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1 Jiao 1980, China

in Krause book Number: 881
Years of issue: 22.09.1988
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 1980 Issue
Specimen of: 1980
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 115 х 52
Printer: China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPM)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Jiao 1980

Description

Watermark:

Avers:

1 Jiao 1980

On left side is Gaoshan man, on right side is Manchu men.

Taiwanese aborigines or Gaoshan (Chinese: 原住民; pinyin: yuánzhùmín; Wade-Giles: yüan2-chu4-min2; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: gôan-chū-bîn; literally: "original inhabitants") is the term commonly applied to the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who constitute about two percent of the island's population, or more than 500,000 people. Recent research suggests their ancestors may have been living on Taiwan for approximately 8,000 years before a major Han immigration began in the XVII century. Taiwanese aborigines are Austronesian peoples, with linguistic and genetic ties to other Austronesian ethnic groups, which includes those of the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Madagascar and Oceania. The issue of an ethnic identity unconnected to the Asian mainland has become one thread in the discourse regarding the political status of Taiwan.

For centuries, Taiwan's aboriginal inhabitants experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing newcomers. Centralized government policies designed to foster language shift and cultural assimilation, as well as continued contact with the colonizers through trade, intermarriage and other dispassionate intercultural processes, have resulted in varying degrees of language death and loss of original cultural identity. For example, of the approximately 26 known languages of the Taiwanese aborigines (collectively referred to as the Formosan languages), at least ten are now extinct, five are moribund, and several are to some degree endangered. These languages are of unique historical significance, since most historical linguists consider Taiwan to be the original homeland of the Austronesian language family.

Taiwan's Austronesian speakers were formerly distributed over much of the island's rugged central mountain range and were concentrated in villages along the alluvial plains. The bulk of contemporary Taiwanese aborigines now live in the mountains and in cities.

The indigenous peoples of Taiwan face economic and social barriers, including a high unemployment rate and substandard education. Since the early 1980s, many aboriginal groups have been actively seeking a higher degree of political self-determination and economic development. The revival of ethnic pride is expressed in many ways by aborigines, including incorporating elements of their culture into commercially successful pop music. Efforts are under way in indigenous communities to revive traditional cultural practices and preserve their traditional languages. Several aboriginal tribes are becoming extensively involved in the tourism and ecotourism industries to achieve increased economic self-reliance from the state. The Austronesian Cultural Festival in Taitung City is another means to promote aboriginal culture.

The Manchu (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade-Giles: Man3-tsu2) are a Chinese ethnic minority and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats.

Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic people and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in that country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning province and one-fifth in Hebei province. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners. In words on the right side.

Revers:

1 Jiao 1980

coat

The national emblem of the People's Republic of China contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate to the Forbidden City, where Mao declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Above this representation are the five stars found on the national flag. The largest star represents the Communist Party of China, while the four smaller stars represent the four social classes as defined in Maoism. The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice, which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the bottom portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers.

Denominations are on the left and right sides. Each note has the words "People's Bank of China" as well as the denomination in the Uyghur, Tibetan and Mongolian (but no Zhuang since Zhuang alphabet was not invented yet) languages on the back, which has since appeared in each series of Renminbi notes.

Comments:

Jiao in Cantonese, is a unit of currency used in Greater China, including People's Republic of China (Mainland China), Republic of China (Taiwan), Hong Kong and Macao. One jiao is equal to one-tenth of a yuan or ten fēn.