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1 Dinar 2016, Jordan

in Krause book Number: 34h
Years of issue: 2016
Edition:
Signatures: Governor of the Central Bank of Jordan: Dr. Ziad Fariz, Minister of Finance: Umayya Salah Toukan
Serie: 2002-2020 Issue
Specimen of: 2002
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 133 x 74
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Dinar 2016

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The King of Hejaz Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashimi in the Keffiyeh and inscription in Arab (Till now I could not read what it means). Cornerstones.

Avers:

1 Dinar 2016

King

Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashimi (Arabic: الحسين بن علي الهاشمي‎, al-Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1 May 1854 – 4 June 1931) was an Arab leader from the Banu Hashim clan who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 and, after proclaiming the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, King of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924. At the end of his reign he also briefly laid claim to the office of Caliph. He was a 37th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad, as he belongs to the Hashemite family.

A member of the Awn clan of the Qatadid emirs of Mecca, he was perceived to have rebellious inclinations and in 1893 was summoned to Constantinople, where he was kept on the Council of State. In 1908, in the aftermath of the Young Turk Revolution, he was appointed Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II. In 1916, with the promise of British support for Arab independence, he proclaimed the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, accusing the Committee of Union and Progress of violating tenets of Islam and limiting the power of the sultan-caliph. Shortly after the outbreak of the revolt, Hussein declared himself 'King of the Arab Countries'. However, his pan-Arab aspirations were not accepted by the Allies, who recognised him only as King of the Hejaz.

After World War I Hussein refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, in protest at the Balfour Declaration and the establishment of British and French mandates in Syria, Iraq, and Palestine. He later refused to sign the Anglo-Hashemite Treaty and thus deprived himself of British support when his kingdom was invaded by Ibn Saud. In March 1924, when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished, Hussein proclaimed himself Caliph of all Muslims. In October 1924, facing defeat by Ibn Saud, he abdicated and was succeeded as king by his eldest son Ali. His sons Faisal and Abdullah were made rulers of Iraq and Transjordan respectively in 1921.

The keffiyeh or kufiya (Arabic: كوفية‎ kūfiyyah, meaning "from the city of Kufa" (الكوفة); plural كوفيات kūfiyyāt), also known as a ghutrah (غُترَة), shemagh (شماغ šmāġ), ḥaṭṭah (حَطّة), mashadah (مَشَدة), chafiye (Persian: چَفیِه‎, dastmal yazdi (Persian: دستمال یزدی‎) or cemedanî (Kurdish: جه مه داني‎), is a traditional Middle Eastern headdress from Kufa, Iraq fashioned from a square scarf, usually made of cotton. It is typically worn by Arab people, as well as by some Mizrahi Jews and Iranic nomads (especially Kurdish people). It is commonly found in arid regions as it provides protection from sunburn, dust and sand. Toward the end of the 1980s, the keffiyeh became a fashion accessory in the United States.

For decades, keffiyeh have been issued to British soldiers who now almost exclusively refer to them as shemaghs (from Arabic شماغ šmāġ).Their use by some units and formations of the military and police forces of the former British Empire and subsequent Commonwealth dates back to before World War II.

Due to its utility it was adopted by the Palestine Police Force, the Transjordan Frontier Force, the Sudan Defence Force, the Arab Legion, the Jordanian Armed Forces, the Libyan Arab Force, and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps.

In the North African campaign of WWII the irregular raiding and reconnaissance units of the Long Range Desert Group, the Special Air Service and "Popski's Private Army" wore them while operating in the Western Desert. After the war, their use by the Army continued with the shemagh being worn in both desert and temperate environments in theatres such as Dhofar. Australian Army forces have also used the shemagh since the Vietnam War, and extensively during Iraq and Afghanistan, particularly by Australian Special Forces units. Since the beginning of the War on Terror, these keffiyeh, usually cotton and in military olive drab or khaki with black stitching, have been adopted by US troops as well, a reversal of previous policy which saw them strictly forbidden during the Gulf War.

