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100 Pesos 2009, Mexico

in Krause book Number: 124
Years of issue: 23.08.2009
Edition:
Signatures: Cajero Principal: Raul Valdes Ramos, Junta de Gobierno: Manuel Sanchez Gonzalez
Serie: New Serie since 2008
Specimen of: 2008
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 134 х 66
Printer: Banco de México, Mexico

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Pesos 2009

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Nezahualcoyotl. Denomination 100.

Avers:

100 Pesos 2009

Nezahualcoyotl (April 28, 1402 - June 4, 1472) was a philosopher, warrior, architect, poet and ruler (tlatoani) of the city-state of Texcoco in pre-Columbian Mexico. Unlike other high-profile Mexican figures from the century preceding the Spanish Conquest, Nezahualcoyotl was not an Aztec; his people were the Acolhua, another Nahuan people settled in the eastern part of the Valley of Mexico, settling on the eastern side of Lake Texcoco.

He is best remembered for his poetry, but according to accounts by his descendants and biographers, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxochitl and Juan Bautista de Pomar, he had an experience of an "Unknown, Unknowable Lord of Everywhere" to whom he built an entirely empty temple in which no blood sacrifices of any kind were allowed - not even those of animals. However, he allowed human sacrifices to continue in his other temples.

An allegory to the verses “I love the song of zentzontle/bird of four hundred voices” which appear on the banknote.

Text: "AMO EL CANTO DEL ZENTZONTLE, PÁJARO DE CUATROCIENTAS VOCES; AMO EL COLOR DEL JADE Y EL ENERVANTE PERFUME DE LAS FLORES, PERO AMO MÁS A MI HERMANO EL HOMBRE

NEZAHUALCÓYOTL".

In English: "I love the song of the mockingbird, Bird of four hundred voices, I love the color of the jadestone And the intoxicating scent of flowers, but more than all I love my brother, man".

The allegory comprises the drawings of a zentzontle, four symbols of the word, a piece of jade, a flower and two seated men.

Mimus polyglottos

The northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is the only mockingbird commonly found in North America. This bird is mainly a permanent resident, but northern birds may move south during harsh weather. This species has rarely been observed in Europe. This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturæ in 1758 as Turdus polyglottos. The northern mockingbird is renowned for its mimicking ability, as reflected by the meaning of its scientific name, "many-tongued mimic." The northern mockingbird has gray to brown upper feathers and a paler belly. Its wings have white patches which are visible in flight.

In top left corner is ear of corn.

Lower right are five diagonal lines for the visually impaired.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner. Lower left in words and in numeral.

Revers:

100 Pesos 2009

Nezahualcoyotl vignette

The main element is a Nezahualcóyotl-styled glyph vignette next to the drawing of an aqueduct from the High Temple of the México-Tenochtitlán main plaza.

el templo mayor

The Templo Mayor was one of the main temples of the Aztecs in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica. The temple was called the huei teocalli in the Nahuatl language and dedicated simultaneously to two gods, Huitzilopochtli, god of war, and Tlaloc, god of rain and agriculture, each of which had a shrine at the top of the pyramid with separate staircases. The temple, measuring approximately 100 by 80 m (328 by 262 ft) at its base, dominated a Sacred Precinct. Construction of the first temple began sometime after 1325, and it was rebuilt six times after that. The temple was destroyed by the Spanish in 1521. The modern-day archeological site lies just to the northeast of the Zocalo, or main plaza of Mexico City, in the block between Seminario and Justo Sierra streets.

Tenochtitlan was an Aztec altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. Founded in 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. When paired with Mexico, the name is a reference to Mexica, also known as "Aztecs" although they referred to themselves as Mexica. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City.

Traditionally, its name was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl ("rock") and nōchtli and is often thought to mean "Among the prickly pears [growing among] rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancrot dialogues" suggest the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain. Tenochtitlan was one of two Mexican altepetl (city-states) on the island, the other being Tlatelolco.

