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50 Dirhams 2013, Morocco

in Krause book Number: 75
Years of issue: 19.12.2013
Signatures: Government comissioner: Khalid Safir, Governor: Abdellatif Jouahri
Serie: 2013 Issue
Specimen of: 2012
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 138 x 70
Printer: Dar As-Sikkah (DAS), Moroccan State Printing Works

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Dirhams 2013




King Mohammed VI and denomination 50.


50 Dirhams 2013

Mohammed VI

Mohammed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس‎, born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco. He ascended to the throne on 23 July 1999 upon the death of his father, King Hassan II.

Mohammed was the second child and oldest son of Hassan II and his second wife, Lalla Latifa Hammou. On the day of his birth, Mohammed was appointed Heir Apparent and Crown Prince. His father was keen on giving him a religious and political education from an early age; at the age of four he started attending the Qur'anic school at the Royal Palace.

Mohammed completed his primary and secondary studies at Royal College and attained his Baccalaureate in 1981, before gaining a bachelor's degree in law at the Mohammed V University at Agdal in 1985. His research paper dealt with "the Arab-African Union and the Strategy of the Kingdom of Morocco in matters of International Relations". He has also frequented the Imperial College and University of Rabat. He was furthermore appointed President of the Pan Arab Games, and was commissioned a Colonel Major of the Royal Moroccan Army on 26 November 1985. He served as the Coordinator of the Offices and Services of the Royal Armed Forces until 1994.

In 1987, Mohammed obtained his first Certificat d'Études Supérieures (CES) in political sciences, and in July 1988 he obtained a Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA) in public law.In November 1988, he trained in Brussels with Jacques Delors, then-President of the European Commission.

Mohammed obtained his PhD in law with distinction on 29 October 1993 from the French University of Nice Sophia Antipolis for his thesis on "EEC-Maghreb Relations". On 12 July 1994, he was promoted to the military rank of Major General, and that same year he became President of the High Council of Culture and Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Moroccan Army.

He speaks Arabic, French, Spanish and English.

The New York Times reported that prior to ascending to the throne, Mohammed "gained a reputation as a playboy during the years he spent waiting in the wings, showing a fondness for fast cars and nightclubs."

On 23 July 1999, Mohammed succeeded his father as king, being enthroned in Rabat on 30 July.

Bab El-Sebaa

In the background is a stylized representation of Bab El Sebaa gate in Essaouira.

This gate has many names such as the Lion's Gate and the King's Gate. It was built in 1866 by Hussein Ghannun El Fassi during the reign of Sultan Mohammed Ben Abderrahman. Located in Essaouira, built in the Cherifian (Moroccan) style. These are arched gates with square parapets, covered with reddish plaster. Two old cannons are fixed behind this gate.


In top right corner is the royal crown of Marocco and Maroccan stars.

The green stars symbolize (each) the Five pillars of Islam.

coat of arms

On top is the coat of arms of Marocco.

The current coat of arms of Morocco (formally, the royal coat of arms) was introduced 14 August 1957. It was developed by the graphic artists Gauthier and Hainaut and shows a green pentagram, specifically a two-dimensional Penrose pentacle on a red background before the Atlas Mountains and a rising sun. The royal crown is on top. Two lions function as the holders of the shield. On the ribbon underneath, the Arabic inscription is written: (Arabic: إن تنصروا الله ينصركم‎) (If you glorify God, He will glorify you) (Quran, Verse 7, Sura 47).

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners. In words - on top.


50 Dirhams 2013

Argan Tree

Argania (Argania spinosa) and the Grindstone "Rba" for Argan oil.

Argania is a genus of flowering plants containing the sole species Argania spinosa, known as argan, a tree endemic to the calcareous semidesert Sous valley of southwestern Morocco and to the region of Tindouf in southwestern Algeria. Argan trees grow to 8–10 m. high and live up to approximately 200 years. They are thorny, with gnarled trunks and wide spreading crown. The crown has a circumference of about 70 m. and the branches lean towards the ground.

The leaves are small, 2–4 cm. long, and oval with a rounded apex. The flowers are small, with five pale yellow-green petals; flowering in April. The fruit is 2–4 cm. long and 1.5–3 cm. broad, with a thick, bitter peel surrounding a sweet-smelling but unpleasantly flavored layer of pulpy pericarp. This surrounds the very hard nut, which contains one (occasionally two or three) small, oil-rich seeds. The fruit takes over a year to mature, ripening in June to July of the following year.

The scientific name Argania is derived from argan, the name of the tree in Shilha, the Berber language which is spoken by the majority of the people living in the areas where the tree is endemic. Shilha Berber has a rich vocabulary for the various parts of the fruit, its stages of ripeness, and its harvesting and processing. The oil is also called argan. In medieval Arabic pharmacological sources, the tree is known as harjān, a distortion of the Berber word argan.

