header Notes Collection

50 Meticais 1986, Mozambique

in Krause book Number: 129b
Years of issue: 1983, 1986
Signatures: no signature
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 16.06.1986
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 х 68
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Meticais 1986




50 Meticais 1986

The theme is the Popular Forces for the Liberation of Mozambique.

On the left are the Popular Forces for the Liberation of Mozambique as a modern regular army.

Mozambique in the 1970s and 1980s was one of the Soviet Union's loyal allies in Africa, having received a large amount of military equipment from it. Thanks to this, the Marxist government won a victory in the many years of civil war in the country. After the collapse of the USSR, the supply of weapons to Mozambique completely stopped, most of the Soviet equipment was out of order.

There is such a thought ..

The banknote shows the Krug anti-aircraft missile system, but it meant the Kvadrat anti-aircraft missile system (the export version of the Kub complex). Since it is on him that there are documents that he was supplied to Mozambique.

There are reasons why this is exactly the Circle:

1. Track rollers - seven.

2. There is a frame supporting the missiles, designed according to the truss principle. 3. The rockets have thickenings closer to the truss (frame).

4. There are two missiles on the installation.

5. The platform (part of the vehicle above the tracks, but under the missiles) has a thickening in height at the rear.

On the other hand, I do not deny the possibility that Krug could, in theory, get to Mozambique, for example, through China.

And so, we will assume (such cases have already been in bonistics) that this is a "small blunder" of banknote designers, when the image of the complex was taken, which first came to hand, instead of the necessary one.

SA-4 Ganef

The 2K11 Krug (Russian: 2К11 «Круг»; English: circle) is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. The system was designed by NPO Novator and produced by Kalinin Machine Building Plant. Its GRAU designation is "2K11." Its NATO reporting name is SA-4 Ganef, after a word of Yiddish origin meaning "thief" or "rascal."

Development of the Krug ZRK-SD (2K11) air defense system started in 1957 by the Lyulev OKB design bureau. It was first displayed during a parade in Moscow in May 1965. The system started to be fielded in 1967 and became fully operational in 1969. It was used by the Soviet Army as a long-range SAM.

The early version of the Krug entered service in 1965. The first operational deployment version, the Krug-A, entered service in 1967, with extensively modified versions, the Krug-M in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974, which were developed to rectify problems discovered during army service. The upgraded version Krug-M was fielded in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974. A target drone called 9M316M Virazh, developed from obsolete Krug missiles, was proposed for export in 1994.

The 2K11 was briefly operated by the Soviet army during the war in Afghanistan in 1979 and 1980, but was withdrawn several months after the initial invasion. In 1997, it was reported[2] that, between 1993 and 1996, some 27 fire units of Krug and 349 missiles had been sold to Armenia. Poland flight tested four missiles in September 2006 against P-15 Termit (SS-N-2 'Styx') targets.

The P-40 "Long Track" radar set.

The TEL vehicles are tracked based on a GM-123 chassis and carry two missiles each on an elevating turntable for up to 360-degree rotation and 70-degree elevation. The two primary versions of the missile in service are the 9M8M1 (former designation 3M8M1) (2K11M "Krug-M") and 9M8M2 (former designation 3M8M2) (2K11M2/3 "Krug-M1"), both of which are believed to be known to the US DoD as SA-4B. The original 9M8 (former designation 3M8) (SA-4A) was first introduced into service in 1965 and followed by the upgraded 9M8M (2K11A "Krug-A") in 1967 before the 9M8M1 in 1971 and the 9M8M2 in 1973. The 9M8M2 actually has a lower maximum engagement altitude and shorter range in exchange for better performance in engaging aircraft close to the battery. Each battery typically consists of two 9M8M1 missiles and four 9M8M2 missiles as well as the following radars:

P-40 "Long Track" (1S12) E-band early warning radar (also used by the 2K12 Kub and 9K33 Osa, range 175 km/108 miles) (modified AT-Ts), in divisions command post

1S32 "Pat Hand" H-band continuous wave fire control and guidance radar (range 128 km/80 miles)

PRV-9 "Thin Skin" E-band height finding radar (also used by the 2K12 Kub and 9K33 Osa, range 240 km/148 miles), in regiments or brigades command post

Only "Long Track" is mounted on a modified AT-T vehicle, TEL 2P24 and "Pat Hand" 1S32 are mounted on GM-123/ GM-124. "Thin Skin" is mounted on a truck. Batteries may also feature Ural 375D trucks 2T6 carrying spare missiles for reloading the launchers.

