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25 Latu 1938, Latvia

in Krause book Number: 21
Years of issue: 1938
Edition: --
Signatures: Finanču Ministrs: Ludvigs Ekis, Valsts Saimn. Dep. Direktors: Janis Skujevics
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1938
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 х 75
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

25 Latu 1938

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 - September 20, 1942) was a prominent Latvian politician in pre-World War II Latvia during the Latvian period of independence from 1918 to 1940.

On May 15, 1934, ostensibly to protect the country from a coup by right-wing extremists known as the Legion, led by Lt. Col. Voldemārs Ozols, Ulmanis as Prime Minister dissolved the Saeima (Parliament) and established executive non-parliamentary authoritarian rule. Several officers from the Army and units of the national guard (Latvian: Aizsargi) loyal to Ulmanis moved against key government offices, communications and transportation facilities. Many elected officials were illegally detained, as were any military officers that resisted the coup d'etat.

Ulmanis was a popular leader, especially among the farmers, during whose leadership Latvia recorded major economic achievements. During Ulmanis' rule, education was strongly emphasized and literacy rates in Latvia reached high levels.

He was a Latvian nationalist, who espoused the slogan "Latvia for Latvians" and held that every ethnic community in Latvia should develop its own authentic national culture, instead of assimilating.[vague] The policy of Ulmanis, even before his access to power, was openly directed toward eliminating the minority groups from economic life and of giving Latvians access to all positions in the national economy - sometimes referred to as Lettization. According to some estimates, about 90% of the banks and credit establishments in Latvia were in Latvian hands in 1939, against 20% in 1933.

As the result, the economic share of minorities - Germans, Jews, Russians, Lithuanians - declined. However, Ulmanis didn't allow any physical violence or unlawful acts towards minorities and dealt harshly with right- and left- wing extremists, and with both Nazi and Communist sympathizers. Between 1920 and 1938, many Jews, escaping Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany, found refuge in Latvia.

On July 21, 1940 Ulmanis was forced to resign and asked the Soviet government for a pension and to allow him to emigrate to Switzerland. Instead, he ended up in Stavropol in the present Russia, where he worked in his original profession for a year. In July 1941, he was imprisoned. A year later, as German armies were closing in on Stavropol, he and other inmates were evacuated to a prison in Krasnovodsk in present day Turkmenistan. On the way there, he contracted dysentery and soon died on 20 September 1942. Ulmanis had no wife or children, as he used to say that he was married to Latvia.

Avers:

25 Latu 1938

On the right side is Lāčplēsis (tearing Bear) - Latvian heroic epic, recreated by Andrei Pumpur, based on folk tales and published, after 15 years of work, in 1888. The image of the hero of the epic, Lāčplēsis embodies greatness of the people, his heroism. Symbolizes bravery man cleaning the land from invaders. Meets the version of the name of the hero - Lachausis (bear eared), a nickname given because of his bear ears, the mysterious source of supernatural power.

On the right and left sides are the branches with oak leaves.

SaktaAt the bottom, centered, on on the wreath of oak leaves are Sakta and national wreath from Kurzeme (south-west of Latvia, former Liepaja district).

The most common item of jewellery was a brooch or pin (Latvian: sakta). One or more of these would be used either to fasten the neck opening of a shirt, or to keep a shawl in place.

Brooches were usually silver, except in western Latvia (Kurzeme), where they might be plated with bronze.

Although brooches might be adorned with red or blue-coloured stones, the most commonly found gem is amber. This appears on brooches, and also was used to make beads for necklaces, especially in southern Latvia. As might be expected, the more jewellery worn with a folk costume, the wealthier the owner.

VenokBehind Sakta is a wreath or crown (vaiņags) from Kurzeme (Nīca Municipality, Bārta Municipality).

It was a long-standing tradition in Latvia that the type of head covering worn indicated a female's marital status. The symbolic covering for an unmarried maiden was a wreath or crown (vaiņags). (In Liv regions, a ribbon served the same purpose.) The actual style of wreath, the materials, and the pattern of embroidery used would vary significantly from region to region, but the practice of wearing a vaiņags at festive occasions was consistent across Latvia.

On the other hand, married women typically wore caps, or elaborate head cloths, with a festive folk costume. On the right you see a young girl wearing a typical vaiņags, while the two married ladies on the left side of the photograph are wearing frilly caps with red bands.

These head coverings were used for festive wear, as both married women and single girls would wear homespun head scarves for daily wear.

Denomination is in the middle, in words. In all corners are in numerals.

Revers:

25 Latu 1938

Five rafts on the Daugava River near the cliff Staburags.

