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50 Manat 1995, Turkmenistan

in Krause book Number: 5b
Years of issue: 1995
Signatures: Chairman of the Central Bank of Turkmenistan: Orazow Hudaýberdy Artykowiç (1993 - 2000)
Serie: 1993 Issue
Specimen of: 1993
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 144 × 72
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Manat 1995




Akhal-Teke horse.


Depiction of former President Saparmurat Niyazov's pet, Akhal-Teke horse, Yanardag, a source of pride for the Turkmen people and the national emblem.

The Akhal-Teke is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a national emblem. They have a reputation for speed and endurance, intelligence, and a distinctive metallic sheen. The shiny coat of palominos and buckskins led to their nickname "Golden Horses". These horses are adapted to severe climatic conditions and are thought to be one of the oldest existing horse breeds. There are currently about 6,600 Akhal-Tekes in the world, mostly in Turkmenistan and Russia, although they are also found throughout Europe and North America.

There are several theories regarding the original ancestry of the Akhal-Teke, some dating back thousands of years. The tribes of Turkmenistan selectively bred the horses, recording their pedigrees orally and using them for raiding. The breed was used in the losing fight against the Russian Empire, and was subsumed into the Empire along with its country. The Akhal-Teke has influenced many other breeds, including several Russian breeds. There has been extensive crossbreeding with the Thoroughbred to create a fast, long-distance racehorse and as a result all Akhal-Tekes have a Thoroughbred ancestor. The studbook was closed in 1932. The Russians printed the first stud book for the breed in 1941, including over 700 horses.


50 Manat 1995


The engraving on banknote is based, presumably, after this photo of former Turkmen president Niyazov.

Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov (Saparmurat Atayewiç Nyýazow, 19 February 1940 - 21 December 2006) was a Turkmen politician who served as the leader of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. He was First Secretary of the Turkmen Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 and continued to lead Turkmenistan for 15 years after independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Monument to the soldiers of Turkmenistan who died during the Great Patriotic War

Ashgabat. Monument to the soldiers of Turkmenistan who died during the Great Patriotic War.

Built in 1970; architects - A. Kurbanliev, F. Bagirov; sculptor - D. Jumadurdy.

In 2013, the monument was included in the memorial complex "People's Memory" (Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex).

Milletin ogullary

Monument «Milletiň ogullary».

The monument depicts the Mother bowing her head and holding her son in an arm. Until 2014, the monument was in the center of Ashgabat. It was built in commemoration of the heroes of other battles for the Motherland (Turkmenistan). Today the monument is in the memorial complex "People's Memory" (Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex).

Halk hakydasyHalk hakydasy

The memorial complex "Halk hakydasy" ("People's memory") is a memorial complex in honor of the victims of the Geoktepe battle, the war of 1941-1945, as well as the commemoration of the victims of the Ashgabat earthquake of 1948. The monument is located in the southwestern part of Ashgabat, near the village of Bikrova.

Construction began in September 2012 by the Turkish company Polimeks. On October 5, the memorial complex was given the official name - "Halk hakydasy". The memorial complex was opened on October 6, 2014 on the Day of Remembrance, with the participation of the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov.

On May 9, 2020, the first parade in the history of independent Turkmenistan in honor of the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War was held on the square in front of the memorial complex.

Architectural ensemble

The memorial complex covers 650 thousand square meters, being 916 meters long and 626 meters wide. The complex includes a monument erected in honour of the victory in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), and the memorial perpetuating the memory of the heroes who died during the battle near Geok Depe and the casualties of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake. Also built in the memorial is a museum. There are buildings for the Muslim rite sadaqah. Near the monuments are fountains, lawns and flower beds, paved paths, installed decorative lamps and benches. At night, the complex is illuminated by searchlights.

