Top
header Notes Collection

50 Latu 1934, Latvia

in Krause book Number: 20
Years of issue: 03.10.1935 - 25.03.1941
Edition: 1 000 000
Signatures: Padomes priekšsēdētājs: Adolfs Klīve, Galvenais Direktors: Kārlis Vanags
Serie: Latvijas Bankas
Specimen of: 1934
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 х 79
Printer: Thomas de la Rue & Co. Limited, London and British firm Portals Limited

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Latu 1934

Description

Watermark:

Mātes Latvijas tēls watermark

The watermark depicts the head of the monument Mother Latvia, created for the architectural ensemble of the Riga Brothers' Cemetery (Rīgas Brāļu kapi). This memorial complex of national importance is dedicated to the soldiers who died in the First World War and the liberation struggle of Latvia (1915-1920).

The first stone in the construction of the Riga Brothers Cemetery was laid in 1924.

About two thousand heroes are buried in the cemetery, including about 200 unknown ones. The complex was completed for 21 years. The architecture uses a local building material - Latvian limestone tuff.

Kārlis Zāle Pēteris Feders

The plot of the complex was developed by the sculptor Karlis Zale. The architectural work was supervised by Professor Academician Peteris Fedders.

On both sides of the entrance there are two sculptural groups of horsemen. A linden alley connects the entrance to the main terrace and there are oak groves on either side. Two staircases on the sides lead down from the terrace to a geometrically regular parterre with graves, on each of which there is a slab. Near the steps there are two sculptural groups of "Wounded Horsemen", and in the middle part there is a high relief "Two Brothers".

Rīgas Brāļu kapi Rīgas Brāļu kapi

The richest in sculptural images is the Wall of Latvia, which completes the ensemble. Four kneeling figures symbolize the regions of Latvia. The upper part of the wall is decorated with a frieze with a battle motif, on which the figures of ancient warriors slowly glide. The central part of the Wall of Latvia is crowned with the image of the Mother Latvia, expressing the grief and gratitude of the people to the fallen heroes. Under the image of Mother Latvia there used to be the Grand Cross, which was destroyed during the Soviet period (later restored).

In 1936, the city coats of arms and 19 counties of the country were engraved on the wall of Latvia.

Under the sculpture of Mother Latvia is an urn with 517 handfuls of earth - from each Latvian parish.

The memorial ensemble of the Bratsk cemetery was consecrated on Lacplesis Day - November 11, 1936.

Karlis Zale created the famous Freedom Monument and the Riga Bratsk Cemetery.

His creation is also, for example, the monument to Andrei Pumpurs at the Big Cemetery in Riga (1929). I mentioned Andrei Pumpurs, the author of the poem Lachplesis, in the description of the 25 Lat banknote of 1938.

Karlis Zale's works are of the highest artistic value. In them, the sculptor uses the language of symbols and allegories. These are generalized images permeated with philosophical ideas that embody the people's desire for freedom, their love for their homeland, hard work, the beauty of ethical values ​​preserved for centuries. (www.europeana.eu) (www.zudusilatvija.lv)

Avers:

50 Latu 1934

Kārlis Ulmanis

The engraving on the banknote was made from photograph, taken in 1930s, by the Riga photographer Mārtiņš Lapiņš (1873-1954).

Mārtiņš Lapiņš Mārtiņš Lapiņš

In 1906 Lapiņš opened his photo studio in Grizinkalns, Pernavas street 16. An active member of the Latvian Photographic Society, participated in local and foreign photo exhibitions. Filmed Latvian cultural figures commissioned by the Ministry of Education. He also created newsreels such as The Visit of the Swedish King to Riga (1929), and made advertising films for various companies. Cinematographer and producer of the film "Cat's Mill" (1932). During the Second World War, Lapini's workshop at Marijas Street 2 was destroyed, and with it his photo and film archives. After World War II he worked as a photographer at the "Rigas Foto" factory. He was buried in Riga, at the Forest Cemetery.

Karlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis, 23 August [4 September] 1877 - 20 September 1942) is a Latvian politician and statesman. The authoritarian ruler of Latvia in 1934-1940.

Born on 4 September 1877 in Bērze, Courland Governorate, Dobele county, Russian Empire. In 1896 he studied at the dairy farming school in Tapiau (now Gvardeysk), East Prussia, at the dairy farming courses. In 1897 he worked as a manager of a dairy plant in Riga. In 1902, together with J. Bergs, he taught courses in dairy farming in Bermuiža. From 1903 to 1905 he studied agriculture at the Agricultural Institute of the University of Leipzig, at the same time leading several dairy farming courses in Latvia.

The founder of the Latvian state, President-dictator Karlis Ulmanis was a graduate of dairy farming courses and spent the first half of his life on dairy farms. Dairy farming played a special political and even ideological role in the life of interwar Latvia. Having come to power, Ulmanis set the task of turning the new country into a dairy farm in Europe, arranged the export of cottage cheese and sour cream to Britain and Finland, geopolitically close to Latvia, and proclaimed the slogan "Our future is in calves!"

He is also known as the author of the aphorism: "What is - that is, what is not - that is not."

However, back to our cows ...

In the early 1920s, after the formation of the independent Republic of Latvia, Latvian political circles adopted the Danish experience in the development of the agricultural complex. One of the key educational institutions of the country was the Faculty of Agriculture of the Riga Polytechnic, which was graduated by most of the Latvian ruling politicians of the 1930s.

Agriculture ministers were important figures in the administrative structure of Latvia.