StaburagsThe Staburags cliff of Rauna has been Latvia’s most distinct travertine cliff since the great Staburags cliff of the Daugava River sank under the waves during the construction of a hydroelectric power plant nearby. The cliff is approximately 8,000 years old and is still being formed as lime, settles on moss and other plants. The Staburags cliff of Rauna is cited as the only location in Latvia of the Alpine butter wort, but it has not been seen there for the last 15 years. That is probably, because of the many people, who tramp across the cliff each year. The streams, which deliver lime to the cliff are the isotope, that is of priority at the EU level.

For thousands of years history of settlement Latvia Staburags cliff (often called Staburadze) towering above the bank of the Daugava River, has become one of the most legendary places in Latvia.

In the 1939 edition of Encyclopædia "Latviesu konversacijas vardnica" writes about Staburags as:

"Staburags, Staburadze - limestone cliff on the left bank of the Daugava River in Staburags Parish (Staburaga pagasts), whose top is about eighteen and a half meters ... To this day, there is a continuous process of liming rock. Thanks to the process of liming, it looks as the soil is oozes by white deposits, so the people gives it the name - Weeping cliff. On the cliff are a lot of different flowers, including Pinguicula alpina, also known as the alpine butterwor, which occurs in Latvia only at Staburags. The cliff considered as protected monument of nature".

Cliff Staburags for hundreds of years was one of the main characters in the Latvian poetic legends, stories, Dainas and legends. The cliff itself and the surrounding area were considered sacred and miraculous. For many years, hundreds of thousands of people came here hoping to be healed of their diseases or find peace. Traders do not sail, without leaving on a cliff some generous gifts. The Knights certainly prayed here, before heavy military campaigns and the builders have not started to build a castle or cathedral without support of the mysterious and powerful forces of the cliff.

It is known, that ancient warriors Sellonians (old latvian tribe) used to live in these places, here made ​​their magic rituals, have been going to war. Here praised the gods after the victory, treated wounds and dedicated young men in knights.

The most famous legend of Staburags, with no doubts, is the legend of Lāčplēsis. In the old version, Lāčplēsis was a fisherman, who drowned in the depths of the waters at the foot of the cliff, and his bride did petrified and till today with grief and bitter pouring her tears.

Andrejs Pumpurs used this and other legends when creating Latvian epic Lāčplēsis.

StaburagsIn the north Staburags parish borders the Daugava, considering the fact that the Daugava was an important provider of international contacts in the past, this affected lifestyle and occupation of the local people. Timber rafting and fishing were the most developed industries in this area, in the waters of the Daugava there lived a lot of valuable fishes: salmon, lamprey, eels. The part of Sēlpils parish which was known by historians as Vīgante county, was renamed to Staburags village in 1945, but in 1990 it was renamed to Staburags parish. The name of this parish has originated from the Staburags Cliff (18,5 m.), 2016 marks the 50th anniversary since this unique nature object is under water - due to the construction of Pļaviņu HPP the cliff was flooded. The Staburags Cliff was located in Staburags and Sece parishes. During the manor existence period in this area there were several pubs and some manors. Voldemārs Zālītis (Voldis) - a Latvian writer - spent his childhood in the beautiful surroundings of Vīgante manor and the writer immortalized the beauty of this place in his novel "The children of Staburags " (1895).

Staburags Parish (Staburaga pagasts) is an administrative unit of the Aizkraukle District, Latvia.

Latvian coat of arms on the left side.

coat Latvia

The Latvian national Coat of Arms was formed after the proclamation of an independent Republic of Latvia on November 18, 1918, and was officially adopted on June 16, 1921. It was especially created for its independent statehood. The national coat of arms combines symbols of Latvian national statehood, as well as symbols of ancient historical districts.

The sun in the upper part of the coat of arms symbolizes Latvian national statehood. A stylized depiction of the sun was used as a symbol of distinction and national identity by the Imperial Russian Army's Latvian Riflemen during World War I. During the war, the sun figure was fashioned with 17 rays that symbolized the 17 Latvian-inhabited districts. The three stars above the coat of arms embody the idea of the inclusion of historical districts (Vidzeme, Latgale and combined Courland-Semigalia (Kurzeme-Zemgale) into the united Latvia.

Culturally historical regions are also characterized by older heraldic figures, which already appeared in the XVII century. Courland and Semigalia (Western Latvia) are symbolized by a red lion, which appears as early as 1569 in the coat of arms of the former Duke of Courland and Semigalia. Vidzeme and Latgale (Eastern Latvia) are symbolized by the legendary winged silver creature with an eagle's head, a griffin. This symbol appeared in 1566, when the territories known today as Vidzeme and Latgale had come under Lithuanian control.

Base of the coat of arms is decorated with the branches of an oak tree, Quercus robur, which is one of Latvian national symbols.

The Latvian national coat of arms was designed by the Latvian artist Rihards Zariņš.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. Centered are in words and in numeral.

Comments:

Designers:

Figure Lacplesis - author Rihards Maurs

Cliff Staburags and Daugava with rafts - author Oskars Norītis

Common design - a group of artists.