Monument Ruhy Tagzym

A monument dedicated to the victims of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake. The bronze sculpture is 10 meters high, mounted on a marble podium, rising above an area of 24 meters, a monument built on the initiative of Saparmyrat Nyýazow as a mighty bull tossing the world on its horns, and the bodies of the dead people, and on top a woman, with her last desperate hand movements saving her baby, lifting it over the ruins of the city. Until 2012 it was in the central square of Ashgabat. The basis of the design of the monument is an ancient legend about a fantastic bull holding the Earth on its horns, and its bellowing is heard as underground earthquake noises.

Monument Baky şöhrat

Monument to those who fell in the 1941-1945 Great Patriotic War. Until 2014, it was called the "Eternal Flame" and was in the center of Ashgabat; it was dismantled in the reconstruction of the park area. The new monument is significantly different from the former; four 27-meter high steles embodying the unfolding flower, were replaced with five steles with a base in the form of an eight-pointed star. The monument was unveiled in 1970 in honour of the 25th anniversary of the Victory.

Monument Milletiň ogullary

The monument depicts the Mother bowing her head and holding her son in an arm. Until 2014, the monument was in the center of Ashgabat. It was built in commemoration of the heroes of other battles for the Motherland (Turkmenistan).

Museum "Watan mukaddesligi"

The museum has two halls - Ýer titreme ('Museum of the Earthquake') and Sowes ('War Museum'). The hall dedicated to the memory of the defenders of the fortress Geok Tepe, is the layout of the fortress, the real cold and firearms, clothing and military equipment, combatants, archival documents and photographs, diorama of the Battle of Geok Tepe. In the room dedicated to Turkmen citizens who fell in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 is an exhibition of works of Turkmen painters, graphic artists, sculptors, and ceramists. A separate exposition hall has reconstructed pictures of the Ashgabat earthquake, photographs and exhibits of documentary chronicles.


50 Manat 1995

The State Emblem of Turkmenistan

The central part of the state emblem is depicted on the banknote.

The State Emblem of Turkmenistan was created after Turkmenistan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The eight-point green starburst (known as the Rub El Hizb), a symbol of Islam, to which a majority of Turkmen profess) with golden edges features in its center a red circular disc which carries sheaves of wheat, five carpet guls, and centered upon that a smaller blue circle with a lifelike (rather than heraldized) depiction of former President Saparmurat Niyazov's pet Akhal-Teke horse Yanardag, a source of pride for the Turkmen people. A round variant of the emblem was used from 1992 until 2003.

The five traditional carpet motifs on the red disc represent the five major tribes or houses, and stand for the traditional and religious values of the country. These Turkmen tribes in traditional order are Teke (Tekke), Yomut (Yomud), Arsary (Ersary), Chowdur (Choudur), and Saryk (Saryq). The Salyr (Salor), a tribe that declined as a result of military defeat before the modern period, are not represented, nor are several smaller tribes or subtribes.

The green and red colors appear in this shield because they have been venerated historically by the Turkmen. The central elements are surrounded by sheaves of wheat that allude to the custom to welcome to guests with salt and bread. Atop the wheat and the red circle appear a waxing crescent moon of white, typical of Turkic symbology, and five five-pointed stars also of white. The waxing crescent moon symbolizes the hope of the country for a shining future and the stars represent the five provinces (Welayatlar) of Turkmenistan-Ahal, Balkan, Dashhowuz, Lebap, and Mary. Most of the elements of the coat of arms are present in the national flag.

Seýit Jemaleddiniň metjidi

Seyit Jemal ad-Din Mosque (also: Beauty House; Turkm. Seýit Jemaleddiniň metjidi) - the ruins of a grandiose mosque in Turkmenistan, in the foothills of the Kopetdag, on the territory of the medieval settlement of Anau, east of the modern city of Anau, the administrative center of the Akhal velayat, 12 kilometers east of Ashgabat. Monument of medieval architecture of Central Asia.

