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100 Rials 1995, Yemen

in Krause book Number: 28b
Years of issue: 1995
Signatures: Governor and Chairman of the Central Bank of Yemen: Alawi Saleh al-Salami (1994 - 1997)
Serie: 1993 - 1997 Issue
Specimen of: 1993
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 x 75
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Rials 1995




Coat of arms.


The coat of arms (emblem) of Yemen depicts a golden eagle holding a scroll in its claws. Arabic is written on it. الجمهورية اليمنية‎ or Al-Jumhuriya-al-Yamania (Republic of Yemen). On either side of the eagle are the national flags of Yemen.

On the chest of the eagle is a shield. In the shield, on top - a coffee tree. Yemen is considered the birthplace of the coffee drink. Although the coffee tree came to Yemen from Ethiopia, it is from Yemen that the drink begins its triumphant journey to the Arabs, Turks, to the countries of European culture, and from Europeans to the New World. It is from the Yemeni plantations (south of Arabia - “Happy Arabia” of antiquity) that the best coffee variety was called “arabica”, and from the Yemeni port of Mocha - “mocha”.

At the bottom of the shield is a golden dam and four blue wavy lines. This is the famous Marib Dam. The city of Marib is the capital of the ancient state of Saba.

The city flourished thanks to the famous half-kilometer Marib dam (VII century BC) on Wadi Denna (Danakh). The destruction of the Marib dam in the VI century. n. e. even mentioned in the Quran.


100 Rials 1995

Cisterns of Tawila

The Cisterns of Tawila, or the Tawila Tanks, is a historic site in Aden, Yemen designed to collect and store the rain that flows down from the Shamsan massif through Wadi Tawila, and to protect the city from periodic flooding. The site consists of a series of tanks of varying shape and capacity. They are connected to one another and located in Wadi Tawila to the southwest of Aden’s oldest district, Crater. Originally there were about 53 tanks, but only 13 remain following a succession of renovations, including those done by the British in the XIX century. The existing tanks have a combined capacity of about nineteen million gallons. The largest of the tanks are the Coghlan Tank at the center of the main site and the large, circular Playfair Tank, located at the lowest point, outside the main site.

The tanks were hewn from the volcanic rocks of Wadi Tawila and then lined with a special stucco that included volcanic ash to create a strong, natural cement that rendered the tanks' walls impermeable in order to retain water for extended periods.

Visitors to the Tanks are often surprised by the words on a plaque near the Coghlan Tank: "Regarding the original construction of which nothing is accurately known..." There is indeed little hard evidence and there are few reliable sources of information about the Tanks. One favored hypothesis is that Himyar, a pre-Islamic Arabian kingdom that ruled parts of Yemen from 115 B.C. to 525 A.D., started to build water tanks in the area that eventually became the Cisterns of Tawila. The Himyarites are known to have employed water-catchment tanks in other areas under their rule. The proposed Himyaritic origins of the tanks may help explain a recessed, rectangular area in the Coghlan tank that, according to the Director of the site, could have been used in pre-Islamic times for animal sacrifice (a ritual that the Himyarites were known to perform for a variety of occasions, including drought).

The Tanks were mentioned in some manuscripts after the coming of Islam to Yemen in the VII century A.D. "Aden has Tanks that store water when the rain falls", wrote Al-Hamdani in the 10th century. Al-Makdsi, writing three centuries later, also recorded the presence of wells and cisterns in Aden. By the time of the Rasulid dynasty (1229-1454 A.D.), the Tanks had fallen into disrepair. However, the Rassulids recognized the utility of the Tanks and began to restore them. This restoration has led some to claim that the Rassulids built the Tanks, thereby obscuring what are, in all probability, the far more ancient origins of the Tanks. After the Rassulids, the Tanks once again fell into disrepair, damaged by flooding and neglect and filled with the rubble of successive floods.

By the time of the British occupation of Aden (beginning in 1839), the Tanks had been almost completely buried by debris carried down the mountains by successive floods. Sir Robert L. Playfair rediscovered the tanks and recognized their potential value. Aden had no fresh water and was often cut off from mainland water supplies by hostile tribes. Playfair hoped that the Tanks, once repaired, could provide a reliable source of water for public consumption. The British accordingly set out to restore the tanks to their original function. However, in the process, the British modified the design and layout of the Tanks significantly from their original state. With the intention of storing the greatest quantity of water possible, British engineers replaced an intricate network of numerous, small, cascading cisterns along the valley walls with a few, larger tanks. The Tanks' ability to both control floods and store water was thus hampered, and the site that tourists visit today is very much a Victorian British creation. Further, the remodeling destroyed what archaeological evidence might have been present with regards to the original site, and this, coupled with the scarcity of documentary evidence, has made learning more about the Tanks' origins difficult.

Today, the cisterns are primarily a public park and a tourist attraction. They have not been filled for at least fifteen years and do not serve the city's water needs. They may still help with flooding, although the presence of structures in the saila, or flood course, that leads from the Tanks to the sea, impedes the flow of water. No significant restoration work has been conducted on the Tanks since the British colonial era ended in 1967. Time, floods, and visitors have taken their toll on the structures. In addition, construction on the tableland above the Tanks may threaten the entire system of wadis and dams that help channel floodwaters into the Tanks. The future of the Tanks remains uncertain.


100 Rials 1995


View of Sana'a (the capital of Yemen) and Mount Jebel Nukum.

Sanaa ('Sanaa) - the political capital of Yemen, the population is about 2 million people.

Sana'a is a charming city with a unique architecture, where the skyline is not visible behind the majestic tower houses. Here, the oldest brick minarets, like the prayers of believers, ascend to heaven, competing with each other in their elegance and power of prayer.

In the mid-70s, UNESCO classified Sanaa as one of those cities that are under the threat of reconstruction, and in 1986 included it in the World Heritage List in recognition of the importance of its mosques and minarets, schools, suks, samsars (caravanserai) , palaces, hammams (baths) and tower houses.

Sana is located at an altitude of 2.286 m. above sea level in the narrowest part of the main mountain plateau, above which rises Mount Jebel Nukum, on top of which there is a citadel. Sana'a is divided into three parts: the Old City, Bir al-Azab (Sweet Water Well) and Kaa el-Yahud (Jewish Valley), which traditionally continues to be called that, although the Jewish population of Yemen who lived here left for Israel in 1946 .

The first mention of Sana dates back to the 1st century, but presumably there was an earlier settlement on this site.

According to legend, Sana was founded by Shem, the son of Noah. The historian Al-Hamdani claims that the walls of the city and the famous palace of Gumdun, which, unfortunately, has not survived to this day, were built by Shasir Avtar, the king of the Sabaean kingdom. It is said that Sana once bore the name Azal. Yemeni genealogists explain this by saying that the great-great-great-grandson of Shem, the seventh son of Joktan (Kahtan in Arabic), referred to in Genesis 10:27, was called Uzal.

Located at the crossroads of two main trade routes, one of which lies between the high-altitude fertile plains, the other between the city of Marib and the Red Sea, Sana'a has been the most important trading center of the entire region for centuries. The city's name comes from a South Arabic term meaning "well fortified". Until now, many of the walls of the castle of Qasr al-Silha, which was rebuilt during the formation of Islam, have been preserved. (

Jabal Nuqm is a mountain in Amanat Al Asimah, Yemen. It is located at an elevation of 2,889 meters above sea level.

Jabal Nuqm is also known as Jabal Nuqum and Jebel Nukum. (


On right side is The minaret of the old city. So far, I'm not sure which mosque this minaret belongs to.