Two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km. (2.5 miles) long and made of terracotta, provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day, Moctezuma was said to take four baths a day. As soap they used the root of a plant, called copalxocotl (Saponaria americana), to clean their clothes they used the root of metl (Agave americana). Also, the upper classes and pregnant women enjoyed the temazcalli. Similar to a sauna bath, it is still used in the south of Mexico. This was also popular in other Mesoamerican cultures.

In lower right corner is a grasshopper Sphenarium mexicanum or Chapulin.

Sphenarium mexicanum

Chapulines, plural for chapulín, are grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium, that are commonly eaten in certain areas of Mexico. The term is specific to Mexico and derives from the Nahuatl word chapolin (singular) or chapolimeh (plural). In Spain and most Spanish speaking countries, the word for grasshopper is saltamontes or saltón; this however is disputed due to the influence of El Chapulín Colorado (see below).

They are collected only at certain times of year (from their hatching in early May through the late summer/early autumn). After being thoroughly cleaned and washed, they are toasted on a comal (clay cooking surface) with garlic, lime juice and salt containing extract of agave worms, lending a sour-spicy-salty taste to the finished product. Sometimes the grasshopers are also toasted with chili, although it can be used to cover up for stale chapulines.[citation needed]

One of the regions of Mexico where chapulines are most widely consumed is Oaxaca, where they are sold as snacks at local sports events and are becoming revived among foodies. It's debated how long chapulines have been a food source in Oaxaca. There is one reference to grasshoppers that are eaten in early records of the Spanish conquest, in early to mid XVI century.

Besides Oaxaca, chapulines are popular in areas surrounding Mexico City, such as Tepoztlán, Cuernavaca and Puebla. They may be eaten individually as a botana (snack) or as a filling, e.g. tlayuda filled with chapulines.

Emblem of bank of Mexico is top left.

Denomination in numeral and in words is in lower right corner. Top left in numeral.

Comments:

Banknote Serie C.

Some features of the banknote’s surface are in raised print (intaglio and/or embossing), which is perceptible by touch, specially the “Banco de México” text, the bust-head figure, the denomination number, the mark for the blind and visually impaired people, and the denomination in letters. Cotton-paper banknotes have intaglio in the color-shifting element and polymer notes have embossing in the clear window.

In the 100-peso banknote, the intaglio can be felt on the seated men.

The color-shifting effect is found on the right-hand side of the corncob, located in the upper left-hand corner of the banknote. This feature is in intaglio, which is perceptible by touch.

3D thread is manufactured directly onto the cotton-paper substrate. It has 3D figures in the form of snails. These figures move in opposite direction to how the banknote is shifted; if the banknote is moved to the sides, the figures move up and down; if the banknote is moved up and down, the figures shift to the sides.

The 3D-thread is red in the 100-peso banknote.

When holding the 100-, 200-, 500- and 1000-peso banknotes against the light, you can see a thread of approximately one millimeter (width) that crosses the note vertically. This thread is known as security thread and is manufactured directly onto the cotton-paper substrate.

The front and back of all banknotes have figures formed by lines of colors which give the main color to the banknote. These figures are difficult to imitate with printers or photocopy machines as they have dotted-base figures instead of line-based figures. A magnifying glass is recommended to better observe these figures.

Perfect register consists of impressions made on both sides of the banknote which, when seen against the light, complement each other exactly and form an image. In the F type banknotes, these impressions correspond to the map of Mexico and the compass rose.

Banknotes in 100-, 200-, commemorative 200-, 500-, and 1000-peso denominations are printed on cotton-fiber paper.

Cotton paper banknotes they have color fibers on both sides-that is, tiny fibers embedded in the paper and distributed randomly. These fibers are fluorescent and can only be seen under black light.

In case of 100-, 200-, 500-, and 1000-peso banknotes, the 3D-thread also shines when a banknote is placed under a black light.

The front and back microprinting texts which are very small texts, which usually require of a magnifying glass to be read. On the front and back of the 100-, 200-, 500-, and 1000-peso banknotes, they appear repeatedly with the legend "100PESOS", "200 PESOS", "500 PESOS", and "1000 PESOS", respectively.