Kārlis Ulmanis

Since the beginning of the 1930s, the industrial production of cheeses began in Latvia, which since 1936 have become a significant agricultural export item. During this period, cheeses were willingly produced by 53 dairy companies, as well as 50 farms that belonged to private owners.

In addition to Great Britain and the Third Reich, not only France and Czechoslovakia, but also traditionally "dairy" Denmark and Switzerland were the states - importers of dairy products from the Baltic coasts.

In 1938, for example, 139 tons of cheese (mostly Emmental) were exported to Great Britain out of 1,290 tons of gross cheese production, which was a decent figure.

On December 21, 1905, for participation in the 1905 revolution, he was arrested and sent to the Pskov prison. In 1906 he was released from prison, in the spring of 1907 he left for New York (USA). He studies agriculture at several educational colleges in the United States, becomes the head of economic enterprises and lecturer at the University of Nebraska.

When in March 1913 Russia announced an amnesty to the revolutionaries of 1905, K. Ulmanis returned to Riga and worked as an agronomist in the Baltic Agricultural Society, instructor in the Riga Central Committee of Agriculture, from 1914 to 1916 - editor of the Baltic Agricultural Society magazine Zeme. In 1916 he was elected to the board of the Baltic Committee for the Provision of Latvian Refugees. In March 1917 he was elected to the Vidzeme Provisional Zemstvo Council, in April - Deputy Provisional Commissioner of the Vidzeme Province. Participates in the establishment of the Latvian Peasants' Union.

On November 17, 1918, he was elected the President of the Ministers of the Latvian People's Council. On November 18, the People's Council instructs K. Ulmanis to compose the Cabinet of Ministers. From November 18 to November 19 - Minister of Agriculture. From November 19, 1918 to July 13, 1919 - President of Ministers. In January 1919, part of the ministers of the Provisional Government of Latvia, headed by K. Ulmanis, emigrated. To preserve the statehood of Latvia, they turn to the governments of Denmark, Sweden and Estonia for help.

From 1919 to 1934, Ulmanis held 5 different positions in the state apparatus and 3 attempts were made against him.

Kārlis Ulmanis

On May 15, 1934 K. Ulmanis organized a coup d'état. The period of his authoritarian rule in Latvia began. On April 11, 1936, he takes over the post of President of Latvia and Prime Minister, declares himself the leader of the people.

There are various rumors about the fate of Karlis Ulmanis, after the annexation of Latvia to the USSR. Official sources, however, adhere to the version of the Russian archive:

July 21, 1940 transfers the powers of the head of state to August Kirchenstein. On July 22, 1940, he was deported to the USSR, where, ultimately, he ended up in Krasnovodsk of the Turkmen SSR.

Karlis Ulmanis died on September 20, 1942, from dysentery, in the Krasnovodsk prison. According to witnesses, he was buried at the Krasnovodsk cemetery. (www.president.lv) (www.rubaltic.ru) (stav-history.ru)

Stylized acanthus leaves.

On right and left sides are ears of wheat, as a symbol of fertility, and the national ornament.

Inscription, centered: "Pret so naudas zīme latvijas banka izsniedz 14,51613 gramus zelta. Naudas zīmes nodrošinātas to pilnā nominālvērtībā".

In English: "Against this banknote, the Bank of Latvia issues 14,51613 grams of gold. Banknotes can be exchanged at their full face value."

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. In center in words.

Revers:

50 Latu 1934

coat coat

The image of the golden rising sun with 11 wide wavy rays, between which there were 10 narrow wavy rays, was also placed in the azure upper half of the shield of the State Emblem of the Republic of Latvia, approved on June 16, 1921 by the Constitutional (Constituent) Assembly of Latvia, the draft of which was created by the returnee from Petrograd by the graphic artist Rihards Germanovich Zariņš, together with Vilis Krūmiņš, (the artist himself signed "Zarrinsh" in Russian, Rihards Zariņš, 1869-1939), who until 1917 held the position of technical and artistic director of the Expedition of Preparing State Papers (EZGB ) Of the Russian Empire and the Provisional Government (according to his projects, banknotes and postage stamps of the All-Russian Provisional Government were issued in 1905-1917).

The lower half of the shield of the Latvian coat of arms was cut, in the right silver field was depicted a wormy rebellious lion from the historical coat of arms of Courland and Semigale, symbolizing Kurzeme and Zemgale, and a silver griffin from the historical coat of arms of Livonia, symbolizing Vidzeme and Latgale.

Above the shield, three golden five-pointed stars were depicted in an arc of a circle, touching each other with two rays, symbolizing the unity of the three historical parts of Latvia - Kurzeme and Zemgale, Vidzeme and Latgale. (www.heraldicum.ru .ru)

The inscription under the coat of arms: "Par latvijas bankas naudas Zimju viltosanu, vai viltotu zimju uzglabasanu un izplatisanu vainigos sodis saskana ar sodu likumiem".

In English: "Penalty for counterfating of Latvian money, or for the storage and distribution of counterfeit goods, is due in accordance with laws".

Denominations are in all corners. In center in words.

Comments:

Adolfs Klīve Kārlis Vanags

The signatures on banknote belongs to: Ādolfs Klīve and Kārlis Vanags.

Yesterday, namely May 19, 2020, one of the visitors to my site, from Moscow, asked me a question. In particular, he asked:

"Why is the issuer of 10 latu banknotes is the State Treasury (Latvijas valsts kases zime) and issuer of other denominations is the Bank of Latvia (Latvijas Bankas)?"

I couldn’t immediately answer this question, but.. I was interested in it:) I had to start translating the article - in the article the answer to the above question!, In Latvian, I apologize for possible shortcomings in the translation.

Please, read here.