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10 Kip 1979, Laos

in Krause book Number: 27
Years of issue: 1979
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1979
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 113 х 56
Printer: China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPM)

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10 Kip 1979

Description

Watermark:

10 Kip 1979

The stars.

Avers:

10 Kip 1979

Pattern frame.

coat

On right side, inside the frame, is the coat of arms, used till 1991.

The national emblem of Laos shows the national shrine Pha That Luang. A dam is pictured which as a symbol of power generation at the reservoir Nam Ngun, an asphalt street is also pictured, as well as a stylized watered field. In the lower part is a section of a gear wheel. The inscription on the left reads "Peace, Independence, Democracy" (ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ) and on the right, "Unity and Prosperity" (ເອກະພາບ ວັດຖະນາຖາວອນ).

On the left side, inside the frame, is a scene from the sawmill.

Timber resources have been commercially exploited on a small scale since the colonial period and are an important source of foreign exchange. In 1988 wood products accounted for more than one-half of all export earnings. In 1992 timber and wood products were almost one-third of the total principal exports.

In the 1950s, forests covered 70 percent of the land area in Laos. By 1992, according to government estimates, forest coverage had decreased by nearly one-third, to just 47 percent of total land area.

Deforestation increased steadily throughout the 1980s, at an annual average rate of about 1.2 percent in the first half of the decade according to the United Nations (UN) and other monitoring agencies. This rate represents the destruction of about 150,000 to 160,000 hectares annually, as compared with annual reforestation of about 2,000 hectares. The government, however, reported a deforestation rate double this figure. Deforestation results from clearing forestland for shifting cultivation and removing logs for industrial uses and fuel.

The volume of logs (roundwood) removed for industrial purposes increased by about 70 percent between 1975-77 and 1985-87, to about 330,000 cubic meters. However, this volume was dwarfed by that removed for domestic (fuel) purposes. Between 1980 and 1989, the volume of logs removed for fuel increased by about 25 percent, to about 3.7 million cubic meters; only about 100,000 cubic meters were removed for industrial purposes. By 1991 these figures had increased to approximately 3.9 million cubic meters and 106,000 cubic meters, respectively.

Following the introduction of the New Economic Mechanism, decentralization of forest management to autonomous forest enterprises at the provincial level encouraged increased exploitation of forests. At the central and provincial levels, autonomous forest enterprises are responsible for forest management.

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners.

Revers:

10 Kip 1979

Pattern frame.

Inside, on left side, are two pictures of medical service.

On right side is denomination in words. In numerals are in all corners.

Comments: