed in it. The other window is in the shape of a curved fern leaf.

2) There is a fern immediately above the clear fern-shaped window. When you hold the note to the light, the fern should match perfectly with another fern on the other side.

3) You should be able to see a shadow image of the H. M. Queen Elizabeth II when you hold the note to the light.

4) Each note has an individual serial number printed horizontally and vertically.

5) Polymer notes have raised printing, which can be felt when you run your fingers over it.

6) Tiny micro-printed letters “RBNZ” should be visible with a magnifying glass.

7) Most commercial papers used in forgeries glow under an ultraviolet light, however the polymer notes use special inks which appear dull except for specific features that glow brightly. For example, the front of each genuine note includes a fluorescent patch showing the denomination.