header Notes Collection

20 Baht 2022, Thailand

in Krause book Number: 142
Years of issue: 24.03.2022
Signatures: Finance Minister of Thailand: Mr. Arkhom Termpittayapaisith, Governor of the Bank of Thailand: Dr. Sethaput Suthiwartnarueput
Serie: 2018 King Maha Vajiralongkorn Issue
Specimen of: 28.07.2018
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 138 х 72
Printer: De la Rue currency,Gateshead

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Baht 2022




HM The King Rama X. Denomination.


20 Baht 2022


H.M. King Vajiralongkorn, Rama X, in the uniform of the commander of the Royal Thai Air Force.

Vajiralongkorn (Thai: วชิราลงกรณ; RTGS: Wachiralongkon; born 28 July 1952) is King of Thailand. He is the only son of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Sirikit. In 1972, at the age of 20, he was made crown prince by his father. After his father's death on 13 October 2016, he was expected to ascend to the throne of Thailand but asked for time to mourn before taking the throne. He accepted the throne on the night of 1 December 2016. His coronation took place from 4-6 May 2019. The Thai government retroactively declared his reign to have begun on 13 October 2016, upon his father's death.[6] As the tenth monarch of the Chakri dynasty, he is also styled as Rama X. Aged 64 at that time, Vajiralongkorn became the oldest Thai monarch to ascend to the throne.

He is the wealthiest monarch in the world, with a net worth estimated to be between US$30 billion and US$70 billion.


On top is a Monogram of HM The King Maha Vajiralongkorn.

Each of the members of royal family has its own symbolic color and monogram. Thus, even just seeing the monogram it is possible to determine, without any photos, who personally present at the event.

As a part of monogram of King is the Great Crown of Victory, the most important royal regalia and a symbol of royal power. The royal crown is of a traditional Siamese conical shape. Its top symbolizes the authority of the king in heaven and its base his caring for his people on earth. The crown is 66 cm. high.

In the top right corner is the national emblem of Thailand - Garuda.


20 Baht 2022


Left - Crop of portrait of King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (Rama I), which is displayed in the Chakri Mahaprasad Hall at the Grand Palace, Bangkok. Portrait created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn, meaning it was created no later than 1910.

Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Maharaj (Thai: พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลกมหาราช, 20 March 1737 – 7 September 1809), personal name Thongduang (ทองด้วง), also known as Rama I, was the founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam (now Thailand). His full title in Thai is Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha Mahachakkriborommanat Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรโมรุราชามหาจักรีบรมนารถ พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลก). He ascended the throne in 1782, following the deposition of King Taksin of Thonburi. He was also celebrated as the founder of Rattanakosin (now Bangkok) as the new capital of the reunited kingdom.

Rama I, whose given name was Thongduang, was born from a Mon male line descent family, great-grandson of Kosa Pan. His father served in the royal court of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Thongduang and his younger brother Boonma served King Taksin in wars against the Burmese Konbaung dynasty and helped him in the reunification of Siam. During this time he emerged as Siam's most powerful military leader. Thongduang was the first Somdet Chao Phraya, the highest rank the nobility could attain, equaled to that of royalty. In 1782, he took control of Siam and crowned himself as the monarch. The most famous event in his reign was the Burmese–Siamese War of 1785–86, which was the last major Burmese assault on Siam.

Rama I's reign marked a revival of Siamese culture and state organization following the collapse of the Siamese kingdom in 1767, whose capital was then situated at Ayutthaya. He established a new purified Buddhist sect which allied and tied together Buddhism and the monarchy. Rama I consolidated and expanded on Taksin's military campaigns throughout Mainland Southeast Asia, whose mandala in 1809 stretched as far North and South as the Shan States and the Northern Malay Peninsula and as far East as the Annamite Range, respectively. His reign also marked the beginning of a new "Golden Age of Culture", which continued in the footsteps of the blossoming of the arts during the Late Ayutthaya Period.


In lower left corner is The Grand Palace in Bangkok.

The Grand Palace (Thai: พระบรมมหาราชวัง, RTGS: Phra Borom Maha Ratcha Wang) is a complex of buildings at the heart of Bangkok, Thailand. The palace has been the official residence of the Kings of thai (and later Thailand) since 1782. The king, his court, and his royal government were based on the grounds of the palace until 1925. King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), resided at the Chitralada Royal Villa and his successor King Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) at the Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall, both in the Dusit Palace, but the Grand Palace is still used for official events. Several royal ceremonies and state functions are held within the walls of the palace every year. The palace is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Thailand.

