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50 Pesos 2012, Cuba

in Krause book Number: 123
Years of issue: 2010
Edition: --
Signatures: Presidente del Banco: Francisco Soberon Valdes
Serie: 2004 Issue
Specimen of: 2002
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 х 70
Printer: Los Talleres de Grabado en Acero y Timbre del Estado de La Habana, STC-P

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Pesos 2012

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Celia Sánchez Manduley.

Avers:

50 Pesos 2012

Text throughout the field of banknote: "Cuba - free territory of America, the homeland or death".

Calixto García e IñiguezThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Calixto García Iñiguez.

Calixto García Iñiguez (August 4, 1839 - December 11, 1898) was a general in three Cuban uprisings, part of the Cuban War for Independence: Ten Years' War, the Little War and the War of 1895, itself sometimes called the Cuban War for Independence, which bled into the Spanish-American War, ultimately resulting in national independence for Cuba.

Around the age of 18, taking after his grandfather, García joined with a Cuban uprising which became the first war of independence Ten Years' War. García fought against Spanish colonial rule for five years until his capture. Far from his troops, protected only by a small detail who soon lay dead or dying around him, Garcia in an attempt to avoid giving the Spanish the satisfaction of his seizure shot himself under the chin with a .45 caliber pistol. Although the bullet went out of his forehead and knocked him unconscious, he survived; the wound, which left a great scar, gave him headaches for the rest of his life. When the Spanish authorities came to Holguín to inform Calixto's mother, Lucía Iñíguez, she said that wasn't her son, when the officials explained to her Calixto tried to commit suicide she replied that was her son, "first dead than captured!" He was imprisoned until the Pact of Zanjón and the end of the Ten Years' War, was signed in 1878. García travelled to Paris and New York between imprisonments. In keeping to his quest, García joined with Maceo in the Little War from 1879 to 1880 as well as the 1895 War for Independence. He, and separately at least three sons, escaped Spain and arrived with a well supplied expedition in 1896. In that last conflict he succeeded Maceo, once his subordinate in the Ten Years War, as the second in command in the Cuban Army.

This General had a long string of victories in this war including the taking of Tunas and Guisa, and the emotionally significant re-occupation of Bayamo. García made liberal use of spies to prepare his attack, these include Dominador de la Guardia father of Ángel de la Guardia and María Machado, illegitimate daughter of Spanish General Emilio March who helped prepare the taking of Tunas; Frederick Funston later US Major General and José Martí y Zayas Bazán son of José Martí the major Cuban National Hero directed artillery, Mario García Menocal a to be president of Cuba was wounded in a principal assault. Angel de la Guardia, also a major Cuban national hero died in this battle on August 30, 1897.

At the time of the U.S. landings, García, with skilled use of mobile artillery, controlled the interior of old Oriente Province, and prepared the landing places for the U.S. Army near Santiago. His troops effectively supported the Marine forces at Guantanamo who, once out of range of the guns of the USS Marblehead, had difficulty dealing with Spanish guerrilla tactics. He was the general who dealt with the American troops and joined them in military actions, only to be denied entrance into Santiago de Cuba when the Spaniards surrendered.

Braille points are in top right corner for visually impaired.

Denominations are in lower left and top right corners, also centered.

Revers:

50 Pesos 2012

Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in HavanaCenter of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Havana.

Havana’s Center for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (CIGB) was created in 1983 and is reputed to be one of the largest research laboratories in the world. It provides clinical support for “a variety of Cuban medical, agricultural, biotechnological and veterinary products for domestic consumption and export.”

Successes include the manufacture of a drug to counter arteriosclerosis made from sugar cane, exploration of the various uses of ozone treatment, and the manufacture of bio-material from seaweed.

All in all, by 1997, CIGB had developed 15 new substances and 43 types of enzymes. In 1997, it exported more than 20 products.

Another research institute, the National Center of Scientific Investigations, manufactures a variety of medical goods.

The pharmaceutical field is also strong, producing some medicines that are unique in the world.

Of the 1,085 medicines that circulate widely in Cuba, the country can manufacture 757. Unique manufactures include Melagenina, the only formula effective against the treatment of vitaglio, and PPG, an effective anti cholesterol drug.

Many countries are particularly interested in Cuba’s “computer-based medical equipment such as the SUMA (Ultra-Micro-analytic System), a highly efficient ‘viral detection kit’ which is regarded as extremely reliable for detecting AIDS as well as twelve other diseases and is the first of its kind amenable to relatively inexpensive, mass production and viable use in the developing world.

In sum, Cuban products (including pharmaceuticals) are registered in thirty countries and have been marketed in thirty-four, and the country’s pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries exported more than $100 million in 1994.

Major vaccines marketed by Cuba include the anti meningococcus vaccine and the anti hepatitus B vaccine.

Regardless of its strengths, however, the biotech sector faces multiple challenges as it attempts to compete with some of the world’s largest multinational corporations.

Nevertheless, in early 1991, Cuba negotiated a $350 million debt with Mexico based on a package of trade and joint venture investment.

Among other products, the island is to produce advanced medical equipment and vaccines for export to Mexico with an agreed upon formula for dividing a share of the profits to apply toward the outstanding debt.

Also, Columbia will export coal, electric cables, and machinery to Cuba in exchange for biotechnology products.

In addition to Mexico and Columbia, purchasers of medical products include Brazil (which has purchased over $50 million worth of Cuban vaccines), Ecuador, Uruguay, Spain, and China.

In 1992 Tehran agreed to purchase Cuban pharmaceuticals in exchange for Iranian petroleum and industrial products.

Working in close association with the plethora of biotech facilities are highly sophisticated medical centers which provide services for both nationals and foreigners. In fact, ‘health tourism’ is increasingly promoted with facilities located in close proximity to the research institutions.

Playa Municipality today holds a good share of these newer facilities: the Center for Medical Surgery, the Institute of Tropical Medicine, and the Iberoamerican Center for Regeneration. In Miramar, a prestigious private clinic was converted into a hospital for foreigners: Cira Garcia. South of Miramar, in La Lisa, the orthopedic hospital Frank Pais was built. It attracts thousands of Latin Americans annually who receive care gratis even though it serves mainly Cubans. In Boyeros, the National Psychiatric Hospital and the rehabilitation hospital Julio Diaz were converted into general hospitals.

According to a noted Cuban economist:

"By the end of 1994, the Cuban government had successfully marketed its advanced medical services via the imaginative system of “health tourism” for income totaling over $21 milllion, servicing over 8,000 patients from over 90 countries". (www.havanaproject.com)

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners.

Comments:

Security strip with a repeating microprinted "Patria o Muerte" passes to the left of center.