The missiles are launched with the aid of four solid fuel rocket motors inside boosters attached to the outside of the missile. Once they have burned and the missile is aloft, a liquid-fuelled ramjet sustainer engine is ignited. It reaches speeds of up to Mach 4 and has an effective range of 50–55 km. (31–34 miles) depending upon the version. It carries a 135 kg. (300 lb.) fragmentation warhead. Possible engagement altitudes range from 100 m. to 27 km. (330-88,500 feet). The 3M8 missile was designed and produced by NPO Novator.

The Krug had several features that improved the survivability of the radar against anti-radiation missiles. In PI mode (ПИ) the system only briefly illuminated the target and the computer calculated its prolonged path based on data received from early warning radars. After a longer passive period the main radar illuminated the calculated flight direction of the target for a few seconds and recalculate path of the target if necessary (if the distance between the calculated track and the actual position is greater than 7 km.). As a result, the system emitted detectable signals only for a few seconds every few minutes, making it difficult to jam or launch an anti-radar missile against the Krug. The system was also able to track the target in full-passive automated PNS (ПHC) mode based on the data provided by "Long Track" mobile EWR via radio datalink. In this mode it was almost impossible to detect the Krug system until the moment of missile launch, because Krug did not emit radiation at all.

In 3M mode (3m aka three-point) the krug track on jamming signal emitting container (e.g., AN/ALQ-99). So the jamming signal that supposed to protect the aircraft made it to a target.

SA-6 Gainful

More to the left is Anti-aircraft missile system "Cube" (export version "Square"), made in USSR (Зенитный ракетный комплекс "Куб", экспортный вариант "Квадрат"). SAM "Cube" under the code "Square" through Foreign Economic channels delivered to the armed forces of 25 countries (Algeria, Angola, Benin, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Guinea, Hungary, Vietnam, Egypt, India, Iraq, Yemen, Cuba, North Korea, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Poland, the "Front Plisario", Romania, Syria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Tanzania, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Ethiopia and others). High combat effectiveness of SAM "Cube" repeatedly confirmed during the conduct of hostilities.

The 2K12 "Kub" (Russian: 2К12 "Куб"; English: cube) (NATO reporting name: SA-6 "Gainful") mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. "2К12" is the GRAU designation of the system.

Each 2K12 battery consists of a number of similar tracked vehicles, one of which carries the 1S91 (SURN vehicle, NATO designation "Straight Flush") 25 kW G/H band radar (with a range of 75 km. (47 mi.)) equipped with a continuous wave illuminator, in addition to an optical sight. The battery usually also includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers (TELs), and four trucks, each carrying three spare missiles and a crane. The TEL is based on a GM-578 chassis, while the 1S91 radar vehicle is based on a GM-568 chassis, all developed and produced by MMZ.

The development of the 2K12 was started after 18 July 1958 at the request of the CPSU Central Committee. The system was set the requirements of being able to engage aerial targets flying at speeds of 420 to 600 m/s (820-1,170 kn) at altitudes of 100 to 7,000 m. (330 to 22,970 ft.) at ranges up to 20 km. (12 mi.), with a single shot kill probability of at least 0.7.

The systems design was the responsibility of the now Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP). In addition to NIIP several other design bureaus were involved in the creation of the Kub missile system including the now "JSC Metrowagonmash" (former MMZ), which designed and produced the chassis of the self-propelled components. Many of the design bureaus would later go on to co-operate in the development of the successor to the 2K12 "Kub", the 9K37 "Buk"

First trials of the missile system were started at the end of 1959 to discover a series of problems:

low power for the missile radar seeker and badly designed nose cone,

missile air inlets design failure,

low quality of heat shield inside the afterburner chamber (titanium was replaced by steel).

