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10 Dinars 2018, Jordan

in Krause book Number: 36f
Years of issue: 2018
Edition:
Signatures: Governor of the Central Bank of Jordan: Dr. Ziad Fariz, Minister of Finance: Omar Malhas
Serie: 2002-2020 Issue
Specimen of: 2002
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 141 x 74
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dinars 2018

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The King in the Keffiyeh and inscription in Arab (Till now I could not read what it means).

Avers:

10 Dinars 2018

King

Talal bin Abdullah (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله‎, Ṭalāl ibn ʻAbd Allāh; 26 February 1909 – 7 July 1972) was King of Jordan from the assassination of his father, Abdullah I, on 20 July 1951, until he was forced to abdicate on 11 August 1952. As a member of the Hashemite dynasty, the royal family of Jordan since 1921, Talal was a 39th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad.

Talal was born in Mecca as the eldest child of Abdullah and his wife Musbah bint Nasser. Abdullah was son of Hussein bin Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, who led the Great Arab Revolt during World War I against the Ottoman Empire in 1916. After removing Ottoman rule, Abdullah established the Emirate of Transjordan in 1921, which became a British Protectorate, and ruled as its Emir. During Abdullah's absence, Talal spent his early years alone with his mother. Talal received private education in Amman, later joining Transjordan's Arab Legion as second lieutenant in 1927. He then became aide to his grandfather Sharif Hussein, the ousted king of the Hejaz, during his exile in Cyprus. By 1948, Talal became a general in the Arab Legion.

Abdullah sought independence in 1946, and the Emirate became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Talal became crown prince upon his father's designation as king of Jordan. Abdullah was assassinated in Jerusalem in 1951, and Talal became king. Talal's most revered achievement as king is the establishment of Jordan's modern constitution in 1952, rendering his kingdom as a constitutional monarchy. He ruled for less than thirteen months until he was forced to abdicate by Parliament due to mental illness—reported as schizophrenia. Talal spent the rest of his life at a sanatorium in Istanbul and died there on 7 July 1972. He was succeeded by his oldest son Hussein.

The keffiyeh or kufiya (Arabic: كوفية‎ kūfiyyah, meaning "from the city of Kufa" (الكوفة); plural كوفيات kūfiyyāt), also known as a ghutrah (غُترَة), shemagh (شماغ šmāġ), ḥaṭṭah (حَطّة), mashadah (مَشَدة), chafiye (Persian: چَفیِه‎, dastmal yazdi (Persian: دستمال یزدی‎) or cemedanî (Kurdish: جه مه داني‎), is a traditional Middle Eastern headdress from Kufa, Iraq fashioned from a square scarf, usually made of cotton. It is typically worn by Arab people, as well as by some Mizrahi Jews and Iranic nomads (especially Kurdish people). It is commonly found in arid regions as it provides protection from sunburn, dust and sand. Toward the end of the 1980s, the keffiyeh became a fashion accessory in the United States.

For decades, keffiyeh have been issued to British soldiers who now almost exclusively refer to them as shemaghs (from Arabic شماغ šmāġ).Their use by some units and formations of the military and police forces of the former British Empire and subsequent Commonwealth dates back to before World War II.

Due to its utility it was adopted by the Palestine Police Force, the Transjordan Frontier Force, the Sudan Defence Force, the Arab Legion, the Jordanian Armed Forces, the Libyan Arab Force, and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps.

In the North African campaign of WWII the irregular raiding and reconnaissance units of the Long Range Desert Group, the Special Air Service and "Popski's Private Army" wore them while operating in the Western Desert. After the war, their use by the Army continued with the shemagh being worn in both desert and temperate environments in theatres such as Dhofar. Australian Army forces have also used the shemagh since the Vietnam War, and extensively during Iraq and Afghanistan, particularly by Australian Special Forces units. Since the beginning of the War on Terror, these keffiyeh, usually cotton and in military olive drab or khaki with black stitching, have been adopted by US troops as well, a reversal of previous policy which saw them strictly forbidden during the Gulf War.

Their practicality in an arid environment, as in Iraq, explains their enduring popularity with soldiers. Soldiers often wear the keffiyeh folded in half into a triangle and wrapped around the face, with the halfway point being placed over the mouth and nose, sometimes coupled with goggles, to keep sand out of the face. This is also commonly done by armoured, mechanised and other vehicle-borne troops who use it as a scarf in temperate climates to ward off wind chill caused by being in moving vehicles. British soldiers deploying to Iraq or Afghanistan are now issued with a tan-colored shemagh. Keffiyeh, called chafiyeh (چفیه) in Persian, was extensively used by Iranian infantrymen in Iran–Iraq War.

museum

Centered is The Archaeological Museum of Umm Qais.