Their practicality in an arid environment, as in Iraq, explains their enduring popularity with soldiers. Soldiers often wear the keffiyeh folded in half into a triangle and wrapped around the face, with the halfway point being placed over the mouth and nose, sometimes coupled with goggles, to keep sand out of the face. This is also commonly done by armoured, mechanised and other vehicle-borne troops who use it as a scarf in temperate climates to ward off wind chill caused by being in moving vehicles. British soldiers deploying to Iraq or Afghanistan are now issued with a tan-colored shemagh. Keffiyeh, called chafiyeh (چفیه) in Persian, was extensively used by Iranian infantrymen in Iran–Iraq War.

Ma'an

At the bottom, in my opinion, is the old oasis town of Ma'an (Jordan, time ago - Kingdom of Hejaz) with date palms.

The oasis town of Ma'an was once one of the most important stop between Damascus and Medina on the Hejaz Railway.

The Hejaz Railway once stretched along 1,300 km. of desert between Damascus and Medina. It was financed by the world's Islamic public, and was built by the Ottoman Empire in the 1900s with German help. It's original purpose was to shorten the long and dangerous journey for pilgrims performing Hajj.

In WW1, Lawrence of Arabia would lead Arab Bedouin irregulars and attacked the railway relentlessly, hoping to 'cut the spine of the Ottoman Empire' and to tie up Ottoman troops to garrison the area to allow British advances to the west.

The railway was badly damaged with many sections abandoned after the war. Today a railway workshop continues to operate in Ma'an in order to facilitate the running railway line between Amman, Aqaba and the phosphorus mines south of Ma'an. (Ka Wing C)

coin coin

Middle part of the silver coin, 1916 (year of Great arab Revolt). Only the central parts of the coin (obverse and reverse) are shown on the banknote.

In the Kingdom of Hejaz, during the Arab uprising, when King Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi was in power, 917 (probe) silver coins minted in Mecca, in Qirsh, were in circulation. Several different denominations were issued, I took, for example, a 5 Qirsh coin of 1916.

The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz (Arabic: المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية‎, Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah) was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of the Arabian Peninsula ruled by the Hashemite dynasty. It achieved national independence in June 1916 after the destruction of the Ottoman Empire by the British Empire during the First World War when the Sharif of Mecca fought in alliance with the British Imperial forces to drive the Ottoman Army from the Arabian Peninsula during the Arab Revolt.

The United Kingdom promised King Ali of Hejaz a single independent Arab state that would include modern day Syria, Iraq, Palestine and Jordan in addition to the Hejaz region. However, at the end of the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles turned Syria into a French protectorate while Iraq, Palestine and Transjordan became British Protectorates. The relations with the British Empire further deteriorated when Zionist Jews were allowed to move to Palestine. The newly independent kingdom had a brief life and then was invaded in 1924 by the neighbouring Sultanate of Nejd under a resurgent House of Saud. Nejd was much stronger and its military more advanced, and Hejaz tried to defend itself during the year-long war. In 1925, the kingdom collapsed and was conquered by Nejd, creating the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd.

On 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of al-Hasa and Qatif, as the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Revers:

1 Dinar 2016

Al-Thawra al-`Arabīya Al-Thawra al-`Arabīya

Topic: The Arab Revolt. rab soldiers, on camels, with flag of Revolt.

The Arab Revolt (Arabic: الثورة العربية‎, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Turkish: Arap İsyanı) or the Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrá) was a military uprising of Arab forces against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. On the basis of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, an agreement between the British government and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, the revolt was officially initiated at Mecca on June 10, 1916. The aim of the revolt was to create a single unified and independent Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen, which the British had promised to recognize.

The Sharifian Army led by Hussein and the Hashemites, with military backing from the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force, successfully fought and expelled the Ottoman military presence from much of the Hejaz and Transjordan. The rebellion eventually took Damascus and set up a short-lived monarchy led by Faisal, a son of Hussein.

