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1 Rial 1976, Yemen

in Krause book Number: 11b
Years of issue: 1976
Signatures: Governor and Chairman of the Central Bank of Yemen: Abdulla Mohamed al-Sanabani
Serie: 1973 Issue
Specimen of: 1973
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 126 x 65
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Rial 1976




Coat of arms.


The coat of arms (emblem) of Yemen depicts a golden eagle holding a scroll in its claws. Arabic is written on it. الجمهورية اليمنية‎ or Al-Jumhuriya-al-Yamania (Republic of Yemen). On either side of the eagle are the national flags of Yemen.

On the chest of the eagle is a shield. In the shield, on top - a coffee tree. Yemen is considered the birthplace of the coffee drink. Although the coffee tree came to Yemen from Ethiopia, it is from Yemen that the drink begins its triumphant journey to the Arabs, Turks, to the countries of European culture, and from Europeans to the New World. It is from the Yemeni plantations (south of Arabia - “Happy Arabia” of antiquity) that the best coffee variety was called “arabica”, and from the Yemeni port of Mocha - “mocha”.

At the bottom of the shield is a golden dam and four blue wavy lines. This is the famous Marib Dam. The city of Marib is the capital of the ancient state of Saba.

The city flourished thanks to the famous half-kilometer Marib dam (VII century BC) on Wadi Denna (Danakh). The destruction of the Marib dam in the VI century. n. e. even mentioned in the Quran.


1 Rial 1976

جامع البكيرية

Al-Baqiriyya Mosque (Arabic: جامع البكيرية‎) is located in the eastern part of the capital of Yemen, Sanaa (Old City). The al-Baqiriyya Mosque was built by the Ottoman Turks in 1597 during the first occupation of Yemen and a short Ottoman-Zaidi truce. The Ottoman Vali Hassan Pasha Arnavut ordered the construction of this Hanifite mosque in order to perpetuate the inviolability of Ottoman rule in South Arabia. According to another version, the mosque was built as a tribute to one of the Pasha's friends, who was buried next to the mosque.

It is an interesting mixture of elements of national architecture and Turkish style. The al-Baqiriyya Mosque belongs to the so-called counter-yard type of mosques, which is widespread in Yemen. However, al-Baqiriya is an example of classical Ottoman architecture - large in size for Yemeni architecture and small for Ottoman mosques. Its domes are made in the Turkish style, and the minaret is built in Yemeni traditions.

The entrance to the courtyard of the mosque is located in the western part (from the side of al-Lakiya Street) and is through a small convex portal in the western wall, decorated along the perimeter of the top with teeth of a traditional Yemeni shape.

On the same side of the mosque, to the left and right of the entrance, there are two tombs, outwardly almost copying the shape of the building of the mosque itself.

In the south, to the right of the entrance, in the courtyard there is a four-domed rectangular room for ablutions. Nearby, on the east side, there is a small pool (hidden behind the arcade and the room).

Parallel to the eastern part of the courtyard there is a narrow covered corridor with an arcade leading to the minaret. To the left and to the right of the minaret (behind the arcade) there are three rooms, two of which can be entered from the eastern outer side. These two buildings are missing from Ronald Lucock's plans and are believed to have been completed after 1983.

جامع البكيرية

Unlike the building of the mosque, the minaret of al-Baqiriyi, both in form and decor, fully corresponds to the style of San minarets.

The main feature of al-Baqiriya is the large hemispherical dome over the prayer hall, a feature that was unknown in Yemen prior to the Ottoman occupation. The dome rests on a drum in the form of an octagonal frieze.

At the four corners of the building at the level of the frieze are four cylindrical turrets, similar in shape to the tops of some minarets of Sana'a, but these turrets are also a characteristic feature of Ottoman mosques.

The mosque premise consists of a large prayer hall preceded by a three-domed portico with two columns. The sails and inner parts of the domes of the portico are richly decorated with plaster geometric patterns and sayings from the Koran. Three more domes are located perpendicular to the portico and at the same level with it - above the interior in the eastern part of the mosque (a small nave and a fenced tomb).

