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100 Rials 2018, Yemen

in Krause book Number: 131
Years of issue: 2018
Signatures: Governor of the Central Bank: Dr. Mohammed Mansour Zammam
Serie: 2018 Issue
Specimen of: 2018
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 х 69
Printer: Гознак, Московская печатная фабрика, филиал ФГУП "Гознак", Москва

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100 Rials 2018




Denomination, coat of arms.


The coat of arms (emblem) of Yemen depicts a golden eagle holding a scroll in its claws. Arabic is written on it. الجمهورية اليمنية‎ or Al-Jumhuriya-al-Yamania (Republic of Yemen). On either side of the eagle are the national flags of Yemen.

On the chest of the eagle is a shield. In the shield, on top - a coffee tree. Yemen is considered the birthplace of the coffee drink. Although the coffee tree came to Yemen from Ethiopia, it is from Yemen that the drink begins its triumphant journey to the Arabs, Turks, to the countries of European culture, and from Europeans to the New World. It is from the Yemeni plantations (south of Arabia - “Happy Arabia” of antiquity) that the best coffee variety was called “arabica”, and from the Yemeni port of Mocha - “mocha”.

At the bottom of the shield is a golden dam and four blue wavy lines. This is the famous Marib Dam. The city of Marib is the capital of the ancient state of Saba.

The city flourished thanks to the famous half-kilometer Marib dam (VII century BC) on Wadi Denna (Danakh). The destruction of the Marib dam in the VI century. n. e. even mentioned in the Quran.


100 Rials 2018

Dracaena cinnabari

Dracaena cinnabari, the Socotra dragon tree or dragon blood tree, is a dragon tree native to the Socotra archipelago, part of Yemen, located in the Arabian Sea. It is named after the blood-like color of the red sap that the trees produce.

Because of the resinous blood-red sap (so-called "dragon blood"), this plant is called the dragon tree - as are some other species of this genus, such as Dracaena draco and Dracaena ombet.

According to an old Indian legend, a bloodthirsty dragon once lived in the Arabian Sea on the island of Socotra, attacking elephants and drinking their blood. But one day a dying elephant fell on a dragon and crushed him - their blood mixed and wetted the ground around. At this place, trees called dracaena (ancient Greek δράκαινα) grew, which means “female dragon”.

The Arabic name for the plant is dam al-ahwein ("the blood of two brothers"). This name is associated with the legend of the struggle between two brothers. The local (Socotrian) name of this plant is a‘riyob.

Cinnabar-red dracaena is an endemic of Socotra island, an ancient relic of this island.


On right and left sides, at the bottom, are Qamariya windows.

Ancient Yemeni old city of Sanaa always captures visitors' eyes with its unique architecture of windows which refect beautiful shining colors and are made of stained glass and gypsum plasters.

But the ancient architectural handicraft is at risk of disappearing mainly because of the civil war. Instead, many windows are now made of aluminum.

Locally known as Qamaria, which came from the Arabic meaning of the moon, the window allows the moonlight in and blocks prying eyes.

The unique window architecture helps natural light enter the dark rooms of Yemeni houses during the continuous power outages since the outbreak of the civil war more than four years ago.

However, the demand for Qamarias has sharply decreased due to the war and the needs increased for the imported modern aluminum windows preferred by the modern architectural styles.

"The war has affected us heavily. Before the war, we used to receive new demands every day for making Qamaria windows, but now it becomes rare, while many prefer modern aluminum windows," Mohammed Al-Wassabi, a craftsman, told Xinhua from his workshop in Sanaa, the capital of Yemen.

Al-Wassabi, whose family has been in the business for hundreds of years, lamented the decline in the traditional industry.

The war erupted in late 2014 after the Iranian-allied Houthi group stormed Sanaa and forced the Saudi-backed government of President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi into exile.

The local Sanaa residents, however, are strongly in love with the traditional architecture and its geometric patterns that date back to hundreds of years ago and they enjoy boasting about their ancestors' heritage.

"Qamaria is the vital part of the Yemeni cultural and architectural heritage for thousands of years. So we love it," said Majid al-Awlaqi, a local resident.

Resident Amin al-Shami said that comparing Qamaria with the modern aluminum window, the latter needs heavy curtain to maintain the privacy of the house which blocks out natural light from streaming in.

"Qamaria makes the internal and external view of the house very beautiful and its colored glass lets the streaming of moonlight and sunlight into the rooms, creating a distinctive colorful atmosphere," al-Shami added.

The old city of Sanaa is inscribed on the World Heritage List of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

The city has been inhabited for more than 2,500 years. The 6,000 mud-brick tower houses decorated with geometric patterns of white plaster and stained glass windows, or Qamarias, add to the beauty of the ancient city. (


100 Rials 2018

Terraced agricultural farming fields

Terraced agricultural farming fields. Presumably, agricultural terraces near Manakha, in the mountains West of Sanaa. Terraces have been built on long slopes (up to 1000 meters high)

The ancient village of Manakha located in the Haraz mountains, the so called "spine of Yemen" ,was once home to a Jewish community, until their emigration to Israel in the XIX and XX century. Yemenite Jews were chiefly artisans and merchants.

Queen Arwa Mosque Mihrab decorated niche‎

Queen Arwa Mosque Mihrab decorated niche in Jiblah.

The Mosque of Queen Arwa bint Ahmad Al-Sulayhi (Arabic: مَسْجِد ٱلْمَلِكَة أَرْوَى بِنْت أَحْمَد ٱلصُّلَيْحِي, romanized: Masjid Al-Malikah Arwā bint Aḥmad Aṣ-Ṣulayḥī), or simply the Queen Arwa Mosque, is a historical mosque in Jibla, Yemen. It was built between 1056 and 1111 CE by Queen Arwa al-Sulayhi and her tomb had later become the site of pilgrimage. It retains its importance as one of the oldest ancient Yemeni mosques. It is also known as Hurrat-ul-Malikah Mosque, as the queen was often referred as Al-Malika Al-Hurra, which means "The Noble Queen".

The construction of the mosque is attributed to Queen Arwa bint Ahmad al-Sulayhi, who ruled the Sulayhid state of Yemen for the period between 1085 and 1138. When Queen Arwa moved to the city of Jibla in 1087, she ordered the conversion of Dar Al-'Ezz (Arabic: دَار ٱلْعِزّ, romanized: Dār Al-ʿIzz) Palace into a mosque. The mosque still retains its architectural and decorative elements of the time which show the extent of the influence of Fatimid architecture.

The complex is rectangular with an open courtyard (17.80 m2 × 20.00 m2) in the middle, surrounded by four corridors. The wall of the qiblah is located at the northern hallway. The area of the qiblah is accessible through five entrances on the southern side. It consists of four rows of high columns, some octagonal and some rectangular shaped. The roof is directly covered by the ceiling and the hall is covered with wooden beams dating back to the XI-century, some of which were renewed in 1358. The southern hallway consists of southern wall with two entrances. The eastern hallway consists of two pillars with pointed columns. On the south-side of the western hallway there is a hall currently used as a madrasa for the memorization of the Quran.