On March 3, 2021, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution to proclaim May 10th the International Day of Argania, an observance to be celebrated annually. Amongst the motivations for this proclamation were the importance of Argania to sustainable development in areas where it is endemic. The UN resolution was submitted by Morocco, and was co-sponsored by 113 member states of the United Nations before being adopted by consensus.

In Morocco, arganeraie forests now cover some 8,280 km2 and are designated as a UNESCO biosphere reserve. Their area has shrunk by about half during the last 100 years, due to charcoal making, grazing, and increasingly intensive cultivation. The best hope for the conservation of the trees may lie in the recent development of a thriving export market for argan oil as a high-value product. However, the wealth brought by argan oil export has also created threats to argan trees in the form of increased goat population. Locals use the newfound wealth to buy more goats and the goats stunt the growth of the argan trees by climbing up and eating their leaves and fruit. It is reported that the display of the tree climbing goats is staged or faked.

Argan is also grown in the Arabah and Negev regions of Israel.

In some parts of Morocco, argan takes the place of the olive as a source of forage, oil, timber, and fuel in Berber society.

Especially near Essaouira, the argan tree is frequently climbed by goats.

Argan fruit falls in July, when they are black and dry. Until this happens, goats are kept out of the argan woodlands by wardens. Rights to collect the fruit are controlled by law and village traditions. The "nuts" are gathered after fruit consumption and spat out by ruminating goats. Seeds being spat out by the goats constitutes one mechanism of seed dispersal.

Rba Rba

Argan oil is produced by several women's co-operatives in the southwestern parts of Morocco. The most labor-intensive part of oil-extraction is removal of the soft pulp (used to feed animals) and the cracking by hand, between two stones, of the hard nut. The seeds are then removed and gently roasted. This roasting accounts for part of the oil's distinctive, nutty flavor.

The traditional technique for oil extraction is to grind the roasted seeds to paste, with a little water, in a stone rotary quern. The paste is then squeezed by hand to extract the oil. The extracted paste is still oil-rich and is used as animal feed. Oil produced this way can be stored and used for 3–6 months, and can be produced as needed from kernels, which can keep for 20 years unopened. Dry-pressing is becoming increasingly important for oil produced for sale, as this method allows for faster extraction, and the oil produced can be used for 12–18 months after extraction.

The oil contains 80% unsaturated fatty acids, is rich in essential fatty acids, and is more resistant to oxidation than olive oil. Argan oil is used for dipping bread, on couscous, salads, and similar uses. A dip for bread known as amlou is made from argan oil, almonds, and peanuts, sometimes sweetened by honey or sugar. The unroasted oil is traditionally used as a treatment for skin diseases, and has become favoured by European cosmetics manufacturers.

Argan oil is sold in Morocco as a luxury item. Sales of the product have grown since being marketed by the cosmetics industry in the US and Europe in the early XXI century. Its price is notable compared to other oils.

Argan oil contains:

46% Oleic acid

32% Linoleic acid

12% Palmitic acid

6% Stearic acid

Argan trees are a major source of forage for sheep, goats, camels and cattle. Fruits and leaves are readily consumed by livestock. The press cake resulting from oil extraction can also be sun dried and fed to ruminants. Bees can nest in argan trees, making them sites for wild honey harvesting.

Ouzoud Waterfalls

On left side are Ouzoud Waterfalls.

Ouzoud Falls (Amazigh: Imuzzar n wuẓuḍ, French: Cascades d'Ouzoud) is the collective name for several waterfalls that empty into the El-Abid River's (Arabic for "Slaves' River") gorge. This popular tourism destination is located near the Middle Atlas village of Tanaghmeilt, in the province of Azilal, 150 km. northeast of Marrakech, Morocco. 'Ouzoud' means "the act of grinding grain" in Berber. This seems to be confirmed by the frequent mills in the region.

The bottom of the falls is accessible through a shaded path of olive trees. At the summit of the falls, there are a dozen old small mills that are still in use. One can also follow a narrow and difficult track leading to the road of Beni Mellal. While descending the gorges from the "wadi el-Abid"[definition needed] in a canyon sometimes one does not distinguish the bottom which is nearly 600 meters down.

It is the most visited site of the region. In the vicinity, green valleys, mills, orchards and a superb circuit of the gorges of the El-Abid River are found. Many local and national associations lead projects to protect and preserve the site.

Accipiter gentilis

On right of Argania is Northern goshawk.

The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae, which also includes other extant diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. As a species in the genus Accipiter, the goshawk is often considered a "true hawk". The scientific name is Latin; Accipiter is "hawk", from accipere, "to grasp", and gentilis is "noble" or "gentle" because in the Middle Ages only the nobility were permitted to fly goshawks for falconry.

The distribution is extensive: the forest zone of North America and Europe, North and Central Asia, in Africa - in Morocco; north of the forest tundra, south to Italy, Spain, Palestine, northern Iran, southwestern Siberia, Altai, northwestern Mongolia, western China.

