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100 Rupees 1977, Indonesia

in Krause book Number: 116
Years of issue: 01.10.1977
Edition: --
Signatures: Gubernur: Mr. Rachmat Saleh, Direktur:Mr. Arifin M. Siregar
Serie: 1977 Serie
Specimen of: 01.10.1977
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 144 x 72
Printer: Perum Percetakan Uang Republik Indonesia (PERURI), Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Rupees 1977

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The coat of arms of Indonesia.

Avers:

100 Rupees 1977

Rhinoceros sondaicusThe Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), also known as the Sunda rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is a very rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It belongs to the same genus as the Indian rhinoceros, and has similar mosaicked, armour-like skin, but at 3.1-3.2 m. (10-10 ft.) in length and 1.4-1.7 m. (4.6-5.6 ft.) in height, it is smaller (closer in size to the black rhinoceros of the genus Diceros). Its horn is usually shorter than 25 cm. (9.8 in), and is smaller than those of the other rhino species. Only adult males have horns; females lack them altogether.

Once the most widespread of Asian rhinoceroses, the Javan rhinoceros ranged from the islands of Java and Sumatra, throughout Southeast Asia, and into India and China. The species is critically endangered, with only one known population in the wild, and no individuals in captivity. It is possibly the rarest large mammal on earth, with a population of as few as 58 to 61 in. Ujung Kulon National Park, at the western tip of Java, in Indonesia. A second population in Cat Tien National Park, in Vietnam, was confirmed as extinct in 2011. The decline of the Javan rhinoceros is attributed to poaching, primarily for their horns, which are highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine, fetching as much as US$30,000 per kg. on the black market. As European presence in their range increased, trophy hunting also became a serious threat. Loss of habitat, especially as the result of wars, such as the Vietnam War, in Southeast Asia, has also contributed to the species' decline and hindered recovery. The remaining range is within one nationally protected area, but the rhinos are still at risk from poachers, disease, and loss of genetic diversity leading to inbreeding depression.

The Javan rhino can live around 30-45 years in the wild. It historically inhabited lowland rain forest, wet grasslands, and large floodplains. It is mostly solitary, except for courtship and offspring-rearing, though groups may occasionally congregate near wallows and salt licks. Aside from humans, adults have no predators in their range. The Javan rhino usually avoids humans, but will attack when it feels threatened. Scientists and conservationists rarely study the animals directly due to their extreme rarity and the danger of interfering with such an endangered species. Researchers rely on camera traps and fecal samples to gauge health and behavior. Consequently, the Javan rhino is the least studied of all rhino species. Two adult rhinos with their calves were filmed in a motion-triggered video released on February 28, 2011, by WWF and Indonesia's National Park Authority, which proved it is still breeding in the wild. In April 2012, the National Parks Authority released video showing 35 individual Javan rhinos, including mother/offspring pairs and courting adults.

Top right is the coat of arms of Indonesia.

garuda

The National emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila. The main part of Indonesian national emblem is the Garuda with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its legs. The shield's five emblems represent Pancasila, the five principles of Indonesia's national ideology. The Garuda claws gripping a white ribbon scroll inscribed with the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika written in black text, which can be loosely translated as "Unity in Diversity". Garuda Pancasila was designed by Sultan Hamid II from Pontianak, supervised by Sukarno, and was adopted as the national emblem on 11 February 1950.

Garuda, the vehicle (vahana) of Vishnu appears in many temples of ancient Indonesia. Temples such as Mendut, Borobudur, Sajiwan, Prambanan, Penataran, Belahan, and Sukuh depict the images (bas-relief or statue) of Garuda. In Prambanan temple complex there is a single temple located in front of Vishnu temple, dedicated to Garuda. However there is no statue of Garuda inside the chamber today. In the Shiva temple, also in Prambanan complex, there is a relief telling an episode of Ramayana about Garuda's nephew who also belongs to the bird-god race, Jatayu, tried to rescue Sita from Ravana's hand. The deified statue of King Airlangga depicted as Vishnu mounting Garuda from Belahan, probably the most famous statue of Garuda from ancient Java. Now the statue is one of the important collection of Trowulan Museum.

Garuda appear in many traditions and stories, especially in Java and Bali. In many stories Garuda symbolizes the virtue of knowledge, power, bravery, loyalty, and discipline.

Denomination is centered.

Revers:

100 Rupees 1977

The Sumatran rhinoceros in the jungle.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. Also, lower right in words.

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