Construction of the palace began on 6 May 1782, at the order of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I), the founder of the Chakri dynasty, when he moved the capital city from Thonburi to Bangkok.

Throughout successive reigns, many new buildings and structures were added, especially during the reign of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V). By 1925, the king, the Royal Family and the government were no longer permanently settled at the palace, and had moved to other residences. After the abolition of absolute monarchy in 1932, all government agencies completely moved out of the palace.

In shape, the palace complex is roughly rectangular and has a combined area of 218,400 square meters, surrounded by four walls. It is situated on the banks of the Chao Phraya River at the heart of the Rattanakosin Island, today in the Phra Nakhon District. The Grand Palace is bordered by Sanam Luang and Na Phra Lan Road to the north, Maharaj Road to the west, Sanam Chai Road to the east and Thai Wang Road to the south.

Rather than being a single structure, the Grand Palace is made up of numerous buildings, halls, pavilions set around open lawns, gardens and courtyards. Its asymmetry and eclectic styles are due to its organic development, with additions and rebuilding being made by successive reigning kings over 200 years of history. It is divided into several quarters: the Temple of the Emerald Buddha; the Outer Court, with many public buildings; the Middle Court, including the Phra Maha Monthien Buildings, the Phra Maha Prasat Buildings and the Chakri Maha Prasat Buildings; the Inner Court and the Siwalai Gardens quarter. The Grand Palace is currently partially open to the public as a museum, but it remains a working palace, with several royal offices still situated inside.


Right - Crop of portrait of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai which is displayed in the Chakri Mahaprasad Hall at the Grand Palace, Bangkok. Portrait created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn, meaning it was created no later than 1910.

Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai (Thai: พระพุทธเลิศหล้านภาลัย, 24 February 1767 or 1768 – 21 July 1824), personal name Chim (Thai: ฉิม), also styled as Rama II, was the second monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1809 to 1824. In 1809, Itsarasunthon succeeded his father Rama I, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Loetlanaphalai the King of Siam. His reign was largely peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Loetlanaphalai was patron to a number of poets in his court and the King himself was a renowned poet and artist. The most notable poet in his employ was the illustrious Sunthorn Phu, the author of Phra Aphai Mani.


In lower right corner is a Thai mural of a scene from Inau in buddhist Temple Wat Sommanat Ratchaworawihan. Unfortunately, I have not yet found a photo of the end scene of the poem "Inao", which is shown on the banknote. Therefore, here I put a photo of another scene that I found.

'Inao' from Java's Tale to a famous epic of Thailand writen by King Rama II.

Within Southeast Asia a certain amount of borrowing of literary themes has taken place, but not many examples have been studied in detail. A recognized case of such borrowing is the 'Panji' theme, which originated in Java, was popular for a time in the Malay-speaking world, and from there was transmitted to Thailand in a new guise, namely the tale of 'Inao'.

It is a reasonable assumption that during the process of borrowing certain daptations will have occurred. This certainly applies to the somewhat fluid material of the Panji theme, where ample scope seems to have existed for the exercise of creativity on the part of its new authors and audiences. It is the nature of such adaptations that forms an interesting subject for investigation. On the one hand, one would expect the new environment to exert a clear cultural influence, but on the other, the nature of the mediums of expression may also be a factor to consider.

This paper will select just one scene from the Thai tale of ...'Inao'... and look at the ways in which it has been depicted in a range of mediums, from songs and poems to plays and paintings, from the popular to the classic. It will then attempt to indicate the significance of this scène for a Thai audience, at the same time noting what seems to be a specifically Thai contribution, in relation to what was borrowed from earlier models.

There is a song which is well known to most Thais, with the title of 'Bussaba Sieng Thien'. The verb sieng (low tone) means literally 'to take a chance', 'to guess at', and here it refers to trying to test what the future holds, by the use of a candle, thien. The idea of getting one's fortune told is very familiar to Thais, and there exist many methods of doing this.

'Bussaba Sieng Thien', is very romantic, and anyone can feel its sweetly plaintive appeal. Bussaba is betrothed to Inao, but does not know whether he will be true to her, while Inao does not know if Bussaba is able to love him at all, in view of what he has done. Furthermore, because of their circumstances, they are unable to meet.

