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1 Manat 1993, Turkmenistan

in Krause book Number: 1
Years of issue: 1993
Signatures: Chairman of the Central Bank of Turkmenistan: Orazow Hudaýberdy Artykowiç (1993 - 2000)
Serie: 1993 Issue
Specimen of: 1993
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 120 х 60
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Manat 1993




Akhal-Teke horse.


Depiction of former President Saparmurat Niyazov's pet, Akhal-Teke horse, Yanardag, a source of pride for the Turkmen people and the national emblem.

The Akhal-Teke is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a national emblem. They have a reputation for speed and endurance, intelligence, and a distinctive metallic sheen. The shiny coat of palominos and buckskins led to their nickname "Golden Horses". These horses are adapted to severe climatic conditions and are thought to be one of the oldest existing horse breeds. There are currently about 6,600 Akhal-Tekes in the world, mostly in Turkmenistan and Russia, although they are also found throughout Europe and North America.

There are several theories regarding the original ancestry of the Akhal-Teke, some dating back thousands of years. The tribes of Turkmenistan selectively bred the horses, recording their pedigrees orally and using them for raiding. The breed was used in the losing fight against the Russian Empire, and was subsumed into the Empire along with its country. The Akhal-Teke has influenced many other breeds, including several Russian breeds. There has been extensive crossbreeding with the Thoroughbred to create a fast, long-distance racehorse and as a result all Akhal-Tekes have a Thoroughbred ancestor. The studbook was closed in 1932. The Russians printed the first stud book for the breed in 1941, including over 700 horses.


1 Manat 1993

Ylymlar academyYlymlar academy

Ylymlar Academy of Science of Turkmenistan.

Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR, the highest scientific institution of the Turkmen SSR. Founded in 1951 on the basis of the Turkmen branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Located in Ashgabat. The academy (1969) has 2 honorary academicians, 23 academicians and 21 corresponding members. The academy has 3 departments and 10 research institutes; department of physical, technical and chemical sciences (research institutes: physical and technical; chemistry; physics of the Earth and atmosphere), department of biological sciences (research institutes: deserts; botany; zoology; regional medicine); department of social sciences (scientific research institutes: history named after Sh. B. Batyrov, language and literature named after Magtymguly, economics), as well as a number of other research institutions: the central botanical garden; Repetek sand-desert station; Department of Philosophy and Law, South-Turkmenistan Archaeological Complex Expedition (YUTAKE), etc. Central Scientific Library (350 thousand items, 1968).

Leading areas of research: the use of solar energy based on semiconductor technology; deep structure of the earth's crust and upper mantle, seismology, petrochemistry; natural salts; integrated use of deserts; flora and fauna of the Turkmen SSR; regional medicine; history, philosophy, law, language and literature of the Turkmen people. The Academy publishes Izvestia in three series (since 1946), the journal Problems of Desert Development (since 1967), and other scientific literature, and is preparing the Turkmen Soviet Encyclopedia for publication.

Presidents of the Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR: 1951-1956 - Berdyev T. B. 1956-59 - Charyev G. O. 1959-65 - Batyrov Sh. B. Since 1966 - Azimov P. A.

In 1998, the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan was liquidated by the decision of Saparmurad Niyazov. In 2007-2009 she worked on a voluntary basis. On June 12, 2009, by the decree of the President of Turkmenistan “On the formation of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan”, it was restored as a state organization. ( .rus)

Turkmen silver pendant necklaceTurkmen silver pendant necklace

The antique Turkman traditional ethnic tribal silver "Tumar" pendant from 1900s. Its 100% hand crafted workmanship with beautiful Carnelian Stones and partial gold wash with tassels. Sides can ben open and can put prays or letters etc. Turkmen jewelry is notoriously large, with pieces worn on both the front and back of the body, as well as on the head, arms, and fingers. Some say that the large size of Turkmen jewelry is a vestigial form of the armor worn by Turkmen women who fought alongside their men in battle.

The Turkmen use the word 'tumar' to refer to a type of pectoral pendant or amulet and is based on the principle of the rhombus which consists of three parts - the upper part; the tumar proper with the symbolic mountain motif and vertical west-east orientation; a middle part consisting of a 'bozbend' tube with a horizontal west-east orientation and a lower part consisting of an inverted mountain motif from which silver, luminous world-spheres fall as pendants. The trichotomic world-picture recurs in all three parts.

