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10 Dinars 1980, Libya

in Krause book Number: 46a
Years of issue: 1980
Signatures: Governor of Central bank of Libya: Mr. Kasem M.Sherlala (in office from 1969 till 1980)
Serie: 1980 Issue
Specimen of: 1980
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 182 x 92
Printer: Unknown printer

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10 Dinars 1980




Emblem of Libya.


Despite the fact that the banknotes went into circulation in 1980, it shows the coat of arms of the Federation of Arab Republics 1972-1977.

In 1972, Libya, Egypt and Syria, at the suggestion of Gaddafi, merged into the Federation of Arab Republics. The FAR's coat of arms is the so-called Quraish hawk (taken from the coat of arms of Syria), turning its head to the right and holding a scroll with the official name of the confederation: اتحاد الجمهوريات العربية (Ittiḥād al-Jumhūrīyāt al-‘Arab).


10 Dinars 1980

In the center there is a rosette with an Arabic pattern.

Bottom right (upper line) - the beginning of the 188th Ayat of the surah "Al-Baqarah" of the Holy Quran: "Do not squander your wealth on vanity among yourselves .."

The full ayat is:

"Do not squander your wealth on vanity among yourselves And do not use it to bribe judges, To criminally take possession of a share of the property of others, (Knowingly in your soul) knowing about it." Original: "وَلَا تَأكُلُوا أمۡوٰلكم بينكم بالبَٰطل". ( .rus)

Omar al-Mukhtar

Omar al-Mukhṭār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṭ al-Manifī (Arabic: عُمَر الْمُخْتَار مُحَمَّد بِن فَرْحَات الْمَنِفِي ‎; 20 August 1862 – 16 September 1931), called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Cyrenaica (currently Eastern Libya) under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya. A teacher-turned-general, Omar was also a prominent figure of the Senussi movement, and he is considered the national hero of Libya and a symbol of resistance in the Arab and Islamic worlds. Beginning in 1911, he organised and, for nearly twenty years, led the Libyan resistance movement against the Italian colonial empire during the Pacification of Libya. After many attempts, the Italian Armed Forces managed to capture Al-Mukhtar near Solonta and hanged him in 1931.

'Omar Al-Mukhtar was born in 1858 to a family in the town of Zanzur near Tobruk, in the region of Ottoman Cyrenaica, belonging to the Senussi (who were seen as Libyan Ashrafs) Arab clan just like Emir or King Idris es Senussi, eventually becoming chief or leader of the clan. As a child, Omar lost his father early on, and spent his youth in poverty. He was adopted by a great sheikh, and was friends with the nephew of Hussein Ghariani, Sharif al Geriani. His uncle was a political-religious leader in Cyrenaica, and received his early education at the local mosque, before continuing his studying for eight years at the Senussi university in Jaghbub, the holy city of the Senussi Tariqa. He became a popular expert on the Quran and an imam, joining the confraternity of the Senussi. He also came to be well informed of the social structure of his society, as he was chosen to settle intertribal disputes.

Mukhtar developed a strong relationship with the Senussid Movement during his years in Jaghbub and in 1895, Al-Mahdi Senoussi traveled with him south to Kufra, and on another occasion further south to Karo in Chad, where he was appointed as sheikh of Zawiyat Ayn Kalk. When the French Empire encroached on Chad in 1899, he was sent among other Senussites to help defend Chad from the French, as the Senussi considered their expansion dangerous due to their missionary activities in Central and West Africa. In 1902, Omar was recalled north after the death of Al-Mahdi, the new Senussi leader Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi appointed him as Sheikh of the troubled Zawiyat Laqsur in Northern Cyrenaica.

In October 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War, the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) under the command of Admiral Luigi Faravelli reached the shores of Libya, then a territory subject to Ottoman control. The admiral demanded that the Ottoman administration and garrison surrender their territory to the Italians or incur the immediate destruction of the city of Tripoli and Benghazi. The Ottomans and their Libyan allies withdrew to the countryside instead of surrendering, and the Italians bombarded the cities for three days, and then proclaimed the Tripolitanians to be 'committed and strongly bound to Italy'. This marked the beginning of a series of battles between the Italian colonial forces and the Libyan armed opposition in Cyrenaica.