It was built in 1446-1457 (according to the inscription on the facade in 1455-1456) in honor of Sheikh Jalal-ad-dunya-va-d-din. The mosaic decoration of the portal of the mosque has no analogues in the Muslim architecture of Central Asia. On the arch of the portal were depicted two azhdarch dragons facing each other. The monument is visited by tourists who are fond of history and culture, and the tomb of the saint near the Anau mosque is a place of pilgrimage. Destroyed by the Ashgabat earthquake in 1948.

On a high hill dominating the surrounding area stands an old, aged mosque of magnificent burnt bricks. A high portal with a pointed arch sparkles with its magnificent tiles. Two full of expression giant mosaic dragons on both sides of the arch still make the traveler stand in front of them in mute surprise. This is the best monument of artistic medieval Muslim mosaics, the only such elegant work of the artistic genius of the country in all of Central Asia. A whole poetic tale of multi-colored, skillfully arranged glaze. A charming picture of a very peculiar, unusually finely executed ornament.

Once upon a time, near the fortress wall of the city, there was a tree on which a bell was hung. Each traveler who experienced distress could give a signal by striking a bell, and the population rescued him from trouble. Once, during the reign of the fair and wise Jemal, people heard a strong and disturbing ringing. Gathering at the tree, they saw that it was shaking a huge writhing dragon - azhdarch. At the same time, he seemed to be pointing either towards the mountains, or at two masters with axes and saws standing in the crowd. Queen Dzhemal ordered the masters to follow the dragon, which began to retire into the mountains. There they saw another dragon who was in terrible pain: he swallowed a goat whose horns were stuck in his throat. The brave craftsmen entered the open mouth, sawed the horns and cut the carcass of the black goat into pieces, freeing the dragon from torment. Then the first dragon led the masters into a cave full of treasures and allowed them to collect as much as they could take. The next day the residents were awakened again by the ringing of the bell. When they came out, they saw both dragons, who brought gold and a lot of precious stones. Having laid all this at the feet of the queen, they retired to the mountains. Jemal ordered to build a large mosque on these jewels and depict donors - dragons on its portal.

The study of the Anau Mosque was started by orientalist Valentin Zhukovsky in 1896. He made the first measurements. At the end of the 19th century, the mosque was in extremely poor condition, cracks gaped in the walls. The mosque was explored in 1904. In 1905, Alexander Semyonov published a brief description of the mosque and a call for its fixation and study. In 1908, Anau Semyonov published his article about the mosque in the collection “Minutes of meetings and reports of members of the Circle of Archeology Lovers” (PTKLA). This became possible after the end of the civil war and the creation of the Turkmen SSR. During the years of the civil war, the Anau mosque, remaining for a long time without direct protection, was repeatedly destroyed. The monument was examined on July 16, 1926 by artist Andrey Karelin and engineer Vladimir Rodionovich Tripolsky (1884-1942), members of the Turkmen Research Institute, and the drawings were made by engineer S.S. Sklyarevsky. The mosque was explored in 1937. Conservation measures were carried out at different times (V. R. Tripolsky, Nikolai Mikhailovich Bachinsky). A deep and comprehensive study of the ensemble was carried out by the South Turkmen Archaeological Complex Expedition (YuTAKE) in 1947 under the leadership of Mikhail Masson. As a result, a number of publications and a detailed monograph by Galina Pugachenkova appeared.

The cult ensemble remains of great importance in the history of culture and architecture of Turkmenistan. The ensemble consisted of four buildings: a mosque, which is a large domed hall, a tombstone in front of it, and two large buildings with high domed halls. The complex is connected into a complex volumetric-spatial composition. The structure was distinguished by a variety of vaulted structures and colorful cladding (mosaics and glazed tiles).