The museum is located above the Acropolis of the ancient city of Gadara. It Is a house that was built in the late Ottoman period in the 1860s. The house belongs to the family of Faleh Falah al-Rousan. It was named Beit al-Rousan (the House of Rousan) in honor of this family. The house is a traditional Arab house type consisting of a spacious central courtyard surrounded by a number of rooms and Diwans of various uses. It was renovated and adapted as a museum in 1990.

In addition to the archaeological museum in the ground floor, one can enjoy the beautiful views that can be seen from the four sides of the 2nd floor. Several mountains and cities (from Jordan, Palestine and Syria) can be viewed such as; Mount Tabur, Nazareth, Lake Tiberias, Golan Heights, Yarmouk Valley and Mount Sheikh, ..etc.

Umm Qais, located 110 km. north of Amman, on a wide promontory, 378 meters above sea level, offering a magnificent view of the Yarmouk River, the Golan Heights, and Lake Tiberias. This city was known as Gadara, one of the brightest cities of the ancient Greco-Roman Decapolis, and, according to legends in the Bible, the place where Jesus expelled the devil from two possessed people into a herd of pigs.

In ancient times, Umm Qais Gadara was strategically located at the intersection of key trade routes connecting Syria and Palestine. It was rich in fertile soil and abundant rainwater. This city also flourished intellectually during the reign of Augustus. During this period, a cosmopolitan atmosphere reigned in Gadara, as scientists, writers, artists, philosophers and poets like the satirist Menippus (2nd half of the III century BC) gathered here, Gadara was also a resort for the Romans.

Archaeological research shows that Gadara was occupied as early as the 7th century BC. The Greek historian Polybius describes that the region, at this time, was under the control of the Ptolemies. And in 218 BC it was captured by the ruler of the Seleucids - Antiochus III. In 63 BC. Pompey freed Gadara and annexed the Decapolis to the Roman league of ten cities.

During these early years of Roman rule, Nabatea (with its capital at Petra) controlled the trade routes northward as far as Damascus. Unhappy with the competition, Mark Antony instructed King Herod the Great to weaken the Nabateans, who eventually abandoned their northern interests in 31 BC.

museum museum

The city reached its peak of prosperity in the II century AD, new streets with columns, temples, theaters and baths appeared.

The charm of Umm Qais still persists today. Much of the western Roman theater has experienced many upheavals in history. A vaulted passage supports rows of seats built of hard basalt. A series of elaborately carved places for certain persons are located near the orchestra, and in the center stood a large white decapitated marble statue of Tyche, the goddess of happiness and the city itself. Now all this is presented in the local museum.

Opposite the theater, there is the main street with colonnades (cardo), which was, in all likelihood, the commercial center of the city. In addition, next to the theater, there is a black basalt terrace where the courtyard, church and basilica are located. Further, to the west of the terrace, from east to west, stretches a colonnaded street (Decumanus), on which there are the ruins of Nympheus, a bath complex and a well-preserved Roman mausoleum. After a few hundred meters, only the remains of what was once a hippodrome can be discerned.

seal

In the lower right corner is the seal in honor of the establishment of the Parliament of Jordan. Parliament was founded in 1947. On the seal, the inscription: Trans-Jordan and the parliament building (about the building, please read the description of the reverse of the banknote).

Transjordan or Transjordan is the name (from the time of the Crusades to the First World War) of a vast and borderless region east of the Jordan River, called Edom, Moab and Ammon in ancient times. Also - the name of the state of Jordan in 1946-1950.

Revers:

10 Dinars 2018

pattern

On the left is a fragment of an ornament from the Qasr al-Qastal castle. The photo shows the second carved block. The photo of the first, as on the banknote, I have not yet found!

Al Qastal (Arabic: القسطل‎) is a town in the Amman Governorate of northern Jordan. Originally established as an Umayyad settlement, it remains the oldest and most complete such settlement in the Near East The remains of the minaret at Qastal is especially important as it is the only one extant from the Umayyad period, making it one of the oldest minarets in the world. Qasr al-Qastal, also located within the town, is considered one of the desert castles and is just 5 km. from Qasr Mshatta.

Name of Object: Two carved limestone blocks.

Location: Irbid, Jordan.

Holding Museum: Museum of Jordanian Heritage, Yarmouk University.

Date of Object: Hegira first quarter of the II century / AD first half of the VIII century.

Museum Inventory Number: A 1937., A 1938

Material(s) / Technique(s): Carved limestone.

Dimensions:

a: Height 46.5 cm., length 57.5 cm., depth 40 cm.; b: Height 51 cm., length 70.5 cm., depth 33.5 cm.

Period / Dynasty: Umayyad.

Provenance: Al-Qastal, Jordan.

Description:

During an archaeological excavation and restoration works at the palace at al-Qastal in 1983 eight carved limestone blocks with floral and geometric patterns were recovered. They had once decorated the palace at al-Qastal and some of them were re-used in the restoration work that took place in 1983. Carved stone reliefs were a favourite decorative feature of Umayyad palaces, using a decorative repertoire of geometric and vegetal motifs to the exclusion of almost anything else.

