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10 Yuan 1980, China

in Krause book Number: 887
Years of issue: 22.09.1988
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 1980 Issue
Specimen of: 1980
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 154 х 69
Printer: China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPM)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Yuan 1980

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The young man of the Mongol ethnic group.

Avers:

10 Yuan 1980

Han and Mongol men.

The Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to East Asia. They constitute approximately 92% of the population of Mainland China, 93% of the population of Hong Kong, 92% of the population of Macau, 98% of the population of Taiwan, 74% of the population of Singapore, 24.5% of the population of Malaysia, and about 19% of the entire global human population, making them the largest ethnic group in the world. There is considerable genetic, linguistic, cultural, and social diversity among the Han, mainly due to thousands of years of migration and assimilation of various regional ethnicities and tribes within China.[20] The Han Chinese are regarded as a subset of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu). They sometimes refer to themselves as Yan Huang Zisun, meaning the "descendants of Yan[di] and Huang[di]".

The Mongols are a Central and Northern Asian (Inner Asia) ethnic group. Although the largest Mongolian group consists of the inhabitants of Mongolia, they also live as minorities across Northern Asia, including in Russia, China, and many of the former Soviet Union states. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat subgroup live predominantly in what is now the autonomous Republic of Buryatia, and Republic of Kalmykia in Russia. In China, they live mainly either in Inner Mongolia or, less commonly, in Xinjiang. Mongolian people are bound together by a common culture and language, a group of related tongues known as the Mongolian language.

coat

Top left is the coat of arms of China.

The national emblem of the People's Republic of China contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate to the Forbidden City, where Mao declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Above this representation are the five stars found on the national flag. The largest star represents the Communist Party of China, while the four smaller stars represent the four social classes as defined in Maoism. The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice, which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the lower portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers.

According to The Description of the National Emblem of the People's Republic of China, these elements taken together symbolize the revolutionary struggles of the Chinese people since the May Fourth Movement and the coalition of the proletariat which succeeded in founding the People's Republic of China.

Stylized birds on background are centered, the Braille dots for the visually impaired are in lower left.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left, top right and lower right corners. Centered in words.

Revers:

10 Yuan 1980

everest

Mount Everest, also known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in Tibet as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain. It is located in the Mahalangur mountain range in Nepal and Tibet. Its peak is 8,848 meters (29,029 ft.) above sea level. The international border between China (Tibet Autonomous Region) and Nepal runs across Everest's precise summit point. Its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse, 8,516 m. (27,940 ft.); Nuptse, 7,855 m. (25,771 ft.) and Changtse, 7,580 m. (24,870 ft.).

In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, then known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m (29,002 ft). The current official height of 8,848 m. (29,029 ft.) as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. Waugh named the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, arguing that there were many local names, against the opinion of Everest.

Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the standard route) and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, wind as well as significant objective hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. As of 2016, there are well over 200 corpses still on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks.

The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers. With Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m. (22,970 ft.) on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the North ridge route up to 8,320 m. (27,300 ft.) marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m. (26,247 ft.). Tragedy struck on the descent from the North col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. The 1924 expedition resulted in the greatest mystery on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on June 8 but never returned, sparking debate as to whether they were the first to reach the top. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m. (26,755 ft.) on the North face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route. Tenzing had reached 8,595 m. (28,199 ft.) the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the North Ridge on May 25, 1960.

Lower right is the year of issue.

Denominations in numerals are in top and lower left corners and in top right corner. Each note has the words "People's Bank of China" as well as the denomination in the Uyghur, Tibetan and Mongolian (but no Zhuang since Zhuang alphabet was not invented yet) languages on the back, which has since appeared in each series of Renminbi notes.

Comments:

I got this note in China, in June 1999 in Beijing, when visited Beijing and Changchun.