In Soviet ethnography, tumar pectoral ornaments are regarded almost exclusively as amulets, an interpretation which can be attributed to Islamic influence and its interpretation of the tumar. But, there is another very popular opinion, that its true meaning should be sought in the ancient nomadic art of the Turco-Mongols. (


1 Manat 1993

The State Emblem of Turkmenistan

The central part of the state emblem is depicted on the banknote.

The State Emblem of Turkmenistan was created after Turkmenistan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The eight-point green starburst (known as the Rub El Hizb), a symbol of Islam, to which a majority of Turkmen profess) with golden edges features in its center a red circular disc which carries sheaves of wheat, five carpet guls, and centered upon that a smaller blue circle with a lifelike (rather than heraldized) depiction of former President Saparmurat Niyazov's pet Akhal-Teke horse Yanardag, a source of pride for the Turkmen people. A round variant of the emblem was used from 1992 until 2003.

The five traditional carpet motifs on the red disc represent the five major tribes or houses, and stand for the traditional and religious values of the country. These Turkmen tribes in traditional order are Teke (Tekke), Yomut (Yomud), Arsary (Ersary), Chowdur (Choudur), and Saryk (Saryq). The Salyr (Salor), a tribe that declined as a result of military defeat before the modern period, are not represented, nor are several smaller tribes or subtribes.

The green and red colors appear in this shield because they have been venerated historically by the Turkmen. The central elements are surrounded by sheaves of wheat that allude to the custom to welcome to guests with salt and bread. Atop the wheat and the red circle appear a waxing crescent moon of white, typical of Turkic symbology, and five five-pointed stars also of white. The waxing crescent moon symbolizes the hope of the country for a shining future and the stars represent the five provinces (Welayatlar) of Turkmenistan-Ahal, Balkan, Dashhowuz, Lebap, and Mary. Most of the elements of the coat of arms are present in the national flag.

Mausoleum of Il Arslanyň

Mausoleum of Il Arslanyň (Fahreddin Razi) (Turkm. Il Arslanyň kümmeti) is a medieval mausoleum located on the territory of the Kunya-Urgench National Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve in the city of Kunya-Urgench, Turkmenistan. The mausoleum was built for Il-Arslan, who ruled the State of Khorezmshahs in the 12th century.

This is the oldest surviving building of Kunya-Urgench, the medieval capital of Khorezm. This mausoleum is one of the first in a long line of monumental buildings in Central Asia, whose height is artificially increased by the space between the inner dome and the outer tent. True, the first double domes appeared in northern Khorasan in the 11th century, but their inter-dome axils were small and were not designed for an external effect; the innovation, imprinted in the small Urgench mausoleum and giving it a resemblance to an obelisk, will later be embodied in the grandiose buildings of Timur and his descendants.

Built over the imaginary grave of Fakhreddin Razi or over the real Khorezmshah Il-Arslan, the mausoleum in Kunya-Urgench is one of the most outstanding buildings of pre-Mongolian Central Asia, combining unique features, technical and artistic, with ideas and images of future, not yet embodied architecture.

The mausoleum is known primarily for the magnificent terracotta decoration of the main facade and dates (according to indirect evidence) to the 2nd half of the XII century. It also has the name "Mausoleum of Fakhreddin Razi". The theologian Fakhreddin Razi was buried in Herat in 1208, and the mausoleum in Urgench could not be his tomb; according to the hypothesis of V. I. Pilyavsky, this small but spectacular building was erected over the ashes of Khorezmshah Il-Arslan, who ruled in 1156-1172, the father of Khorezmshah Tekesh. Based only on the "exceptional architectural and artistic merit" of the building, this hypothesis does not explain why the name of a humble scientist has replaced the name of a powerful ruler in popular memory, if he is really buried here.

Today the mausoleum is a local landmark visited by many tourists.

The shape of the mausoleum is distinguished by its clarity and simplicity of composition: a cube with a twelve-sided prism of a drum and a dome in the form of a twelve-sided tent. There are no similar buildings with a faceted tent in Central Asia. The mausoleum is located on the territory of the historical and cultural reserve "Kunyaurgench" and is known primarily for the magnificent terracotta decoration of the main facade. The building, square in plan, is oriented to the cardinal points, with the main portal facade facing east. The total height of the mausoleum is twice the height of its walls. The mausoleum of Il-Arslan is one of the first monumental buildings in Central Asia.

The twelve-sided dome of Il-Arslan, decorated with a geometric ornament with blue tiles, is one of the oldest among the pyramid-shaped coverings that have survived in Central Asia. The mausoleum of Il-Arslan was hand-decorated with relief carved terracotta, expressed in an intricate ornament: floral and geometric patterns.