These two carved limestone blocks are fragments from a frieze and a lintel that formed part of the middle niche at the eastern side of the palace. One block is decorated with four carved rosettes that are divided into two panels by a decorative divider; the other has a simple carved rosette of six petals set in a circle surrounded by flowers.

Original Owner: Probably Al-Walid II (d. 126/ 744).

How date and origin were established: The Palace where these carved limestone blocks were found has been dated to the Umayyad period.

How Object was obtained: The limestone blocks were removed in 1983 during archaeological excavations and restoration of the Umayyad palace at al-Qastal.

How provenance was established: The limestone blocks were found in the Umayyad palace at al-Qastal. (islamicart.museumwnf.org)

pattern pattern

In the center is the first building of the Jordanian Parliament in Amman. Today it houses the Parliamentary Museum.

Museum of Parliamentary Life is one of the Jordanian museums, which are owned of the Jordanian Ministry of Culture, The Parliamentary Life museum is one of the first models of the parliamentary museums around the world. The Museum of Parliamentary Life aims to highlighted on the efforts exerted by the Hashemite leadership over the past decades in establishing and building Jordan.

Museum of Parliamentary Life located in Amman the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, in Jabal Amman area, near the First roundabout, at the corner of the Islamic Sciences College and Khalil Mutran street.

pattern

The Parliamentary Life Museum was established in 2010, the museum first opened to the public on 6 April 2016. The building of museum was used as Museum for political life between 1992 and 2005, but was never official inaugurated, an adjacent building was later constructed and is currently used for administrative purposes, containing the library and multipurpose hall. The building of museum was used as the headquarters of the Jordan Media Centre between 2004 and 2008 after which it was returned to the Ministry of Culture. Given the sits importance to Jordanian political and social history, the Ministry of Culture has undertaken the project of reviving the Old Parliament Building, restoring it and bringing it up to museum standard, to that end a committee was formed after a decree by the prime Ministers office in 2010.

pattern

The Building was used for the meetings of the Jordanian legislative council in the early forties then for the National Assembly between 1947 and 1978. It was the locale where the martyr King Abdullah I Bin al-Hussein declared the independence of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on May 25th 1946. It was also there that King Tala Bin Abdullah and King Hussein Bin Talal took the oath of office.

The Parliament building consists of three wings: the middle wing containing the parliament hall, the right wing, which is the exhibition halls that tell the story of parliamentary life; the left wing which contains the offices of the head of the senate, the speaker of the parliament and VIP halls.

pattern

On the right is a truly Jordanian landscape - the rocks of the Wadi Rum desert and the Jordanians on camels.

Wadi Rum (Arabic: وادي رم‎ Wādī Ramm), known also as the Valley of the Moon (Arabic: وادي القمر‎ Wādī al-Qamar), is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan 60 km. (37 mi.) to the east of Aqaba; it is the largest wadi in Jordan.

Rûm is the Arabic term for the Romans, particularly those of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. However, Wadi Rum is believed to get it name from the early name of Iram of the Pillars, a lost city mentioned in the Quran.

Wadi Rum has been inhabited by many human cultures since prehistoric times, with many cultures – including the Nabataeans – leaving their mark in the form of petroglyphs, inscriptions, and temple. In the West, Wadi Rum may be best known for its connection with British officer T. E. Lawrence, who passed through several times during the Arab Revolt of 1917–18. In the 1980s one of the rock formations in Wadi Rum, originally known as Jabal al-Mazmar (The Mountain of (the) Plague), was named "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom," after Lawrence's book penned in the aftermath of the war, though the 'Seven Pillars' referred to in the book have no connection with Rum.

Lawrence described his entrance into the Valley of Rumm, "The hills on the right grew taller and sharper, a fair counterpart of the other side which straightened itself to one massive rampart of redness. They drew together until only two miles divided them: and then, towering gradually till their parallel parapets must have been a thousand feet above us, ran forward in an avenue for miles. The crags were capped in nests of domes, less hotly red than then body of the hill; rather grey and shallow. They gave the finishing semblance of Byzantine architecture to this irresistible place: this processional way greater than imagination."

Lawrence also described his encounter with the spring, Ain Shalaaleh, "On the rock-bulge above were clear-cut Nabathaean inscriptions, and a sunk panel incised with a monogram or symbol. Around and about were Arab scratches, including tribe-marks, some of which were witnesses of forgotten migrations: but my attention was only for the splashing of water in a crevice under the shadow of the overhanging rock. I looked in to see the spout, a little thinner than my wrist, jetting out firmly from a fissure in the roof, and falling with that clean sound into a shallow, frothing pool, behind the step which served as an entrance. Thick ferns and grasses of the finest green made it a paradise just five feet square."

The discovery of the Nabataean Temple (located walking distance from the Rest House) in 1933 briefly returned the spotlight to the desert. A French team of archaeologists completed the excavations in 1997.

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