A translation of the song is offered below. By way of introduction, however, it should be explained that the setting is thought to be a dark cave. In this cave there stands an image of Lord Buddha. Bussaba lights a candle and pays homage to the holy statue, in the hope that Lord Buddha will grant her prayer, namely that Inao should love her and her alone. At the same time, it is the candle which will give a sign as to whether her wish will be granted or not. She wants it to burn strongly and brightly, showing that his love for her will be true.

The two characters mentioned in the song, 'Inao' and 'Bussaba', are so wellknown to Thais as to be proverbial lovers. Most people will be aware that their story is told in a very long and much admired poem written by King Rama II (ruled 1809-24), under the title Inao. This literary version is closely linked with the classical theatre, and it is probably the latter, rather than the printed text, which over the years has been instrumental in making the story (at least certain episodes of it) familiar to a wider public.

Although Inao is the work of a famous Thai king, Thais realize that the story has been borrowed, and that the action is set in another country, namely Java, and that the characters are therefore also Javanese. In fact, 'Inao' is a common jocular name for Indonesia, so close is the identification.

In order to find out more about the identity of these two characters, and the circumstances they find themselves in, one should go back to the Inao of King Rama II. A very brief summary of the opening part follows.

Inao is a son of the king of Kurepan by his first (highest-ranking) wife. He is also known as Raden Montri. Bussaba (pronounced Butsaba) is a daughter of the king of Daha by his principal wife. On her birth, the king of Kurepan sent betrothal gifts on behalf of his son, so the two cousins would be married in due time.

When Inao was aged 15, his grandmother in the kingdom of Manya passed away. He was delegated by the kings of Kurepan and Daha to represent them at the cremation. In Manya he met the daughter of the king, Jintara(wati), and immediately feil in love with her. Following the ceremonies, he did not wish to return home, but was ordered to do so by his father. So before leaving he sent a love-letter to Jintara. The king of Kurepan decided to expedite Inao's marriage to Bussaba in order to avoid any more problems.

Inao, however, was unwilling to concur, and took leave to go hunting. Having left the palace, he and his followers changed their names and adopted disguises. During this time he won two captive princesses. Then they headed for Manya, where the king (aware of his identity) received him well. There he took the opportunity to enter Jintara's bedroom and make her his wife. She in turn was sympathetic to the two captive princesses - and in this way Inao got three wives.

Inao was then ordered by his father to come home for his wedding to Bussaba, but he sent a message back that he was unwilling. The king of Daha was disappointed, and Bussaba feit she had been put to shame. So she would be married off to anyone who proposed. The king of Joraka, a very ugly man, heard this and proposed, so the king of Daha was forced to accept.

Meanwhile the king of Kamang Kuning also wanted her for his son, and was willing to fight for her. Hence the king of Daha was obliged to ask his relatives for aid, and in this way Inao was ordered to head for Daha. In the ensuing fight the attackers were driven off, and Inao killed the king of Kamang Kuning. In the palace of Daha he caught sight of Bussaba, and immediately regretted his former actions.

Joraka arrived too late to help defend Daha. Inao was now forced to try to find a way of preventing the marriage of Joraka and Bussaba, the king of Daha was sympathetic to his plight, but had already given his word.

It was at this point that the king of Daha, his wives and followers went out to the mountain Wilismara to make offerings and worship the image there. Inao joined the party, and the Madewi (king's second wife) suggested to Bussaba that she go before the image and find out about her fate using lighted candles. There were to be three of these candles, one for herself, the one on the left for Joraka, and the one on the right for Inao.

In order to get a picture of what happened, and how it has been perceived in the past, we are lucky enough to have a visual depiction in the form of a mural in a temple...(S. Robson / P. Changchit )


Top, right is The Emblem of the Royal House of Chakri.

Emblem of the Royal House of Chakri, the ruling Dynasty of Thailand (formerly Siam), founded in 1782. The Emblem depicts a 'Chakra' (disc) and a 'Trisula' (trident) intertwined. Both of these objects are weapons of Vishnu (of which the Kings of Siam believe themselves to be 'Avatars'). The symbols also directly relate to King Rama I's pre-coronation title of "Chao Phraya Chakri", which in itself is a combination of the word 'Chak' and 'Tri', thus denoting the two weapons.

In the top right corner is Garuda - national emblem of Thailand.