A teacher of the Qur'an by profession, Mukhtar was also skilled in the strategies and tactics of desert warfare. He knew local geography well and used that knowledge to advantage in battles against the Italians, who were unaccustomed to desert warfare. Mukhtar repeatedly led his small, highly alert groups in successful attacks against the Italians, after which they would fade back into the desert terrain. Mukhtar’s men skilfully attacked outposts, ambushed troops, and cut lines of supply and communication. The Regio Esercito (Italian Royal Army) was left astonished and embarrassed by his guerrilla tactics.

In the mountainous region of Jebel Akhdar ("Green Mountain") in 1924, Italian governor Ernesto Bombelli created a counter-guerrilla force that inflicted a severe setback to guerilla forces in April 1925. Mukhtar then quickly modified his own tactics and was able to count on continued help from Egypt. In March 1927, despite occupation of Giarabub from February 1926 and increasingly stringent rule under Governor Attilio Teruzzi, Mukhtar surprised Italian troops at Raheiba. Between 1927 and 1928, Mukhtar reorganised the Senusite forces, who were being hunted constantly by the Italians. Even General Teruzzi recognized Omar's qualities of "exceptional perseverance and strong will power." Marshal Pietro Badoglio, Governor of Libya from January 1929, after extensive negotiations concluded a compromise with Mukhtar (described by the Italians as his complete submission) similar to previous Italo-Senusite accords. At the end of October, 1929, Mukhtar denounced the compromise and re-established a unity of action among Libyan forces, preparing himself for the ultimate confrontation with General Rodolfo Graziani, the Italian military commander from March 1930. A massive offensive in June against Mukhtar's forces having failed, Graziani, in full accord with Badoglio, Emilio De Bono (Minister of the Colonies), and Benito Mussolini, initiated a plan to break the Libyan Mujāhideen:100,000 population of Jebel Akhdar would be relocated to concentration camps on the coast, and the Libyan-Egyptian border from the coast at Giarabub would be closed, preventing any foreign help to the fighters and depriving them of support from the native population. These measures, which Graziani initiated early in 1931, took their toll on the Senusite resistance. The rebels were deprived of help and reinforcements, spied upon, hit by Italian aircraft, and pursued on the ground by the Italian forces aided by local informers and collaborators. Mukhtar continued to struggle despite increased hardships and risks, but on 11 September 1931, he was ambushed near Slonta.

Mukhtar's final adversary, Italian General Rodolfo Graziani, has given a description of the Senusite leader that is not lacking in respect: "Of medium height, stout, with white hair, beard and mustache. Omar was endowed with a quick and lively intelligence; was knowledgeable in religious matters, and revealed an energetic and impetuous character, unselfish and uncompromising; ultimately, he remained very religious and poor, even though he had been one of the most important Senusist figures."

Mukhtar's struggle of nearly twenty years came to an end on 11 September 1931, when he was wounded in battle near Slonta, and then captured by the Italian Army. On 16 September 1931, on the orders of the Italian court and with Italian hopes that Libyan resistance would die with him, Mukhtar was hanged before his followers in the Suluq prisoner of war camp at the age of 73 years old.


10 Dinars 1980

Sebha is the capital of southern Libya, where the late Colonel Muammar Gaddafi lived his first life as a student and where on March 2, 1977 he announced the creation of a "people's power".

From February 28 to March 2, 1977, an extraordinary session of the General People's Congress was held in Sebha. The session was attended by 850 delegates representing all regions of the country. The session was called to consider the establishment of the people's power in the country. Opening it, Prime Minister Jelloud said that the session is the final stage in the discussion of the "Manifesto" proposed by Gaddafi. "The adoption of the Manifesto," he said, "will mark the beginning of a new stage in the development of Libya, which will change not only the essence of power, but its philosophy, socio-political and economic development of the country." It was reported that the vast majority of local people's assemblies and local people's committees declared their support for the draft Declaration. The delegates' speeches showed that the overwhelming majority of them approved the project of changing the power structure. They spoke in favor of the approval of the Koran as the main law of the country (instead of the Constitution), as well as for the abolition of ministries and the introduction of people's secretariats instead. Disagreements arose between the delegates over the new name of the country and the abolition of the SRK. Representatives of a number of local people's assemblies proposed to call Libya "people's" and "socialist", but some of the delegates insisted on keeping the previous name of the country. ), which would exist along with the General Secretariat of the OWC and would monitor the implementation of the decisions of the OWC in the intervals between its sessions, as well as direct the work of the people's committees in the field. Many delegates spoke in favor of building "Islamic socialism" in the country on the basis of "creating a socialist economy without changing the political structure of Libyan society." The forces united around the Workers' Union put forward a proposal to take measures to ensure social guarantees, fixing this in the name of the country - "socialist". The course of the debates showed that the disagreements that took place, although they concerned not only the name, but also the nature of the new political system, did not change the unanimity of the majority of the delegates regarding the essence and main direction of the changes. On March 2, the Declaration on the Establishment of Direct Democracy in Libya was adopted. It, in particular, said:

First: The official name of Libya is to be considered “Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya”.

Second: The Holy Quran is the basis of legislation.

Third: Direct democracy is the basis of the political system and is carried out through the people's assemblies, people's committees, trade unions, professional associations and the General People's Congress and the laws they issue.

Fourth: Defense of the homeland is the duty of every citizen and every citizen and is organized through general military training. (Егорин А. З. История Ливии. ХХ век. М.: ИВ РАН, 1999 .rus)

Sebha Sebha

Historic Fort Sebha (Address: 1003 V Sabha, Libya H4Y3G), next to Sebha University .. Sebha Castle .. It was named Cairo in connection with the Turks' camp (Karadzha), which means "camp of the ground forces" in Turkish. It is the remaining, one of the few, fortress of the state of Awlada Emhamed al-Fassi, who ruled Fezzan. It collapsed under the onslaught of the Turks.

Fort Sebha is an impregnable fortress located in the southeast of the city of Sebha, in the southeast of Libya. The fort is located on a prominent hill, visible from all directions and has a rich history of jihad against colonialism.

There is not a single Libyan or a person living in Libya who has never seen the Sebha fortress, maybe not alive, of course, but at least on the old ten dinar banknote. It is an ancient and important monument that bears witness to historical details of paramount importance and value. The cries and exclamations of the Libyan Mujahideen who fought against French and Italian colonialism in different years are heard along the corridors of this solid fortress ...

This castle or fortress is located on a hilltop in the southeast of the city of Sabha, and historians vary in its age, with some believing it to be over 500 years old! Historical sources also say that it was built on the ruins of an old building built over 2500 years ago, and it is likely that it dates back to the Germanic era.

And no matter how accurate the timing of its construction is, it remains historical evidence that it has witnessed many restorations over the years, whether by the Ottomans or the Italian occupation, that rebuilt it again, both of which perceived it as a military deployment point. well armed with weapons, ammunition, soldiers and observers to consolidate their property in the occupied lands. Its names varied depending on the colonizer, so it was known to the Italian invaders as "Castle of Helena" in addition to "Fortezza" Margarita "and" Cairo "...

This fortress has witnessed many attacks by brave mujahideen who did not lose hope of freeing their homeland from colonialism, despite the huge difference in weapons between them and those against whom they fought.

The Italians used it as the center of their leadership after taking control of it for the first time during Colonel Miani's campaign in Fezzan. On February 17, 1914, he took it as a base for the rest of the cities and oases of southern Libya and made it the headquarters of the Fezzan Mutasarrifate. Sebha

Meanwhile, Colonel Miani left Sebha in charge of a large detachment in a "disciplinary" operation, as the Italians call it, against popular resistance movements spreading to the south. Only 87 Italian soldiers remained in the castle, including 8 officers and 19 fully equipped Eritrean soldiers.

On the evening of November 27, 1914, the Mujahideen suddenly attacked the fortress in a successful raid operation in which they achieved the principle of surprise, as the results were impressive and quick.

After the fall of Sebha, which lasted 15 days, the garrison was completely destroyed, and all its members were killed, including the commander of the garrison, Mypertokotitsa. The revolution broke out in the south and the Italian leadership was unable to suppress it. The Italians returned to their occupation of Sebha for the second, and most recently, on 14 December 1930, as part of a military campaign led by General Graziani to regain control of southern Libya. (Егорин А. З. История Ливии. ХХ век. М.: ИВ РАН, 1999 .rus) ( .arab)