Those failures resulted in some "orgchanges": In August 1961 Toropov was replaced by Lyapin as the Chief Designer of Vympel and in January 1962 Tikhomirov was replaced by Figurovskiy as the Chief Designer of NIIP. Still, the work wasn't intensified. Before 1963 only 11 of 83 missiles fired had the seeker head installed, only 3 launches were successful.

Kub downed its first ever air target on February 18, 1963 during the state trials at Donguz test site, Orenburg Oblast. It was an Ilyushin Il-28 bomber.

SA-6 Gainful

The system entered an extended testing period between 1959 and 1966, after overcoming the technical difficulties of producing the 2K12 "Kub" the system was accepted into service on 23 January 1967 and went into production that same year.

It is sometimes claimed that the SA-N-3 Goblet naval system is a version of the 3M9 but this is not the case, as the M-11 Shtorm is a separate system and, unusually for Russian surface-to-air missiles, has no land-based variant.

The 2K12 "Kub" was recommended for modernisation work in 1967 with the goal of improving combat characteristics (longer range, improved ECCM, reliability and reaction time). A modernised variant underwent trial testing in 1972 eventually being adopted in 1973 as the "Kub-M1".[3] The system underwent another modernisation between 1974 and 1976, against the general combat characteristics of the system were improved with the "Kub-M3" clearing testing and entering service in 1976.

After the Chief designer Ardalion Rastov visited Egypt, in 1971, to see Kub in operation he came to the certain conclusion for the development of a new system, called Buk, where each TEL should have its own fire control radar (TELAR) and is able to engage multiple targets from multiple directions at the same time.

The final major development of the Kub missile system was achieved during the development of its successor, the 9K37 "Buk" in 1974. Although the Buk is the successor to Kub it was decided that both systems could share some interoperability, the result of this decision was the "Kub-M4" system. The Kub-M4 used Kub-M3 components which could receive fire control information from the 9А310 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) of the 9K37 Buk. The advantage interoperability was an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system as well as a faster service entry for Buk system components. The Kub-M4 was adopted into service in 1978 following completion of state trails.


At the right, the Commander-in-Chief of the Popular Forces (Samora Machel) delivers a Frelimo flag to a detachment of guerrillas.

In 1962, on the territory of Tanganyika, the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) was created (port.Frente de Libertação de Moçambique, FRELIMO), the flag of which was a rectangular cloth consisting of three horizontal equal stripes - green, black and yellow, separated by narrow white stripes, and with a red triangle at the shaft. The same flag was the de facto flag of Mozambique during the transition period from September 1974, when there was an autonomous government made up of representatives of Portugal and FRELIMO on an equal footing.

Colors indicate:

red - resistance to colonialism, armed struggle for independence and defense of sovereignty;

green - plant wealth of the country;

black - the African continent;

golden yellow - the mineral wealth of the country;

white is the justice of the Mozambican people's struggle for peace.

coat coat

Centered is the Emblem of the People's Republic of Mozambique.

The most important part of the emblem of the People's Republic of Mozambique depicts a book, a rifle and an adze, placed on a map of Mozambique and representing education, defense and vigilance, the peasant class and agricultural production, respectively.

There is an ocean under the book.


The stalk of corn and sugarcane symbolizes wealth (as described in article 194 of the Constitution), a cogwheel is a symbol of labor and industry, a book is a symbol of education, a hoe is for "peasantry and agriculture", AK for "protection and vigilance", and a red the star is a symbol of socialism, but, as stated in the Constitution of Mozambique, should "symbolize the spirit of international solidarity of the people of Mozambique." The red sun symbolizes the creation of new life.

At the bottom there is a red ribbon with the words “REPÚBLICA POPULAR DE MOÇAMBIQUE”.

In 1985, a new version of the coat of arms appeared on the coins. In 1990, when the name of the republic was changed to RepÚblica de Moçambique, the name on the ribbon was also changed.

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners. Centered in words.


50 Meticais 1986

The theme is the armed struggle for national liberation.

At the left are militias in training in the liberated areas and at the right are advancing guerrillas during the armed struggle.

On the left side is the Bank emblem.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and right corners.


Reduced size of serial number.