The mosque was built by the vizier of the Timurid ruler of Khorasan named Mohammed Khudaydot. A large inscription at the top of the peshtak of the mosque called the name of the ruler of Khorasan (1446-1457) Sultan Abu-l-Kasim Babur and read: “This building happened during the reign of the great Sultan, the ruler of his peoples, the refuge of countries and the age of Abu-l-KasimBaber Bahadurkhan may the Almighty perpetuate his dominion and his kingdom.” Other inscriptions provided information that the "House of Beauty" was built at his own expense by Muhammad in 1455-1456 in memory of his father Jalal-ad-dunya-va-d-din. Galina Pugachenkova convincingly identifies the name of Mohammed, named in the text on the mosque, with the Sultan's vizier Mohammed Khudaidot, whose buried father Jemaleddin was a native of Anau.

Galina Pugachenkova writes that the purpose of the construction was to attract Turkmens to the local large cult complex. The construction was not completed, because after the death of Sultan Babur in 1457, a period of civil strife and devastation began.

The mosque was built of burnt bricks. It opened onto the spacious front yard with a wide lancet arch in a high portal oriented to the north. The square hall with a span of 10.5 meters was covered with an elliptical dome resting on girth arches and structurally imperfect sails with stalactite decoration. In the thickness of the southern wall of the hall there was a mihrab decorated with tiles. On either side of it in the southern wall were narrow niches with exits to the outside. In the eastern and western walls there were two wide and deep niches with exits to the aivan, which covered the mosque from three sides at the level of the basement with hujras. Two other buildings bypassed the front courtyard from the east and west in front of the portal of the mosque. Their halls were covered with domes with a diameter of about 7 meters and were surrounded by small rooms on two floors. It is possible that the front yard was closed and had an entrance portal from the north.

At the end of the 19th century, the ensemble was in extremely poor condition; the portal of the mosque, magnificent in proportions, outlines and decorative decoration, was relatively well preserved. In the graphic reconstruction of the northern facade of the mosque, Galina Pugachenkova shows two high two-tiered minarets, as if continuing the side abutments of the portal.

The excellent polychrome ceramic decoration of the portal had the greatest value and artistic originality: ornamental brick laying with majolica inserts, geometric ornament and mosaic lengthy Arabic text. Above the arch were magnificent images of two adzharha dragons facing each other. Their yellow bodies wriggled against a dark blue mosaic background with small floral ornaments (apple blossoms), which began from the grinning mouths of fantastic creatures. The image of dragons on the facade has no analogies in the decoration of architectural monuments of Central Asia. An exhaustive explanation of the origin of this plot in the decoration of the Anau mosque has not yet been found, despite the fact that the images of dragons go into the deep history of Central Asian art. Galina Pugachenkova gives the following transcript: “In terms of content, this, apparently, is a totem inhabited back in the 15th century. Anau district (the main city of the region was Nisa) of the main Turkmen tribe, to which, perhaps, Sheikh Jemaleddin also belonged, whose grave was in Anau. It has no analogies in the decoration of architectural monuments of Central Asia and the ornament of the mosaic border framing the portal arch and the Arabic inscription above it. The design of this ornament is typical for the painted ceramics of the Turkmen Eneolithic and continues to be used in Turkmen carpets. Fragments of decor are stored in the Museum of Fine Arts of Turkmenistan. The restorers managed to restore the foundations of the portal, the brickwork on the square and the grave. The restoration and conservation work on the mosaic dragon panel and epigraphy on the portal of the Anau Mosque was carried out by the Museum of Fine Arts and the Academy of Arts with a 2013 Ambassador's Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP) grant ($38,780).

According to a local legend explaining the appearance of such an unusual building, during the reign of the fair and wise Jemal, a dragon-azhdarkh turned to the townspeople for help. By order of the queen, the dragon brought craftsmen with axes and saws to the mountains, where they saved another dragon from torment, in whose throat a goat was stuck. In gratitude, the dragons presented the masters and the city with treasures. Queen Jamal ordered the construction of a mosque. According to legend, dragons were the patrons of Anau, and their images guarded the mosque.