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100 Dollars 1977, Singapore

in Krause book Number: 14
Years of issue: 01.02.1977
Signatures: Minister for finance: Mr. Hon Sui Sen
Serie: 2nd Series - Bird Series (1976–1984)
Specimen of: 06.08.1976
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 165 x 78
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Dollars 1977




Head of the lion.

When it was first unveiled, some sections of the public felt that it should have been facing rightwards to represent a more forward looking nature. However, the original left-facing lion was maintained.


100 Dollars 1977

Merops viridis

The Blue-throated bee-eater (Merops viridis) is a species of bird in the bee-eater family. They are found throughout southeast Asia in subtropical or tropical mangrove forests. Their diet consists mostly of bees, wasps, and dragonflies. Blue-throated bee-eaters are small with colorful plumage consisting of a red nape, dark green wings, light green breast, and their signature blue throat. Juvenile plumage contain dark green head and wings and light green breasts, only developing their full plumage in adulthood. They have a rich variety of songs and calls, including longcalls which allow them to communicate long distances in the forest.

Blue-throated bee-eaters practice asynchronous brooding, which means that chicks hatch at different times, often pairing with siblicide. Older chicks are not only larger and able to withstand larger wounds from other siblings, but also have the ability to monopolize the food they are fed by parents. There has been several observations of migration between islands in southeast Asia or onto mainland of Asia. One notable seasonal spring migration occurs from Sumatra, across the Strait of Malacca, and ending on the west coast of Malaysia. They also migrate from southeast Asia to breeding grounds in western China during breeding season.

Conservation status of the blue-throated bee-eaters is of "least concern" due to their large distribution and stability of its population as of 2016. However, deforestation may be its biggest threat, destroying its habitat and decreasing other bird diversities.


Top right is the coat of arms of Singapore.

The National Coat of Arms of Singapore is the heraldic symbol representing the Southeast Asian island nation of Singapore. It was adopted in 1959, the year Singapore became self-governing within the British Empire. The committee that created it, headed by then Deputy Prime Minister Toh Chin Chye, was also responsible for the national flag and the national anthem of Singapore.

At the centre of the emblem is a red shield bearing a white crescent (a new moon, representing a rising young nation) and five white stars (representing various national ideals including multiculturalism), supported by a lion and a tiger (representing Singapore and Malaysia respectively); below them is a blue ribbon inscribed with Majulah Singapura in gold, Malay for "Onward Singapore".

The central emblem of the coat of arms is a red shield with five white stars resting above a white crescent, similar to the crescent and stars used on the Singapore flag and such other national symbols as the national ensign for civilian ships. Red symbolises "universal brotherhood and equality of man" and white "pervading and everlasting purity and virtue". The crescent represents a new moon, which reflects "a young nation on the ascendant", while the five-pointed stars "stand for the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality".

The supporters of the shield are a lion and a tiger: the tiger symbolises the nation's historical connections to Malaysia (which Singapore was a state of from 1963 to 1965) while the lion represents Singapore itself. Below the supporters is a blue ribbon on which the national motto, Majulah Singapura, is written in gold. Majulah Singapura is also the title of the national anthem; it means "Onward Singapore" in Malay, the national language of Singapore.

Lower is the business center of Singapore.

Denomination in numerals are in top left and lower right corners, in words centered.


100 Dollars 1977

Traditional dances of Singaporean ethnic groups.

For dancing, a request was sent to the Monetary Agency of Signapore and the National Library of Singapore.

Thanks to Mazelan Anuar, of the National Library, for his prompt reply.

He identified two dances on the banknote:

On the right is a Malay dancer of Tari Makan Sirih with Tepak Sirih.

Passed down through centuries and generations, Makan Sirih is a Malay tradition in which betel leaves are chewed together with the areca nut (Pinang), as well as chalk and gambir extract. The betel leaf is a feminine symbol of respect and generosity, while the Pinang is a masculine symbol of noble descent, integrity and honesty. Used in hospitality rituals and sacred ceremonies in diverse cultures, the offering is used symbolically in opening up conversations, hosting honorable guests, marriages and for magic purposes. Chewing the betel leaves and the areca nut stains one’s lips and teeth red, hence acting as a natural lipstick.

The Tari Makan Sirih, or 'betel-eating' dance is one of the traditional dances or Riau melayu classical dance of Indonesia. The tepak sirih carried by the female dancers contains betel leaves, areca nut, chalk, gambir extract, tobacco and cloves are presented to guests during welcome ceremonies, representing the host’s desire to maintain or improve close relations with the guests. (Alecia Neo)

At the bottom is Chinese Fan dance.

The traditional Chinese fan dance has been a part of China's heritage for over two thousand years. Considered to be an ancient form of folk dance, the fan dance serves various purposes and is highly regarded by the Chinese.

The Chinese fan dance plays a few different roles in China. First, it is used to help pass down stories and traditions of Chinese culture. Both tourists and younger Chinese generations learn classic tales and lore of China's past through the fan dance. This is why you can often see fan dancers at festivals, theater performances, and other exhibition-style events where the performers are able to promote their rich roots in history.

Fan dancing also serves as entertainment. Fans are used as props, complimenting brightly-colored costumes for an eye-catching spectacle of movement. Finally, Chinese fan dancing serves as exercise, as well as an exercise in discipline for its participants. Like many other forms of dance, the choreography that comes along with fan dancing requires physical fitness and the ability to memorize routines. Being responsible enough to attend regular rehearsals and performances is another form of personal discipline. This can be a way for young Chinese dancers to enrich their bodies and minds with an activity that means something to them both personally and culturally.

The origins of the fan dance are rooted in the Han Dynasty, which dates to around 200 AD. The Han Dynasty was the first to value and preserve the arts, which is probably why fan dancing endures today. Its unique placement in history allowed it to be passed on to generations, causing it to be more of a familial tradition than a studio-focused style of dance.

Historically, the fan dance has been categorized in two ways - civilian and military. Most who take in a fan dance performance are viewing the civilian form. This is detailed and graceful, resembling ballet in its pace and form, using fans and other props such as feathered banners to accentuate the beauty of the dancing. The military-based fan dancing doesn't even use fans at all - but rather has taken its cue from civilian fan dancing by using coordinated group movements for military exercises and exhibitions. You will sometimes see military members on display, using their weapons similarly to how civilian performers use fans, simulating the same movements in a more rigid and authoritative style.

Fan dance costumes can vary from traditional Chinese clothing to colorful lyrical dresses you can find at any dance supply house. Since fan dancing is used for storytelling, the costumes are often chosen as part of the tale being told. Some dancers may be dressed in individual costumes to help the story along, but in most instances fan dancers are dressed similarly in a matching costume.

The fans are used to accentuate the dancers' movements and costumes. Fans cause limbs to look longer and more delicate; in addition, the fans bring more attention to the choreography, and add a beauty that cannot be duplicated by more modernized forms of dance. The fans can also be used as proprs to depict everything from a food basket to a buried treasure. They are also rarely simple paper fans, rather they are embellished with feathers, jewels, bamboo or other native décor to add to the overall effect. (

The third dance, on the left, raises questions. On this occasion, I am still searching. The clothes are very similar to the Indian dance, but the girl's face looks more like something Sumatran.

On the left is a girl-dancer, who looks like a ballerina in clothes, but ... this question is still being clarified.

Denomination in numerals are in top left and lower right corners.