Following the Sykes–Picot Agreement, the Middle East was later partitioned by the British and French into mandate territories rather than a unified Arab state, and the British reneged on their promise to support a unified independent Arab state.

Al-Thawra al-`Arabīya Al-Thawra al-`Arabīya

The flag of the Arab Revolt, also known as the flag of Hejaz, was a flag used by the Arab nationalists during the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and as the first flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz.

It has been suggested that the flag was designed by the British diplomat Sir Mark Sykes, in an effort to create a feeling of "Arab-ness" in order to fuel the revolt. According to Stanford University historian Joshua Teitelbaum, this claim is made both by Sykes' 1923 biographer and by Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, who in 1918 told Woodrow Wilson that it symbolished Hashemite rule over the Arab world. According to one version, Sykes, keen to challenge the French flag being flown in French-controlled Arab territories, offered several designs to Hussein, who chose the one that was then used.

Although the Arab Revolt was limited in scope and supported by the British, the flag influenced the national flags of a number of emerging Arab states after World War I. Flags inspired by that of the Arab revolt include those of Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Somaliland, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Libya.

The horizontal colors stand for the Abbasid (black), Umayyad (white) and Fatimid or Rashidun (green) Caliphates. The red triangle has been described as referring to the Hashemite dynasty, or the ashraf of Mecca. (According to Tim Marshall, white was the Umayyad colour in memory of Mohammed's first military victory, black was the Abbasid colour to mark a new era and to mourn the dead of the Battle of Karbala, and green was the colour of the Prophet's coat and of his followers as they conquered Mecca. Alternatively, the colours' symbolism has been described as follows: white for the Damascene Umayyad period, green for the Caliph Ali, red for the Khawarij movement, and black for the Prophet Mohammed, showing the "political use of religion" in opposition to the increasingly secularized Turkish colonial rule. Similarly, Marshall explains the use of the European tricolor as a sign of the break with the Ottoman past, while the colours are deeply Islamic without using the star and crescent used by the Ottomans. The explanation given in the official note of the ceremony marking the first anniversary of the Revolt, celebrating Hussein's decree on the adoption of the flag, was that black represented the Black Standard of the Prophet (the al-ʻuqāb, eagle), his companions and the Abbasid empire, the green represented the Prophet's family (Ahl al-Bayt), white various Arab rulers, and red the Hashemites.

The Hashemites were allies of the British in the conflict against the Ottoman Empire. After the war ended, the Hashemites achieved or were granted rule in the Hejaz region of Arabia, Jordan, formally known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, briefly in Greater Syria, and Iraq.

Greater Syria was dissolved after only a few months of existence, in 1920. The Hashemites were overthrown in the Hejaz in 1925 by the House of Saud, and in Iraq in 1958 by a coup d'etat, but retained power in Jordan.

A 60 m. × 30 m. version of the flag currently flies from the Aqaba Flagpole, currently the sixth tallest freestanding flagpole in the world, located in Aqaba, Jordan.

The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red. There are three horizontal stripes: black, green, and white, going down the flag. There is also a red triangle on the hoist side of the flag.

Order of the Renaissance Grand Cordon

Centered is the Order of the Renaissance Grand Cordon.

The Order of the Renaissance (Wisam al-Nahda): founded by King Hussein of the Hijaz in 1917, in honour of the Arab renaissance following the revolt against Turkish rule and to reward those who served in the war of liberation. Appropriated and modified by King 'Abdu'llah I of Jordan in 1925, with the permission and approval of his elder brother King 'Ali ibn Hussein of the Hijaz. The order is awarded for the highest civil or military services to the Kingdom of Jordan. It comes in a special class (Mourassa - Grand Cordon in brilliants - reserved for Royalty and foreign Heads of State) and five ordinary classes (1. Grand Cordon, 2. Grand Officer, 3. Commander, and 4. Member Fourth Class). Attached to the order is a silver medal. (www.royalark.net)

compass

In top right corner is English antiques compass from Levant.

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria, which included present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and most of Turkey south-east of the middle Euphrates. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the Eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica in eastern Libya.

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