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100 Shillings 1966, Tanzania

in Krause book Number: 4
Years of issue: 1966
Edition: 4 329 496
Signatures: Minister for Finance: Amir H. Jamal, Governor: Edwin I. Mtei
Serie: 1966 Issue
Specimen of: 1966
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 156 х 83
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Shillings 1966



Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi

The Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi), also spelled Maasai giraffe, also called Kilimanjaro giraffe. It is the largest species of giraffe native to East Africa, also the tallest land mammal. The Masai giraffe can be found in central and southern Kenya and in Tanzania. It has distinctive, irregular, jagged, star-like blotches which extend to the hooves. A median lump is usually present in males.

It was described and given its binomial name Giraffa tippelskirchi by German zoologist Paul Matschie in 1898. The Masai giraffe was named in honor of Herr von Tippelskirch who was a member of a German scientific expedition in German East Africa to what is now northern Tanzania in 1896. Tippelskirch bought back the skin of a female Masai giraffe from near Lake Eyasi which was later on identified as Giraffa tippelskirchi. The IUCN currently recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies. However, alternative taxonomies have proposed Masai giraffes be considered a unique species.

The Masai giraffe is distinguished by jagged spots on its body, geographic range including southern Kenya, all of Tanzania, and the Luangwa Valley in Zambia, and genetic evidence. It is the largest-bodied giraffe species.


100 Shillings 1966

Julius Kambarage Nyerere

Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist. He governed Tanganyika as its Prime Minister from 1961 to 1963 and then as its President from 1963 to 1964, after which he led its successor state, Tanzania, as its President from 1964 until 1985. He was a founding member of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) party and later a member of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he promoted a political philosophy known as Ujamaa.

Born in Butiama, then in the British colony of Tanganyika, Nyerere was the son of a Zanaki chief. After completing his schooling in Tanganyika, he studied at Makerere College in Uganda and then Edinburgh University in Britain. Nyerere was known by the Swahili honorific Mwalimu or 'teacher', his profession prior to politics. He was also referred to as Baba wa Taifa (Father of the Nation). In 1954, he helped form the Tanganyika African National Union, which was instrumental in obtaining independence for Tanganyika.

In 1967, influenced by the ideas of African socialism, Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, which outlined his vision of ujamaa (variously translated as "familyhood" or "socialism"; not to be confused with the Swahili word Umoja which means "unity"). Ujamaa was a concept that came to dominate Nyerere's policies. However, his policies led to economic decline, systematic corruption, and unavailability of goods. In the early 1970s, Nyerere ordered his security forces to forcibly transfer much of the population to collective farms and, because of opposition from villagers, often burned villages down.[citation needed] This campaign pushed the nation to the brink of starvation and made it dependent on foreign food aid. In 1985, after more than two decades in power, he relinquished power to his hand-picked successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Nyerere left Tanzania as one of the poorest and most foreign aid-dependent countries in the world, although much progress in services such as health and education had nevertheless been achieved. He remained the chairman of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi for another five years until 1990. He died of leukemia in London, in 1999.

Nyerere is still a controversial figure in Tanzania. A cult of personality revolves around him and the country's Roman Catholic community have attempted to beatify him.

Syzygium aromaticum

In lower right corner are Cloves.

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.

The clove tree is an evergreen tree that grows up to 8-12 m. tall, with large leaves and sanguine flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5-2.0 cm. long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.

cocoa palm

On right side is the cocoa palm tree.

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull", from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.

Coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their large quantity of water (also called "juice") and when immature, they are known as tender-nuts or jelly-nuts and may be harvested for their potable coconut water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh". When dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.

coat of arms

Centered is The coat of arms of Tanzania.

The coat of arms of Tanzania comprises a warrior’s shield which bears a golden portion on the upper part followed underneath by the Flag of Tanzania. It was designed by Mr. Jeremiah Wisdom Kabati, at Bwiru Mwanza in 1961.

The golden portion represents minerals in the United Republic; the red portion underneath the flag symbolizes the rich fertile soil of Africa; and the wavy bands represent the land, sea, lakes and coastal lines of the United Republic.