Unlike Yemeni mosques, here, in the prayer hall, there are no load-bearing columns and a wooden coffered ceiling. The dome is supported by arched-vaulted sails, in the center of which are the so-called brightly decorated muqarnas (honeycomb vault). Muqarnas are also used as the main decor of the mihrab. The painting of the hall creates the effect of volume, although the painted plaster carving is present only in the decoration of windows and doors.

Additional lighting enters the mosque through windows in the drum of the dome. A modern gilded chandelier is currently in use. A garland of antique oil lamps now plays only a decorative function.

In 1872, during the second Ottoman conquest, the mosque underwent restoration and significant changes, including the elevation of the sofa in the prayer hall and the mihrab and minbar decoration with marble. At the moment, the sofa is used as a place of prayer for women, for whom there was no place in this mosque before.

A large dome over the prayer hall, turrets, an octagonal frieze and some elements of interior decoration were later used in the construction of Talha (1620-1621) and Al-Mahdi (1750-1751) mosques.


1 Rial 1976


Coffee trees against the backdrop of the mountainous landscape of West Yemen.

Yemen is the birthplace of the coffee drink, a monopolist in the coffee market in the 17th and 18th centuries, and one of the poorest countries in the world today. The emblem of this country depicts a coffee tree, and its history is inextricably linked with the cultivation of coffee.

In this article, we will tell you how the coffee industry developed in Yemen and why the fate of Yemeni coffee is being decided right now.

The coffee drink, and with it the whole culture of growing, processing and consuming coffee, originated in Yemen.

One of the famous legends tells about the healer Omar from the Yemeni city of Mocha. He first roasted coffee berries and brewed a drink from them so as not to die of hunger in the desert. According to another version, coffee was first prepared by Sufi monks in Yemen so as not to fall asleep during night meditations.

By the 15th century, coffee had become popular among the people of Yemen. Coffee began to grow, drink and sell everywhere. The unique climate and landscape have contributed to the production of coffee, known throughout the world for its taste.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, coffee in Yemen was the center of economic, historical and cultural change. The life of the inhabitants of this country was inextricably linked with this plant: most of the farming population of the country was engaged only in the cultivation of coffee.

By the early 18th century, Yemen's entire income came from coffee exports. And all the coffee that was supplied around the world was from Yemen. For more than two centuries, the country has been a monopoly. The Ottoman Empire, of which Yemen was a part, guarded the wealth of this country from robberies and invasions in order to keep the primacy in the coffee market for itself.

Until that time, the Yemeni port city of Mocha, which had been quiet until then, became the main place for coffee trade. All merchant ships that went to the Red Sea had to stop at the port and pay a fee. The city became a populous and wealthy port city of the Ottoman Empire. And coffee "from Moss" has become world famous. Over time, all the coffee that was grown in Yemen began to be called "mocha coffee".

The demand for coffee was increasing all over the world, so more and more countries showed interest in growing it. So Dutch, French and British colonial trading companies began to smuggle coffee beans out of Yemen for cultivation. By the end of the 18th century, the first coffee plantations appeared outside of Yemen.

The monopoly on coffee cultivation was lost, world prices fell, Yemen's market share in the world market began to decline rapidly. By 1800, Yemen produced only 6% of the world's coffee.

In just a few centuries, Yemen has gone from the world's only coffee exporter to a country with a meager share of the coffee market - less than 0.1%. Next, we will discuss the reasons for such a sharp decline.

Farmers in Yemen continue to carefully grow coffee, as they did 4-5 centuries ago. The coat of arms of Yemen still features the coffee tree. And coffee from Yemen still retains its fame in the specialty coffee industry.

Yemen is located in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. The territory of the country is diverse: in the east - deserts, in the south and west - coastal plains, in the center - a mountain volcanic range up to 3760 meters high.

It is in remote mountainous regions at an altitude of more than 1800 meters that most of the Yemeni coffee is grown. Some plantations are shaded by taller trees. Others are in the shadow of clouds that form over mountain peaks.

According to statistics, coffee is grown in 80% of the country's provinces. In the north, these are the regions of Sana'a, Hajj, Saada and El Mahwit. In the west - Buraa and Rayma, in the southeast and southwest - Yafea, Abin, Lahj, El-Bayda, Dhamar and Taiz. (Софья Ахметшина .rus)