Goshawks are the largest species of the hawk genus. Males usually weigh 630-1100 grams, their length averages 55 cm, wingspan varies between 98-104 cm. Females are slightly larger, weigh 860-1600 grams, about 61 cm long, wingspan 105-115 cm. All hawks, including the goshawk, have characteristic white stripes of feathers above the eyes, giving the impression of white eyebrows. In the goshawk, they are wider and longer than in other members of the genus, and almost converge at the back of the head. Eye color in adults is red or red-brown, in juveniles it is bright yellow.

Against the background are the patterns of Moroccan (Rabat) carpets.

"Every Moroccan carpet is a unique poem created by the soul and hands - no machine is such a power" - so translated poem, posted in a store in Meknes.

In the XVII century. Muslims who fled to Morocco from Andalusia spread the Persian technique of knotted weaving in their new homeland, meanwhile the local Berber tribes made their own carpets for centuries. There are three types of Moroccan carpets: Rabat - the Persian knot weave with Arabic pattern, Berber carpets of the Middle and High Atlas and kilims, thinner and not woven, but woven.

Over the past centuries, the technique of making carpets has changed little. In the extreme south of Morocco, nomadic tribes still use horizontal looms, transported in a collapsed state and each time pulled on pegs driven into the ground. Drawings are passed down from generation to generation, and carpet makers keep them in mind. Over a large carpet, several people work, each one is engaged in his own plot. Controls the manufacturing process master - tired, attached to each machine. Tired knows the scheme and colors of the whole drawing and often, referring to the workers, everyone in particular sings the names of colors and the number of knots. This rhythmic singing is mastered from an early age. They say that the legendary tired can recall from memory 50-60 drawings. In cities, the process is quickly mechanized, vertical machines are introduced - they allow you to work much faster - and drawings are copied from the samples.

Carpets from Rabat, with a classic mihrab pattern in the center, are similar to Arab carpets. Their characteristic colors are blue, gray and red in different shades. Although Moroccan carpets are quite expensive, they can not be called suitable objects of investment, as they are much inferior in quality to Turkish and Persian. Moroccan carpet in the room Berber carpets are very different, they are uniquely attached to the uniqueness of the patterns: each tribe has its own. At the same time, in the pattern of many carpets the main motif is repeated: these are bright straight lines, and between them a diamond-shaped ornament. This pattern is attributed to magical properties. There are also carpets depicting strange animals: apparently in the past mystical symbols, now they are called to attract the attention of tourists. Traditionally, such carpets are covered with the floor of the nomadic tent, or they are hung out, dividing the tent into separate rooms.

Denominations in numerals are in top left corner and at the bottom, right of center.


I found an interesting article "My Morocco" by Bruno Barbie, written as a childhood memory in the thirties years of creativity...

In my opinion it is very suitable in the subject of the banknote::

"I was born in Morocco and grew up in the cities of Salé, Rabat, Marrakech and Tangier." When I was very young, Salé seemed to me a real kingdom. "His strict medersa, the calls of the muezzin that merged with the incessant song of the sea, the waves crashing against the cliffs, the beauty of the cemetery I was fascinated by the fortress of Kasb Udaya, the necropolis of Chell, by the waters of the river Bou Regreg, gently beating the sides of the boats floating along it. * Later I lived in Marrakech, a red city located at the foot of the Atlas Mountains, and then - in Tangier, at Gibraltar Strait and Andalusia in the offing.

You can transfer from the desert sands of the Atlas Mountains and from the Atlantic coast to the Mediterranean coasts during the afternoon. Cultures and civilizations are mixed together here in the most incredible combination: Umayyad culture, Andalusian influences, Berber traditions, signs of the Jewish heritage. Despite everything, the Moroccans succeeded in maintaining a sense of human solidarity and harmony with nature. They adapted to the conditions of the modern world and at the same time preserved their own culture.

I conceived this book thirty years ago, when in the early seventies with his wife Caroline returned to his homeland. Since that time, I've come here to work and probably would not have been so crazy to continue the business for such a long time - do not find my childhood memories so bright and alive. The fact that in any other place could be of exceptional aesthetic interest, in Morocco - in the land of tradition - acquires qualities unique, humane features.

As elsewhere, the process of globalization takes its toll, but with all Morocco remains - how much more will it be? - the land is surprisingly calm, timeless. Look at the albums of Delacroix: regardless of the skills, even today you can sketch the same scenes at the corners of the bazaar streets. How many artists, photographers and writers who ever lived in Morocco, fell under the charm of its light, its features and its colors? Probably the most famous of all, Matisse, somehow admitted that this country forced him to re-think his palette.

A photographer here sometimes finds it so difficult to do his work, that before he starts to work with him, he must learn how to merge with the walls. Photographs must be taken very quickly, with all the ensuing risky consequences, or - after long periods of waiting, with boundless patience. Such was the price of these images made between 1970 and 2003. Memories of Morocco can only be captured through a respectful attitude towards it. "