In the golden part of the flag, there appears a burning torch signifying freedom (Uhuru), enlightenment and knowledge; a spear signifying defence of freedom and crossed axe and hoe being tools that the people of Tanzania use in developing the country.

The shield stands upon the representation of Mount Kilimanjaro. Elephant tusks are supported by a man and a woman, with a clove bush at the feet of the man and a cotton bush at the feet of the woman (whose head is covered with a golden scarf) indicating the theme of co-operation.

The United Republic motto below - Uhuru na Umoja - is written in Swahili and means "Freedom and Unity".

Coffea arabica

Around watermark field is Coffea arabica.

Coffea arabica is a species of Coffea originally indigenous to the mountains of the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. It is also known as the "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica coffee". Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, being grown in southwest Ethiopia for well over 1,000 years. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. This makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. One of the major crops in Kenya.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners. In words at the bottom.


100 Shillings 1966

One Legged Stance posture

The Masai herder standing on one leg.

The Masai are a semi-nomadic African Nilotic indigenous people living in the savannah of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. The Masai are one of the most famous tribes in East Africa. Despite the development of modern civilization, they have almost completely preserved their traditional way of life, although every year it becomes more difficult. They speak Masai.

There are no coincidences involved in the presence of the One Legged Stance posture in ancient (warrior) tribes across the globe from the Masai and San people of Africa to the Aboriginal Australians to ancient Egypt and the people of south India.

Balancing on one leg is no easy task. Babies would say even standing on two legs isn’t exactly easy and if you are an adult on the unstable surface of a ship at sea you’d agree with the baby). People with the Uner-Tan syndrome cannot stand. To balance on one leg means to shift the body’s centre of mass, which involves appropriate muscle activations, the central nervous system to integrate, interpret and act upon information received from sensors like muscle spindles and stretch receptors in the muscle, as well as information from visual and vestibular systems in the head. The muscles most involved are known as the adductor longus and the gluteus medius and to activate them requires energy. Therefore, apart from being less stable (at least with regard to a human) and requiring energy, why would Maasai and some other people stand on one leg to relax? I do not know, but we can look at some birds that habitually rest and may even sleep standing on one leg. Storks, cranes, flamingos, and even ducks come to mind and one of the ideas is that they withdraw one leg to reduce heat loss when standing in cold water.

The problem with that theory is that storks and ducks may also stand on one leg when on dry land and the fact that flamingos do not often stand in very cold water (although it has been reported that they less often stand on one leg when it is warmer). Another idea, also related to saving energy, is that long-legged species withdraw one leg, because that reduces the need to pump blood through both of the long and outstretched appendages equally. Yet, this theory would not explain why short-legged species like ducks also often rest on one leg.

An interesting explanation has been suggested for wading birds like flamingos that have legs with special ankles, which are in a place of the leg where we’d expect the knees to be. A joint that can stabilize if not temporarily lock the joint that links foot and leg. The body posture of flamingos standing on one leg is so stable that the bird may even sleep in this position and actually save energy. Yet another idea why the birds stand on one leg suggests that the birds stand motionlessly on one leg to look like reeds or thin trees, thereby attracting food. Flamingos, however, feed on algae and tiny zooplankton, the latter having poor eyesight, avoiding shadows and being feeble swimmers. However, for herons and storks that feed on fish and frogs, this camouflage idea may have some merit. Amazingly flamingo cadavers could be made to stand stably on one leg which led Chang & Ting in a 2017 paper in the journal Biology Letters to the conclusion that “rather than to reduce muscle fatigue or heat loss, flamingos stand on one leg to reduce muscular energy expenditure”. Perhaps the Maasai seeing the flamingos of Lake Nakuru thought to copy their behaviour just like I copied the Maasai behaviour of standing on one leg. (

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. In words at the bottom.


On banknote are signatures of:

Amir H. Jamal

Minister of Finance - Mr. Amir H. Jamal.

Mr. Edwin I. Mtei

Governor of the Bank - Mr. Edwin I. Mtei.